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Article
The accuracy of ultrasound in the estimation of the actual birth weight at term pregnancies in a sample from Erbil city
دقة الموجات فوق الصوتية في تقدير الوزن الفعلي عند الولادة في فترة الحمل في عينة من مدينة أربيل

Authors: Medya BahaaAldeen Ahmed --- Sirusht B. Ali
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 Pages: 186-192
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Background and objectives: Estimation of fetal weight is an important component of maternity health care, especially in the management and planning of the delivery mode, and this will play a big role in newborn and maternal safety. This study has been carried out for providing more knowledge about the accuracy of fetal weight estimation by ultrasound and its correlation with actual weight after birth.Methods: This study was performed in the Radiology Department of the Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil city on 407 pregnant women with singleton and in term pregnancies from May 4th, 2015 to April 10th, 2016. The ultrasound examination typically involved estimating fetal weight by using both Hadlock’s and Shepard’s formula, and the actual birth weight of each participant’s neonate was measured immediately after delivery by using a standardized neonatal weighing scale. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Hawler Medical University.Results: Statistical analysis by t-test indicated that there was a significant difference between the actual birth weight and sonographic estimation of fetal weight using both formulas. The correlation between actual birth weight and sonographic estimation by Hadlock's formula was (R=0.869) while it slightly declined when Shepard’s formula was used (R=0.805). Hadlock's formula showed a better relation with actual fetal weight. This study was showed higher correlation when the time of estimation was within seven days of delivery time, and it was about (R=0.921), and when the time of estimation became more than seven days from delivery, it was showed less correlation (R=0.811).Conclusion: Hadlock’s formula for estimation of fetal weight by ultrasound showed more accurate results, particularly within a time less than seven days from delivery date.


Article
INDUCTION OF ABORTION IN IRAQI GOATS USING BROMOCRIPTINE
استحداث الاجهاض في الماعز العراقي باستخدام البروموكربتين

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Abstract

Twenty pregnant goats at gestation period ranged from 100 – 130 days were used in this study and divided in to four groups according to duration of gestation period. G (A) = 100 – 110 days, G (B) = 111 – 120 days, G (C) = 121 – 130 days. All of the goats were injected with a single dose of 2.5 mg / kg B.W. Bromocriptine I.M. The fourth group also 5 goats G (D) = 120 – 130 days were used as control & given 2 ml distal water I.M. Results showed that 80% of G (A) aborted after 5.12 ± 1.74 days, 60% of G (B) aborted after 4.92 ± 1.15 days and 60% of G (C) aborted after 4.97 ± 1.15 days of injection. In addition all the aborted goats showed complications represented by retention of fetal membranes and subsequent uterine infection compared to controls which showed neither abortion nor complications.

الخلاصةاستخدم في هذا البحث 20 معزة حامل وقسمت اعتمادا على طول فترة الحمل الى أربعة مجاميع متساوية، إذ كانت فترة الحمل في المجموعة (A) 100-110 يوما ً وفي المجموعة (B) 111-120 يوما ً وفي المجموعة (C) 121-130 يوما ً اعتمادا على تاريخ التسفيد. وقد حقنت جميع المعزات بجرعة واحدة من البروموكربتين 2.5 ملغم/كغم بالعضل. وقد استخدمت 5 معزات اخرى حوامل (D) 120-130 يوما ً كسيطرة بعد حقنها بــ2ملل ماء مقطر بالعضل.لقد أظهرت النتائج حدوث إجهاض في 80% من المجموعة A بعد 5.12±1.74 يوما ً من الحقن وإجهاض 60% من المجموعة B بعد 4.92±1.15 يوما ً من الحقن وإجهاض 60% من المجموعة C بعد 4.97±1.50 يوما ً من الحقن، إضافة لذلك فان جميع المعزات المجهضة قد عانت من مضاعفات تمثلت باحتباس الاغشية الجنينية ومن ثم التهابات رحمية بالمقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة التي لم يحدث فيها مضاعفات بعد الولادة الطبيعية.

Keywords

Abortion --- Goats --- Fetal membrane


Article
Use of colon caliber diameter as auxiliary method in pregnancy dating between 34-40 weeks of gestation

Author: Wisam Akram1
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 52-57
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Objective: to verify whether fetal colon caliber correlate with gestational age from 34 to 40 weeks of gestation and to develop equation and chart which can be used for pregnancy dating by measuring colon caliber. Methods: a total of 220 healthy pregnant women whose age range from 18- 35 years were collected. They were distributed as 30 patients for each of the following gestational ages 34, 35, 36,37,38,39 weeks and 40 patients for 40 weeks of gestation. Their head circumference, abdominal circumference, bi-parietal diameter and femoral lengths were assessed by ultrasound. In addition colon caliber was assessed in the transverse colon. Result: there was a highly significant correlation between colon caliber and gestational age in days. In addition a highly significant correlation between colon caliber and bi-parietal diameter, femoral length, head circumference and abdominal circumference were found with P values < 0.0001. A formula was developed to calculate gestational age directly from the fetal colon caliber alone. The equation accuracy was checked by Kappa- Cohen coefficient and found to be 0.71 indicating good predicative ability of this formula. Conclusions: despite a new easy to use formula and associated easy to use chart was developed yet we call for extreme caution in its use as we don’t know its significance in real life obstetrical world. Further studies are required to confirm its reliability and safety


Article
TREATMENTS OF DYSTOCIA IN KARADI EWES IN SULAIMANI PROVINCE
علاج عسر الولادة في النعاج الكرادي في محافظة السليمانية

Author: Faraidoon A.M. Amen *Talib G.M. Ali فريدون عبد الستار محمد أمين ، طالب غيدان منت علي
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 35-39
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The study was conducted on 85 clinical cases of Karadi breeds of Iraqi ewes, suffering from dystocia, which were brought by the farmers to A.I center of veterinary Directorate and the Veterinary. Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sulaimani University to be treated during lambing season.The age of animals ranged from 2-4 years, and the number of lambing ranged from 1-3 times. One of the following treatments was chosen;1) Correction of fetal maldisposition and traction (n=25), 2) Medical treatment of ring womb when fetal membranes were not yet ruptured (n= 17) or 3) Cesarean section was performed, when delivering per vaginum was judged to be impossible (n= 43). Medical treatments consisted of a combination of calcium borogluconate 2% (40 ml S.C.) with Estradiol benzoate 17-β (2mg i.m.). Positive response been indicated when the method of treatment showed good prognosis. The results showed that cesarean section had a higher positive response (83.7%), while manual correction and traction showed 60% response. Poor response was observed in the medical treatment group (41.1%). It was concluded from this study that cesarean section was the safest method of the treatment especially if performed as early as possible.

أجريت الدراسة على 85 حالة سريريه من النعاج الكرادي العراقية, كانت تعاني من عسر الولادة تم جلبها بواسطة المربين إلى المستشفى البيطري التعليمي التابع لكلية الطب البيطري/جامعة السليمانية والى مركز التلقيح الصناعي التابع للبيطرة في السليمانية, خلال الفترة (موسم الولادة) من شهر تشرين الثاني 1993 إلى كانون الأول 2004. بلغت أعمار الحيوانات بين 2-4 سنة وعدد الولادات من 1-3 مرات. عولجت الحالات بإحدى الطرق التالية بعد إجراء فحص دقيق للحالة:تصحيح وضع الجنين وسحبه (العدد = 25 نعجة).العلاج الدوائي لحالات عدم توسيع عنق الرحم عندما لم يتمزق الغشاء الجنيني (العدد: 17).أجراء العملية القيصرية عندما لايمكن إخراج الجنين عن طريق المهبل (العدد = 43). شمل العلاج الدوائي مستحضر كالسيوم 2 % (40 سم3 تحت الجلد) مع هرمون الاسترادايول بنزويت -17 بيتا (2ملغم بالعضل).اعتبرت النتيجة موجبة عندما يكون مآل الحالة جيدا. أظهرت النتائج أن العلاج بالعملية القيصرية أعطى أفضل النتائج (83.7 %) يليه العلاج اليدوي بالتصحيح والسحب (60 %) , أما العلاج الدوائي فكانت نسبة الاستجابة فيه (41.1 %) . وقد استنتج من الدراسة أن أفضل علاج لحالات عسر الولادة في النعاج هي الجراحة القيصرية إذا ما أجريت مبكرا


Article
Use of single serum progesterone level measurement as a predictor of the fetal viability during the first trimester
استخدام قياس مستوى هرمون البروجسترون في الدم كمؤشر على سلامة الجنين خلال الأشهر الثلاثة الأولى

Author: Trifa Yousif Muttalib
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 Pages: 180-185
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Approximately one in third of pregnant women experience discomfort, pain and or vaginal bleeding during the first trimester of pregnancy. Ultrasound is known to be a useful tool in detecting and diagnosing the viability of the fetus but it is sometimes inconclusive. In cases in which pregnant women experience symptoms of discomfort, serum progesterone may be admitted to the patient for counseling and prediction of the continuity of pregnancy. This study aimed to estimate the relation between single serum progesterone level and the viability of the fetus during the first trimester.Method: A prospective study was carried out in Maternity teaching hospital-Erbil city to estimate the accuracy of single serum progesterone measurement for the prediction of fetal viability at the end of the first trimester. All the cases have been detected by ultrasound device that has been for women who attended the hospital and reported the feeling of discomfort, pain and bleeding early in the first trimester of pregnancy, serum progesterone level of the patients were compared between viable and nonviable fetuses.Results: A total of 97 participants were involved in this study; 57 participants had a viable pregnancy at the end of the first trimester, and 40 participants had un-viable pregnancy that has been terminated either by spontaneous abortion or termination performed for missed abortion. The mean of serum progesterone level in viable pregnancies was (19.358 ngml) when compared with the non-viable pregnancies which were (11.082 ngml). The differences were statistically significant (P <0.001). The cut-off value (13.68ngml) provides the highest sensitivity and specificity.Conclusion: A single serum progesterone measurement was regarded as a reliable test for the prediction of viable and non-viable pregnancy in women who reported to be experiencing pain and bleeding in the early trimester of pregnancy with or with inconclusive ultrasound.


Article
Fetal anomalies in prolonged gestation in Awassi ewe: A case report
التشوهات الجنينية لحالة الحمل الطويل في نعجة عواسية: تقرير حالة

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Abstract

This report was described the observation of five types of congenital anomalies with a Hydramnios Syndrome in prolonged gestational (6 months) three years old awassi ewe bearing an abnormal fetus for first time, ultrasonography revealed signs of pregnancy with numerous small cotyledon, high amount of bright turbid fluid (Hyper-genic), with no signs of heart beat and small abnormal ribs. Vaginal examination indicated that complete closure cervix with pale mucous membrane.

يصف هذا التقرير حالة جنين يشكو من خمسة انواع من التشوهات الخلقية مع موه غشاء الامنيون في نعجة من النوع العواسي عمرها ثلاث سنوات كانت تعاني من طول فترة الحمل (ستة شهور)، الفحص بجهاز السونار اثبت وجود حالة الحمل عدد من اللحيمات الرحمية صغيرة الحجم، كمية كبيرة من السوائل، عدم وضوح او وجود لدقات القلب، اعداد من الاضلاع صغيرة الحجم متشوهة. عند فحص المهبل كان عنق الرحم مغلق تماما مع شحوب الاغشية الطلائية.

Keywords

Fetal --- Anomalies --- Hydropsy --- Gestation --- Awassi


Article
Fetal Parameters and Early Evidence of Fetal Macrosomia in Prepregnancy Diabetic Women

Authors: Hala A. G. AL Rawi --- Ban Hadi --- Najlaa Hanon
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2018 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 75-79
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Background: Diabetes in pregnancy with macrosomia is an important risk factor for neonatal morbidity and mortality. Prediction ofmacrosomia is significantly improved by adding ultrasound to clinical findings. Objective: For earlier detection of macrosomia inprepregnancy diabetic mothers using fetal growth profile including biparietal diameter, femoral length, and also abdominal circumference (AC). Patients and Methods: A historical prospective cohort study was performed at National Endocrine and Diabetic Center in addition to theObstetrics and Gynecology Department at Al‑Yarmouk Hospital for 2 years, from September 2014 to 2016. A hundred and sixty pregnantwomen were enrolled in this study, 80 of them with a history of prepregnancy diabetes mellitus were taken as a patient group and the other 80 pregnant women with a compatible gestational age and without a history of diabetes mellitus were taken as a comparison group. Abdominalultrasound was done for patients in both groups at 20, 28, and 36 weeks of gestation and then birth weight was measured for each. Results werecompared between two groups. Results: The incident of macrosomia was 30% in patient group and 10% in comparison group. Regarding earlyprediction of macrosomia by ultrasound using biparietal diameter, femoral length, and AC, the results of the current study revealed that those macrosomic babies have higher femoral length, AC but not biparietal diameter in comparison with babies of average weight using ultrasound performed at 20‑week gestation and repeated at 28 and 36 weeks. Conclusion: In diabetic mother, fetal macrosomia can be predicted by ultrasound during pregnancy as early as 20‑week gestation.


Article
Human chorionic gonadotropin and Testosterone in Normal and Preeclamptic Pregnancies in Relation to Fetal sex

Authors: * Maad S. Al-Adami معد الاعظمي --- Wasan Wajdi وسام وجدي
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2011 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-8
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Back ground: The gender related difference may be the result of pregandiol excretion in the latter half of pregnancy.Aim: This study is to evaluate the effects of fetal gender on serum human chorionic gonadotropin [HCG] and testosterone in normotensive and preeclamptic pregnancies Methods: The study consisted of fifty women with singleton pergnancy in their third trimester. Twenty five pregnancies were uncomplicated Among those there were thirteen male, and twelve female fetuses Twenty five pregnancies were complicated by preeclampsia. Among those thirteen were with male, and twelve were with female fetuses. Human chorionic gonadotropin and total testosterone were measured in maternal peripheral blood. Results: In male bearing pregnancies, maternal HCG and testosterone serum levels were significantly higher in preeclamptic than in normotensive mothers. In female bearing pregnancies, testosterone levels were significantly higher in preeclamptic than normotensive mothers, whereas the HCG levels were not significantly different.Male Bearing preeclamptic women had significantly higher testosterone levels than female Bearing preeclamptic women, whereas the HCG levels were not significantly different. In uncomplucated pregnancies the HCG levels significantly higher in female bearing than in male bearing mothers, Conclusion: In preeclamptic pregnancies with male fetuses; the maternal serum HCG levels were significantly higher than in uncomplicated pregnancies. Total testosterone level were significantly higher in pregnancies whether with male or female fetuses. It was also significantly higher in male bearing than female bearing pregnancies. This may indicate an androgen influence on the pathophysiologic of preeclampsia


Article
THE INFLUENCE OF MATERNAL KETONURIA ON BIOPHYSICAL FETAL TEST RESULTS IN THE EVALUATION OF POSTTERM PREGNANCY

Author: Layla H Hamad ليلى حسين حمد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2011 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 324-331
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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BackgroundThe perinatal morbidity and mortality increase significantly as pregnancy progresses beyond term. The ketone production as a result of dehydration becomes significant in the latter portion of pregnancy.ObjectiveTo determine whether ketonuria, a commonly assessed urinary marker of maternal starvation and dehydration, is associated with abnormal fetal test results in the setting of postterm pregnancy.MethodsDuring a one-year period (March 2007-March 2008), a total of 180 visits of 100 patients of postterm pregnancies ( 41 weeks’ gestation) occurred at Baghdad Teaching Hospital. Maternal assessment included vital signs and urinalysis. The presence and degree of maternal ketonuria was correlated against abnormal results of fetal heart rate tests, non stress tests, amniotic fluid index measurements (the biophysical profile scores) performed on the same day.ResultsThere were 180 evaluations suitable for inclusion in the study. Clinically detectable ketonuria occurred in 13.9% of the patients studied. Patients with clinically detectable ketonuria were at increased risk relative to patients without ketonuria for abnormal outcomes during postterm testing, including the presence of oligohydramnios (28% vs. 9.7%; p <0.018), non reactive non stress tests (12% vs. 2.6%; p <0.03), and variable, late fetal heart rate decelerations (20% vs. 8.3%; p <0.05).ConclusionsMaternal ketonuria among patients with postterm pregnancy was associated with a >2 fold increase in the occurrence of oligohydramnios, a 3-fold increases in non reactive non stress tests, and a significant increase in fetal heart rate decelerations.Key wordsmaternal ketonuria; biophysical fetal test; postterm pregnancy


Article
Using PCR Technician in Prenatal Diagnosis of Fetal Gender
استخدام الـ PCR لتشخيص جنس الجنين قبل الولادة

Author: Abdulrahman A. Oleiwi عبدالرحمن عبدالخالق عليوي
Journal: Jornal of Biotechnology Research Center مجلة مركز بحوث التقنيات الاحيائية ISSN: 18151140 Year: 2010 Volume: 4 Issue: 2 Pages: 84-90
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

whole blood samples were obtained from 30 pregnant women at 15 –24 weeks of gestation. DNA was extracted from each plasma or serum sample. To detect the Y-chromosome specific marker DYS14 in the maternal blood, (Polymerase Chain Reaction) PCR were carried out for each DNA extract. The PCR products were analyzed by 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining. The results compared with fetal gender after delivery. The result of delivery revealed that 13 pregnant women had a male fetus and the remaining 17 pregnant women had a female fetus and DYS14 was detected in all plasma and serum samples obtained from pregnant women and revealed that 13 pregnant women had a male fetus and the remaining 17 pregnant women had a female fetus. The PCR sensitivity for detecting the gender of fetus from maternal whole blood at 15–24 weeks of gestation was 100% in both plasma and serum, DYS14 was not detected in the DNA from any of the 17 pregnant women carrying a female fetus. The results showed that PCR analysis of maternal plasma and serum can be used to diagnose fetal gender.

جمعت 30عينة من الدم المحيطي لنساء حوامل (15-24) اسبوع من مدة الحمل , تم عزل DNA من كل من بلازما ومصل الدم , للكشف عن المؤشر الوراثي الخاص بالكروموسوم الذكريDYS14 باستخدام تقنية الـPCR , تم الكشف عن ناتج تفاعلPCR باستعمال الترحيل الكهربائي على هلام الاكاروز بتركيز 1,5 % , قورنت النتائج مع نتائج جنس الجنين ما بعد الوضع والتي اظهرت ان 13 مرأة كانت حامل بجنين ذكر و 17 المتبقية كانت حامل باناث , وذلك بالكشف عن المؤشر الوراثي DYS14 . اظهرت النتائج ان حساسية تفاعل الـ PCR في الكشف عن جنس الجنين في النساء الحوامل باستعمال الدم المحيطي للحوامل وبعمر حمل تراوح بين (15-24) اسبوع كانت 100% لكل من بلازما ومصل الدم . لم تظهر الواسمة DYS14 في اي من الـ 17 من النساء الحوامل بإناث . اظهرت النتائج امكانية استعمال PCR في الكشف عن جنس الجنين ما قبل الولادة

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