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Article
Histological Effects of fasting and subsequent refeeding on thyroid follicles of rabbits morphometric analysis
التأثيرات النسيجية للصيام وما يليه من الإفطار في الحويصلات الدرقية للأرانب: تحليل شكلي

Author: Ali Ghanim abdulla علي غانم عبد الله
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Pure Science مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 18131662 Year: 2011 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Pages: 12-16
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

The effect of fasting and refeeding on thyroid gland had been studied histologically on (20) local breed rabbits. They were subdivided into (2) groups, (10) rabbits as control (fed) group, (10) rabbits as experimental( fasted) group. The control group was fed vegetables, while the experimental group was fasted for (48) hours, and then provided food for (4) hours, the results were : insignificant reduction in diameter of thyroid follicles, amount of colloid, & height of follicular epithelium in the experimental group, in which the diameter of thyroid follicles of control group was (21.1±4.7), while for experimental group was (19.5±4.42), the amount of colloid in control group was (18.2±3.8), and for experimental group was (15.6±5.2), the height of follicular epithelium in control group was (2.6±0.63), and for experimental group was (2.13±0.48). there was a significant increase in the number of C- cells in experimental group which was (3.31±1.9), while it was (1.2± 1.17) in the control group. The reduction in thyroid follicles, thyroid colloid, & height of follicular epithelium occur as a result of changing in feeding behavior which causes decrease in iodine food incorporation, and decrease in level of 5- monodeiodoinase a mediator of T3 and T4. The increase in the number of C cells happened as a protective mechanism to save the skeleton from excessive bone resorption.

تأثير الصيام وما يليه من أطعام على الغدة الدرقية تمت دراسته نسيجيا على (20) أرنباً محلياً, حيث تمَ تقسيم الأرانب الى مجموعتين, مجموعة السيطرة إذ تضم (10) ارنباَ, ومجموعة التجربة وتضم (10) أرنباً, وأخضعت مجموعة التجربة للصيام لمدة (48) ساعة, ثم أطعمت لمدة أربع ساعات, وكانت النتائج: نقصان في أقطار الحويصلات الدرقية إذ أصبحت (19.5±4.42), وكانت في مجموعة السيطرة (21.1±4.7) , ونقصان في أقطار المادة الغروانية الحويصلية إذ بلغت في مجموعة التجربة (15.6±5.2) , وكانت في مجموعة السيطرة((18.2±3.8 , ونقصان في ارتفاع الخلايا الطلائية الحويصلية (الجرابية), إذ بلغت في مجموعة التجربة(2.13±0.48) , بينما في مجموعة السيطرة (2.6±0.63) , وكان هذا النقصان في كل هذه المقاسات غير معنوي, وشهدت مجموعة التجربة زيادة في عدد الخلايا خارج حويصلية (الجرابية) إذ سجل عددها في مجموعة التجربة (3.31±1.9) , بينما كان عددها في مجموعة السيطرة (1.2± 1.17) , وكانت هذه الزيادة معنوية. وكان سبب النقصان في أقطار الحويصلات (الجراب) الدرقية, ونقصان كمية المادة الغروانية, ونقصان أرتفاع الخلايل الطلائية الحويصلية هو التغير في سلوك التغذية ونقصان اليود في الطعام, والذي يؤدي الى نقصان في إنزيم الخامس أحادي اليود المسؤول في التغيير في تحولات هرمون الثايروكسين ((T3 والترايودوثايرونين((T4, أما سبب زيادة عدد الخلايا خارج الحويصلية هو كعملية وقائية لحماية الجهاز الهيكلي من زيادة امتصاص أو اذابة العظم للحصول على الكاليسيوم.


Article
Effects of Ramadan fasting on body weight and metabolic profile
آثار صيام رمضان على وزن الجسم و الشاكلة الاستقلابية

Authors: Namir G. Al-Tawil --- Bashdar M. Hussen --- Saleem S. Qader --- Halgurd F. Ahmed
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2014 Volume: 18 Issue: 3 Pages: 816-821
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Fasting during the Ramadan month is a religious duty and it is obligatory for all healthy adult Muslims. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fasting during Ramadan in different times and place on body weight, blood sugar, serum lipids and blood pressure.Methods: Fifty three healthy adult fasting volunteers were included in the study. Peripheral venous blood samples were taken three days before Ramadan, at the end of the first week, and at the end of the fourth week of fasting. The last blood sample was taken one week after the end of Ramadan. Serum total cholesterol, HDL and LDL, triglycerides and glucose were measured. Vital signs and body mass index were taken by one of the researchers.Results: Thirty three (62.3%) volunteers were males, 93.4% were below 40 years of age. Weight changed significantly during Ramadan. Mean systolic blood pressure decreased by 11 mmHg while diastolic blood pressure decreased by 9 mmHg (P <0.001). Fasting blood sugar decreased by 14.96 mg/dl (P <0.001). Plasma lipids; cholesterol decreased by 19.3 mg/dl (P <0.027), LDL by 23 mg/dl (P <0.001), triglyceride by 44 mg/dl (P <0.003) but the HDL increased by 5.4 mg/dl (P <0.002) during Ramadan fasting. Before Ramadan, 19% of participants had abnormal serum cholesterol and 37% had abnormal LDL level, while after Ramadan all had normal lipid levels (P <0.001). The proportion of participants with abnormal HDL decreased from 94% before Ramadan to 50% after Ramadan (P <0.001).Conclusion: Ramadan affects the body physiology and lowers the weight, serum lipids, blood pressure and blood glucose levels.

Keywords

Ramadan --- Fasting --- Lipid profile


Article
Association between Ramadan Fasting and cerebrovascular diseases
العلاقة بين صيام رمضان والأمراض الدماغية

Authors: Namir G. Al-Tawil --- Srood N Jarjees --- Mutaz Fadhil Hummadi --- Abdullah Faky Yazdeen --- et al.
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2017 Volume: 21 Issue: 3 Pages: 1853-1858
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Cerebrovascular diseases are attacks of sudden neurological deficits (motor, sensory or cerebellar). There are a lot of risk factors for stroke like age, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidemia, cardiac diseases and others. This study aimed to show if there is increasing rate of cerebrovascular events during Ramadan in relation to fasting in our city during the summer season.Methods: This case-control study was carried out in Rizgary Teaching Hospital, Erbil- Iraq from 1st of August to 30th of August 2011. Patients were included in this study if they were middle aged and elderly patients having clinical and radiological features of stroke, another group of in-patients was selected as a control group. Chi square test and logistic regression analyses were used to show the association between stroke and fasting.Results: A sample of 60 patients and 60 control cases were included in this study. Fasting was significant risk factor for stroke in our studied sample, 66.7% of the cases were fasting compared with 40% of the control group (P = 0.03). Hyperlipidemia and history of ischemic heart disease found also to be associated with stroke (P = 0.017 and 0.011, respectively). Logistic regression analysis showed that only fasting and hypercholesterolemia were independent risks factors in causing stroke in our studied sample.Conclusion: In Erbil, where the summer is too hot and the daytime (fasting hours) is long, fasting during Ramadan was found to be an independent risk factor for stroke, and specifically ischemic stroke.

Keywords

Ramadan --- Fasting --- Stroke --- Summer season


Article
The effect of fasting in Ramadan on patients with heart disease

Author: Abdul ameer J. Awad عبد الامير جواد
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2011 Volume: 53 Issue: 1 Pages: 20-23
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Knowledge about the clinical problems during the fast of Ramadan is important in order to opens the way to further research aimed at discovering the significance of Ramadan fasting in patients with heart disease.Patients and Methods: Eighty-six outpatients with heart disease with intention to fast were studied in the month of Ramadan 2010 (1430 H) at the Ibn Al-bitar Hospital. Detailed clinical and biochemical assessments were performed within 3 days before the start of Ramadan and then on the last day of Ramadan.Results: There were 54 (62.8%) males and 32 (37.2%) females with a mean age of 56.3 years (range, 17-84 ). Forty-six patients (53%) had coronary artery disease, 23 patients (27%) had valvular heart disease, 13 patients (15%) had congestive heart failure and 4 patients (5%) were treated for arrhythmia. Sixty-two patients (72%) were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class I, 18 patients (21%) in Class II, and 6 patients (7%) were in Class III. Seventy-four patients (86%) managed to fast during the entire Ramadan, 9 patients (10.4%) missed the fasting for up to 7 days, and 3 patients (3.5%) could not fast. There were no significant changes in the NYHA Class (p=0.12). No significant changes occurred in any of the hematological or biochemical parameters during the fasting of Ramadan.Conclusion: The effects of fasting during Ramadan on stable patients with cardiac disease are minimal. The majority of patients with stable cardiac disease can fast during Ramadan without significant detrimental effects.Key words: Ramadan, fasting, cardiac disease, biochemical effects


Article
Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Clinical Biochemical and Immunological Parameters in Healthy Fasting and Type Two Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Author: Majid M. Mahmmod Al-Jewari
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2007 Volume: 6 Issue: 4 Pages: 272-275
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Ramadan fasting is one of the pillaris of islam. The fasting time is about 12-19 hours depending on the season in which Ramadan falls and the geographic position of the country. It is often a subject of discussion nether or not Ramadan fasting confer any harmful effect on the body.OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on some clinical, biochemical and Immunological aspects of the healthy and type two Diabetes mellitus patients.METHODS:The study was performed on (30) healthy fasting and (30) patients with type two diabetes mellitus in the month of Ramadan (2005). Blood samples were obtained on the second and fourth week's of Ramadan and were analyzed for fasting blood sugar, urea, uric acid, lipid profile, Immunoglobulins and complement component concentration, in addition, lymphocyte was separated to study the lymphocyte transformation assay in vitro compared with healthy non-fasting.RESULTS:There was slight elevation in the HDL-C, B. urea, S. Triglyceride, VLDL, S. uric acid and slight reduction in LDL-C at the end of fasting. There was slight reduction but the difference was non-significant (P>0.05) in the value of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM) and (C3, C4) also, there was no difference in the sensitization rate of lymphocyte transformation in both healthy and type two diabetic patients compared with healthy non-fasting control.CONCLUSION:Slight elevation of HDL-C and slight elevation of B. urea, S. uric acid, S. Triglyceride, VLDL and there is non significant changes in Immunoglobulins and complement concentration and sensitization rate of lymphocyte transformation. Thus, Ramadan is safe for type two diabetic patients with the proper education of diabetic management.


Article
The Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Duedenal Ulcer Perforation

Authors: Wissam Jaffar Altaee --- Safa M. Mahdi Alobaidi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 3 Pages: 381-387
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Fasting during the month of Ramadan is one of the five holy pillars in the Islamic faith and is an important annual ritual practiced by all Muslims. This involves fasting from dawn to dusk, followed by a break of fast at designated times. The length of fasting varies from ten to 19 hours, depending on the season in which the fasting month of Ramadan falls and the geographical locations.OBJECTIVE:1st to evaluate the relation between Ramadan fasting & duodenal ulcer perforations & 2nd to asses the risk factors of this complications .PATIENTS & METHODS :This is a prospective study in Baghdad Teaching Hospital – Medical City . Data from 231 consecutive patients with perforated duodenal ulcer from the period of October 2007 to December 2010 were collected & analyzed & all the patients were managed surgically after resuscitation in emergency unit .RESULTS :(96/231, 41.6%) of patients with perforated duodenal ulcer during Ramadan vs. (135/231, 58.4%) during the rest of the years . (96/490, 19.5%) of patients with perforated duodenal ulcer from the total number of all patients with acute abdomeninal surgeries during Ramadan. 43 % of patients smoking & 47 % of patients had a previous history of acid peptic disease in Ramadan. 54 % of patients were in between (20 to 40) years age group and the male to female ratio was 6 :1 . 15% patients of perforated duodenal ulcer had history of regular use of non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs.. Erect chest x-ray demonstrated gas under the diaphragm in 86% . Only 2 patients had a previous surgery of duodenal ulcer perforation .CONCLUSION:This study suggests that the incidence of duodenal ulcer perforation is relatively high in Ramadan among the people, who are fasting & have predisposing factors ( smoking , history of acid peptic disease , non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ) and need special precaution during this month


Article
حقيقة صوم يوم عاشوراء

Author: محمد عبيد جاسم الكربولي
Journal: Anbar University Journal of Islamic Sciences مجلة جامعة الأنبار للعلوم الإسلامية ISSN: 20716028 Year: 2012 Volume: 4 Issue: 13 Pages: 2013-2035
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

الحمد لله رب العالمين والصلاة والسلام على المبعوث رحمة للعالمين والذي جاء بشريعة ختم بها الشرائع جميعاً ودين يصلح لكل زمان ومكان وما فيها من الأحكام التي تخص البشر إلى قيام الساعة .ونبين أهم النتائج في البحث :-1-الراجح ان المقصود بعاشوراء هو اليوم العاشر من محرم 2-كان صيام عاشوراء في بداية الاسلام واجبا واستمر ذلك سنه واحده ثم نسخ الوجوب الى الاباحة بصيام رمضان3-لم يصم رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وسلم) والمسلمون عاشوراء كواجب الا سنة واحدة ثم صاموه من باب الاباحة4-قوله (صلى الله عليه وسلم) لئن بقيت الى قابل لاصومن التاسع لايمكن ان يكون ولا يصح مهما قيل لان ذلك يتناقض مع كونه عالما بالامر من السنة الثانية للهجرة وهذا الحديث يقتضي ان يكون في السنة العاشرة ولا يعقل ان يبقى (صلى الله عليه وسلم) غير عارف بذلك ويأمر الناس بصيام يشبه عمل اليهود وهو الذي ينهى عن تقليدهم ويحذر اصحابه منهم ولايطلعه الله على ذلك عشر سنين5-على الرغم من كون قريش كانت تصومه في الجاهلية لانه يحتمل ان اليهود علموهم اياه6-الراجح ان من السنة صيام اليوم التاسع من محرم لا غير ولا يضم اليه يوم اخر قبله او بعده لان ذلك هو المنصوص في السنة الصحيحة لكن بشرط ان ترافقه نية مخالفة اليهود 7-نقول صام رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وسلم) يوم عاشوراء في السنة الثانية لما فرض رمضان نسخ صوم عاشوراءوالحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله وندعوا الله تعالى ان يوفقنا لما فيه خير البلاد والعباد


Article
Determination of serum zinc concentration in normal healthy men & type II diabetes mellitus patients.
تعين تركيز الخارصين في مصل دم الرجال السليمين و المصابين بداء السكر النوع الثاني

Author: Nasreen Kader Kamel
Journal: Tikret Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 18172716 Year: 2013 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 139-143
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Body zinc content is regulated by the homeostatic mechanism, which regulate zinc absorption and excretion depending on its body requirements. The function of cells and tissues enzymes is depend zinc content & over 70 human body enzymes with which zinc is associated. Pervious studies show that some trace elements like magnesium, zinc, manganese & selenium may play important role in action of insulin hormone, including activation of insulin receptor sites. The aim of the study is to determine the serum level of zinc in normal healthy men & diabetes mellitus type II patients. A cross sectional study was done in Tikrit teaching hospital from beginning of January to end of December 2010. The study conducted on 50 type 2 diabetic male patients was participated in the study. While, 30 normal healthy men age matched (aged 55 to 60 years) were included as a control. Serum zinc was measured for control healthy non diabetic subjects & diabetic type 2 patients. There were non significant differences regarding age. However there is significant increase in BMI of diabetic patients as compare with control men. Fasting serum glucose was significantly higher in DM patients as compare with control subjects. Moreover, there is significant reduction in serum zinc in diabetic patients (89.35 ± 19.23 µg/dl) as compare with normal health subjects (135 ± 35.18 µg/dl). In diabetic patients, there is significant negative correlation between fasting blood sugar & serum zinc (r= - 0.37). In present study conclude that there is a significant reduction in serum zinc in diabetic patients. The present study recommend that diabetic type II patients should be encourage to eat diet rich in zinc or take zinc supplement.

محتوى الزنك في الجسم ينضم بواسطة إلية التوازن الداخلي, و الذي ينضم امتصاص و إفراز الخارصين اعتمادا على احتياجات الجسم. إن وضيفة إنزيمات خلايا الجسم تعتمد على محتوى الخارصين و إن أكثر من سبعين إنزيم تعتمد على مستوى الخارصين. الدراسات السابقة أظهرت إن بعض العناصر النزرة كالمغنيسيوم و الزنك, المنغنيز, السلينوم قد تلعب دورا مهما في عمل هرمون الأنسولين. تهدف الدراسة لتعيين تركيز الزنك في مصل دم المصابين بداء السكر النوع الثاني مقارنة مع الأشخاص السليمين. دراسة مقطعية أنجزت في مستشفى تكريت التعليمي من بداية كانون الثاني لغاية كانون الأول 2010 . تطوع في الدراسة 50 مريض مصابين بداء السكر النوع الثاني وقورنت مع 30 شخص سليم كسيطرة و بأعمار تتراوح بين 55 إلى 60 سنة. هنالك زيادة معنوية في تركيز سكر الدم في مرضى داء السكر النوع الثاني مقارنة مع السيطرة.و هنالك نقصان معنوي في تركيز الخارصين في مصل دم المرضى المصابين بداء السكر مقارنة مع السيطرة. تلخص الدراسة الحالية بلن هنالك نقصان معنوي في تركيز الخارصين في مصل دم المصابين بداء السكر. و توصي الدراسة الحالية بتشجيع مرضى داء السكر بتناول الأغذية الحاوية و الغنية بالخارصين.


Article
The Prevalence of Micro albuminuria in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Author: Noor A. Hussein
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2014 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 984-993
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

This study is performed to assessment of the long term glycaemic hemoglobin (HbA1c) to determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria and to find the risk factors for developing microalbuminuria and consequence nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of microalbuminuria in our study is high (70%) and the risk factors that accompanied microalbuminuria are high blood pressure, elevated fasting blood glucose and poor glycemic hemoglobin.


Article
Detection of insulin resistance in overweight and obese individuals
الكشف عن مقاومة الأنسولين لدى الأشخاص الذين يعانون من زيادة الوزن والسمنة

Authors: Fargeen Ezzaddin --- Leweza B. Abbass
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2011 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 74-79
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objectives: This study was designed mainly to determine fasting serum insulin level and other parameters related to obesity, since Type II diabetes mellitus is the most prevalent problem associated with obesity. In Kurdish region, no previous studies about insulin essay in overweight and obese individuals have been executed. Measuring insulin level in overweight and obese individuals can give information about the body's sensitivity to insulin.Methods: Fasting blood samples were derived from (60) overweight individuals (30 males + 30 females) and from (30) normal weight individuals and were analyzed for insulin level by using an immuno assay method (ELISA method) whereas fasting blood glucose, Triglyceride(TG), Total Cholesterol(TC). High Density Lipoprotein(HDL), were estimated spectrophotometrically.Results: From total (60) overweight individuals 76.6% have insulin resistance. From this percent about 52% of those individuals were with family history of diabetes and 24% were with family history of obesity.Conclusion: Three relatively simple metabolic markers can identify overweight and obese individuals who are sufficiently insulin resistant to be at increased risk for various adverse outcomes are (TG level, ratio of TG to HDL, and insulin level).

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