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Article
A clinical study of the anti–caries effect of 1.23% and 0.4% APF fluoride gel on primary dentition: One year follow–up

Authors: Tarik Y Khamrco --- Layla A Makani --- Karam H Jazrawi
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2006 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 186-193
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To determine the efficacy of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel in reducing cariesincrement in a group of pre–school children in Mosul City, and to compare between the anti–carieseffect of two different concentrations (full strength–1.23% and half strength–0.4%) after one year ofbi–annual application of the gel. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 363 kindergartenchildren [192 (52.89%) males and 171 (47.11%) females] aged 4 years –at the initial examination–from 10 randomly selected kindergartens in Mosul City Center. The sample was divided into twoexperimental groups and one control group. Children in the first group received bi–annual applicationof full strength (1.23%) APF gel; those in the second group received bi–annual application of halfstrength (0.4%) APF gel, whereas those in the third group did not receive any fluoride treatment.Dental examinations were done according to WHO criteria using dmft and dmfs indices: One beforefluoride application and the other after one year. Results: A significant reduction in dental cariesincrement of the two experimental groups compared with the control group regarding dmft and dmfsindices. The percentage of caries reduction regarding dmft and dmfs indices were 97.25% and 101.15%for the first group, and 95.94% and 85.33% for the second group, respectively. However, thedifferences between the two concentrations were statistically not significant, although children in thefirst group who received the full strength fluoride application revealed slightly better reduction incaries increment than those in the second group who received the half strength fluoride application.Therefore, to decrease the risk of ingesting a highly concentrated fluoride gel, the use of the lowerconcentration APF gel is recommended. Conclusion: The use of such a program involvingprofessional APF gel application for pre–school children is advised especially for those with evidenceof dental caries.


Article
Estimation of fluoride release in commercial toothpaste

Authors: Tahani A AL-SANDOOK --- Tarik Y KHAMRCO --- Amer A TAKA
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2001 Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 44-49
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The aim of study is to ensure that the fluoridated toothpaste remain (active) in terms of bioavailability of fluoride in toothpaste.Seventeenth different brands of toothpastes were collected from the market to determine the concentration of fluoride in the toothpaste. The result indicated that the concentration of fluoride in these products range from 10 p.p.m. to 1000 p.p.m. fluoride. Also, the result revealed that many of these products did not mention the type of abrasive system used to be compatible with the type of fluoride used & to maintain high amount of active fluoride to be benefit by the consumers


Article
Determination of fluoride, zinc and lead ions concentrations in primary teeth and drinking water and dental caries experience

Authors: Zainab A. Al–Dahan --- Baydaa A. Al–Rawi
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2006 Volume: 6 Issue: 3 Pages: S23-S29
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

To detect the levels of fluoride (F), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in primary teeth and drinking water and their relation to dental caries experience in school children aged 6–12 years living in two distinct areas in Ninevah Governorate using two different sources of drinking water supply. Materials and Methods: The samples consisted of 120 freshly extracted highly mobile free of dental caries human primary mandibular teeth and ten wells water samples with ten tap water samples which had been chosen randomly. The samples were analyzed for F by fluoride sensitive electrode and for Zn and Pb by computerized atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Assessments and recording of caries experience were done by application of decayed, missing and filled surfaces (dmfs) index for primary dentition. Results: Statistical analysis of the results indicated that the mean F and Zn concentrations in the teeth were 244.35 + 167.49 ppm; 87.41+ 36.64 ppm respectively of the rural children were significantly higher than in the teeth of urban children (104.53 + 52.75 ppm; 65.19+ 28.79 ppm respectively). Meanwhile the concentration of Pb in the teeth of the urban children (1.62+0.41 ppm) was significantly higher than in the teeth of rural children (0.94+ 0.80 ppm)(p<0.001). Statistically significant higher F concentration in the wells water (3.39+ 0.25 ppm) than urban water supply (0.19+ 0.07 ppm) (p<0.001). Statistically significant higher Zn concentration in the urban water supply (0.1.34+ 0.31 ppm) than wells water (0.07+ 0.03 ppm) (p<0.001), but Pb concentration in wells water was not detected. Statistically significant higher caries experience was found in urban children than in rural (p<0.001). In the rural and urban areas, a negative correlation in the dmfs with F and Zn concentrations in teeth while a positive correlation with Pb was observed. Conclusions: A highly significant F and Zn concentrations in primary teeth were found in rural area than the urban and the opposite was true for Pb concentration. High significant F concentration was found in the wells water than urban water supply, and the opposite was true for Zn, but Pb concentration in wells water was not detected. High significant differences in dental caries indices were found in urban children than in rural children

Keywords

Fluoride --- zinc --- lead


Article
Effect of chlorhexidine mouth wash and flouridated mouth wash on mechanical properties of orthodontic arch wires (An in vitro study)

Authors: Khawla M Awni --- Hind T Jarjees --- Hakam H Sabah
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2011 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 150-159
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: The aims of the this study were to measure the effect of chlorhexidine and fluoridated mouth wash on mechanical properties of stainless steel and nickel titanium wires and to study the effect of three time intervals (3, 7, and 10 days) immersion on these mechanical properties. Materials and Methods: Two types of orthodontic wires were taken which included stainless steel and superelastic nickel titanium wires (Dentaurum, Germany). The 0.016×0.016 inch wires were selected. Each type of wires divided into seven groups; control group and six experimental groups in which the wires immersed in the chlorhexidine and fluoridated mouth wash for 3, 7, and 10 days and then the mechanical properties of wires (yield stress, ultimate tensile stress, modulus of elasticity) measured by using the universal tensile testing machine. Results: The results of the present study showed that a significant difference in the mechanical properties of both stainless steel and nickel titanium wires between the control group and experimental groups immersed in the fluoridated mouth wash and this decreased in the mechanical properties as immersion time increased. Also the results of the present study showed that a non significant difference in the mechanical properties of both stainless steel and nickel titanium wires between the control group and experimental groups immersed in the chlorhexidine mouth wash. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that the fluoridated mouth wash decreased the mechanical properties of stainless steel and nickel titanium wires and this degradation in mechanical properties could contributed to prolong orthodontic treatment. While the chlorhexidine has no effect on mechanical properties of stainless steel and nickel titanium wires


Article
Measuring fluoride in human saliva and water

Authors: Kwestan Muhammad --- Salim K. Mohammed --- Kamaran Y. Mohammadamin --- Victor Kuri
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2019 Volume: 23 Issue: 2 Pages: 242-246
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Fluoride is used to prevent dental caries, and it has been one of the most effective and widespread agents. Fluoride level has been shown in saliva, plaque, and oral soft tissues after use of fluoridated toothpaste that persists at potentially active concentrations for hours. This study aimed to evaluate how fluoride in toothpaste intake can affect the salivary fluoride and test fluoride in tap water in the different places of Erbil city.Methods: Forty five volunteers were examined. In the morning after overnight fasting before brushing teeth, the saliva of the subjects (healthy non-smoker adults) was taken before brushing teeth, which was a baseline. After 10 and 20 minutes of washing mouth with water (after brushing), saliva was taken and then the cotton pad was held under the tongue for 5 min. Saliva samples were frozen at -20 Co for later analysis. Tap water samples in different places in Erbil city were analyzed.Results: Toothpaste significantly (P = 0.002) increased salivary fluoride after brushing teeth. The fluoride concentration of tap water in Erbil city was very low at the places that use groundwater. Conclusion: This research indicates that salivary fluoride significantly increases after brushing teeth. The fluoride concentration naturally occurring levels in the tap water in the places where the source is groundwater are not enough.

Keywords

Fluoride --- Dental caries --- Saliva


Article
Evaluation of shear bond strength of brackets bonded to fluoride-treated enamel surfaces: An in vitro study

Authors: Ahmad A ABDUL-MAWJOOD --- Khidair A SALMAN
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2001 Volume: 1 Issue: 3 Pages: S343-S352
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Enamel decalcification is a well-recognized problem associated with orthodontic treatment with fixed multibanded appliances. Several methods have been proposed to minimize the incidence and severity of white spot decalcification around brackets. The present study is concerned with the evaluation of the effect of different topical fluoride gels, applied before and after etching on the shear bond strength of directly bonded orthodontic brackets. The sample consisted of (70) human upper first premolars distributed to (7) groups: group A served as a control; groups B1, C1, andDl received, for (4) minutes prior to etching, a topical application of neutral sodium fluoride gel (1.1%), sodium monofluorophosphate gel (1.2%), and acidulated phosphate fluoride gel (1.23%) respectively. Groups B2, C2, and D2, on the other hand, were treated, for (4) minutes after etching, with topical application of neutral sodium fluoride gel (1.1%), sodium monofluorophosphate fluoride gel (1.2%), and acidulated phosphate fluoride gel (1.23%) respectively.The brackets were loaded under shear to failure using Universal Compression Machine Apparatus. The shear strengths were recorded in Megapascals.The results of the present study showed that the application of fluoride gels for (4) minutes before and after etching did not alter the shear bond strengths of directly bonded orthodontic brackets, when compared with the control group, for all groups except for group D2 in which the topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride gel for (4) minutes after etching has resulted in a significant reduction in shear bond strength and severity of white spot decalcification around brackets.

Keywords

Bond strength --- fluoride


Article
Stainless steel brackets failure rate after topical fluoride application in etching procedures

Author: Ali R AL-KHATIB
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2002 Volume: 2 Issue: 3 Pages: 399-405
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Enamel demineralization that occurs adjacent to directly bonded orthodontic attachments is of great concern to orthodontists. One of the suggested procedures to overcome this problem is to use topical fluoride treatment after acid etching. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the failure rate of stainless steel bracket with metal mash base after topical application of(1.1%) neutral sodium fluoride gel after(37%) phosphoric acid etching. Twenty patients with full maxillary and mandibular "0.018" standard edgewise fixed appliances were included. Maxillary right, mandibular left sides were received the topical sodium fluoride gel application after etching with(37%) H3PO4 for(30) seconds. The gel was applied for(4) minutes after etching, then rinse with air and water stream for(5) seconds; while in the contralateral sides the bonding was done conventionally. The bonding adhesive was the No-Mix chemical cure adhesive. The follow-up period was(12-15) months. The results showed that brackets failure rate in fluoridated group did not differ significantly from the non-fluoridated one. Hence the(1.1%) neutral sodium fluoride may have a clinical application in preventing demineralization that occurred around and under orthodontic brackets without any significant increase in failure rate of stainless steel brackets


Article
Effect of Nd-YAG laser-irradiation on fluoride uptake by tooth enamel surface (in vitro)

Authors: Khamaal I. AL-Hasnawi خمائل الحسناوي --- Wesal A. Al-Obaidi وصال العبيدي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 1 Pages: 154-158
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The irradiation of teeth with a laser results in an interaction between the light and the biological constituents of the dental hard substance, which is converted directly into heat.This thermal effect is the cause of the structural and chemical enamel changes.The combined treatment of topical fluoride agent with laser may increase fluoride uptake, and reduce progression of caries-like lesions. The aim of this study was to measure the uptake of the acidulated phosphate fluoride and sodium fluoride to the buccal and lingual caries-like lesion enamel surfaces before and after irradiated by Nd-YAG laser in comparison with matching control group.Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 30 human healthy upper premolar teeth which were stored in 0.1% thymol solution after extracted. Every tooth divided into: buccal and lingual specimen, each specimen has a rectangular window which was divided to right and left halves (120 specimens). The sample was divided into 2groups (60 specimens) for buccal surface, and the same for lingual surface. The caries-like lesion was formed for all groups except control (1) each group treated with either acidulated phosphate fluoride 1.23% or sodium fluoride 2%, (30 specimens) which contain other subgroups, these are: (10 specimens) one half treated with fluoride agent only and another half as control (first group as control (1) without caries-like lesion, and the second group control (2) with caries-like lesion, then de-ionized water only). (10 specimens) treated with fluoride agent then irradiated by Nd-YAG laser; one half with program (1) (short pulse), andanother with program (2) (long pulse). (10 specimens) irradiated by Nd-YAG laser; one half with program (1) and another with program (2) then treated with fluoride agent. The specimens of enamel were sectioned and the fluoride uptake was determined with using fluoride sensitive electrode.Results: There was a significant difference between the buccal and lingual enamel surfaces regarding the fluoride uptake in sound tooth, while a non- significant difference was observed after artificial caries-like lesion formation.Conclusion: Irradiation of Nd-YAG laser program (1) to the buccal and lingual caries-like lesion surfaces of enamel before application of fluoride agents (APF, NaF) was significantly increase fluoride uptake than that of using laser after the application of fluoride agent, as well as from using laser of program (2) after and before the application of fluoride agent, and from using fluoride agent alone in the buccal and lingual surfaces


Article
The surface roughness of new fluoride releasing material after using three polishing protocols and storage in artificial saliva

Author: Maha A. Habeeb مها حبيب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 1 Pages: 21-26
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Prophylaxis methods are used to mechanically remove plaque and stain from tooth surfaces; suchmethods give rise to loss of superficial structure and roughen the surface of composites as a result of their abrasiveaction. This study was done to assess the effect of three polishing systems on surface texture of new anteriorcomposites after storage in artificial saliva.Materials and methods: A total of 40 Giomer and Tetric®N-Ceram composite discs of 12 mm internal diameter and3mm height were prepared using a specially designed cylindrical mold and were stored in artificial saliva for onemonth and then samples were divided into four groups according to surface treatment:Group A (control group):10 specimens received no surface polish and were subdivided into A1 (Giomer) and A2(Tetric®N-Ceram). Group B: 10 specimens received polishing with Air polishing devise (APD) and were subdivided intoB1 (Giomer) and B2 (Tetric®N-Ceram). Group C: 10 specimens received polishing with pumice and brush and weresubdivided into C1 (Giomer) and C2 (Tetric®N-Ceram). Group D: 10 specimens were polished with pumice andrubber cup and were subdivided into D1 (Giomer) and D2 (Tetric®N-Ceram). Testing was done by means ofprofilometer and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance test (ANOVA), LSD and student t-test. Also sampleswere photographed by special orthoplane camera using light polarizing microscope.Results: The results showed a highly statistical significant difference in surface roughness among Giomer subgroupsP<0.05. Also there was a highly significant difference P<0.05 when comparing Tetric subgroups according to type ofsurface treatment. Furthermore there was non-significant difference P>0.05 between groups according to the typeof restorative material used.Conclusion: The use of prophylactic surface treatment significantly increased Giomer and Tetric ceram surfaceroughness and the use of rotating brush has shown the roughest surface among all other types of prophylacticprotocols also Giomer had shown more surface roughness than Tetric ceram although the difference was notsignificant.


Article
THE EFFECT OF SODIUM FLUORIDE ON HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES
تأثير فلوريد الصوديوم NaF في التغييرات النسجية للمبيضين وقرني الرحم في الفئران

Author: حسام جاسم حسين بنانة
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 147-156
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present study was conducted to identify the effect of oral administration of sodium fluoride (NaF) on histological changes of ovarian and uterine horns in mice. Sixty four mature female Swiss albino mice, Balb/C were divided into four major groups including control (C) group and treatment groups (T1 , T2 and T3) according to NaF dose as following 0 ppm, 200 ppm, 400 ppm and 600 ppm , respectively. Each major group was subdivided into two minor groups according to the period of administration in 10 and 15 weeks. Therefore, each minor group contains eight females. Histological changes were assessed includes ovarian diameter, number and diameter of growing ovarian follicle (GOF), Graafian follicles (GF) and corpus luteum (CL), diameter of uterine horn (UH), thickness of epithelial cell layer (ECL) lining the UH and diameter of uterine glands (UG).The results of ovarian histological changes showed a highly significant (P<0.01) reduction in the ovarian diameter, number and diameter of GOF, GF and CL for all treated groups T1, T2 and T3 as compared to control for both treatment periods (10 and 15 weeks). Within same treatment periods, histological examination of uterine horn observed highly significant (P<0.01) reduction in the diameter of UH, thickness of ECL and UG for all treated groups as compared to control. It was concluded that the administration of NaF to female mice have harmful effects on histological changes of ovaries and uterine horns; and consequently may have a negative effects on female fertility and fecundity.

أجريت الدراسة الحالية بهدف معرفة تأثير إعطاء فلوريد الصوديوم (NaF) إلى إناث الفئران عن طريق ماء الشرب في التغييرات النسجية لكل من المبيضين وقرني الرحم في الفئران. أستخدمت في هذه التجربة إناث فئران بالغة عددها 64 أنثى تم تقسيمها إلى أربع مجاميع رئيسة (16 فأرة لكل مجموعة) وفقاً إلى جرعة فلوريد الصوديوم المأخوذة وهي مجموعة السيطرة C وكل من المعاملات T1 وT2 وT3 وتمثل هذه المجاميع التراكيز المستخدمة من مادة فلوريد الصوديوم وهي 0 و200 و400 و600 جزء لكل مليون (ppm) على التوالي. قسمت كل مجموعة من هذه المجاميع الرئيسة إلى مجموعتين فرعيتين تمثل كل واحدة مدة من مدد إعطاء فلوريد الصوديوم وهي 10 و15 أسبوعاً، وبذلك فقد أصبحت كل مجموعة فرعية تضم 8 فئران, تم فيها حساب كل من قطر المبيض وأعداد وأقطار كل من الأجسام الصفر وحويصلات كراف والحويصلات المبيضية النامية مع حساب قطر قرن الرحم وسمك الطبقة الخلوية الطلائية المبطنة لقرني الرحم وأقطار الغدد الرحمية. أثبتت نتائج الفحوصات النسجية للمبايض حصول انخفاض عالي المعنوية (P<0.01) في كل من قطر المبيض وأعداد وأقطار كل من الأجسام الصفر وحويصلات كراف وأقطار الحويصلات المبيضية النامية لكافة المعاملات T1) وT2 و(T3 مقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة ولكلتا المدتين 10) و15 أسبوعاً(. أما الفحوصات النسجية لقرني الرحم فقد أظهرت حصول إنخفاض عالي المعنوية (P<0.01) في كل من قطر قرن الرحم وسمك الطبقة الخلوية الطلائية لقرني الرحم وأقطار الغدد الرحمية لكافة المعاملات T1) وT2 و(T3 مقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة ولكلتا المدتين 10) و15 أسبوعاً(. نستنتج من هذه الدراسة أن إعطاء فلوريد الصوديوم لإناث الفئران يؤدي الى حصول تأثيرات سلبية في أنسجة المبايض وقرني الرحم مما يؤثر سلباً في خصوبة إناث الفئران.

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