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Article
PATHOGENICITY EVALUATION OF FUSARIUM SPP ISOLATES, CAUSAL AGENT OF CROWN ROT DISEASE IN WHEAT
تقييم امراضية عزلات مختلفة للفطر Fusarium spp المسبب لمرض تعفن التاج في القمح

Authors: M. H. Khalifah محمد حمود خليفة --- Oadi N. Matny عدي نجم اسماعيل مطني
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية ISSN: 00750530/24100862 Year: 2013 Volume: 44 Issue: 4 Pages: 480-489
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study was carried out, at the greenhouse of plant protection department of college of agriculture university of Baghdad, to test the pathogenicity of 75 isolates of Fusarium spp causative agent of wheat crown rot. Wheat plants showing yellowing and brown coloring of lower internodes were collected, from several governorates of Iraq. The lower internodes were cutting to small pieces of 1 cm length, sterilized in sodium hypochlorite 1% for 3 min., rinsed in sterile distilled water and dried on filter papers. The pieces were cultivated on PDA amended with mixture of Ampicillin and Tetracycline at 100 mg/L, in petridishes of 9 cm diameter. The petridishes were maintained at 25±2Cº for 7 days and the growing Fusarium spp were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The Fusarium spp were grown on sterile wheat seeds in petridishes of 11 cm diameter at 25±2Cº for 21 days. Surface sterile wheat seeds were sowing in mixed soil contaminated with Fusarium spp, grown on wheat seeds, at 0.5% in pots of 6 cm diameter (3 seeds/ pots). The pots were maintained at the greenhouse and the disease incidence, disease severity, rate of fungus aggressiveness and DON toxin production in plant tissues were determined after 35 days of sowing. Results of isolation showed that Fusarium graminearum was more prevailing at 92% compared with 8% of Fusarium pseudograminearum. The isolates showed obvious variation in pathogenicity on wheat seedling under greenhouse conditions. The highest of disease severity, disease incidence and fungus aggressiveness rate, 0.856, 100% and 5.67 were found for the isolate 28 of F.graminearum isolated from Baghdad. Also the highest of disease severity, disease incidence and fungus aggressiveness rate 0.362, 100% and 4.94 were found for the isolate 151 of F. pseudograminearum isolated from Erbil. The concentration of mycotoxin produced by the isolates was found to be ranging from 0.002 to 0.807 µg/g. A significant correlation between DON mycotoxin concentration with disease severity, disease incidence and fungus aggressiveness were registered, r= 0.431, 0.409 and 0.556 respectively. Negative effects in most growth parameters of wheat seedling including plant highs, leaves number and dry weight upon treating with the fungus isolates were manifested.

اجريت هذه التجربة في البيت الزجاجي التابع لقسم وقاية النبات/كلية الزراعة/جامعة بغداد بهدف اختبار المقدرة المرضية لـ 75 عزلة مختلفة تعود للفطر Fusarium spp المسببة لمرض التعفن التاجي في القمح.جمعت نباتات قمح تظهر عليها اعراض اصفرار وتلون السلاميات السفلى الى قطع بطول 1 سم وعقمت بمحلول هيبوكلورات الصوديوم 1% لمدة ثلاث دقائق، وغسلت بماء مقطر معقم وجففت على ورق ترشيح. زرعت القطع في الوسط الزرعي PDA، مضافاً اليه خليط من المضاد الحيوي Tetracycline وAmpicillin بمعدل 100 ملغم/لتر في اطباق بتري قطر 9 سم. حضنت الاطباق بدرجة حرارة 25+2 سْ لحين تجرثم الفطر، وشخصت عزلات الفطرين الفطر Fusarium spp باستخدام تقنية PCR. نميت انواع الفطر على حبوب قمح معقمة في اطباق بتري زجاجية بقطر 11 سم بدرجة حرارة 25+2سْ لمدة 21 يوم. لوثت تربة رملية بانواع الفطر المنماة على بذور القمح بمعدل 0.5%، وزرعت حبوب قمح صنف اباء 99 في اصص بلاستيكية قطر 6 سم بمعدل ثلاثة بذور/اصيص. قدرت نسبة وشدة الاصابة ودليل شراسة الفطر وكمية السم المنتج للعزلات بعد 35 يوماً من الزراعة. أظهرت نتائج العزل المختبري ان الفطر F. graminearum كان الأكثر ظهوراً وبنسبة تكرار بلغت 92%، مقارنة بالنوع F. pseudograminearum الذي بلغت نسبة تكراره 8%. اظهرت عزلات الفطر تفاوتاً واضحاً في مقدرتها الامراضية لبادرات القمح في ظروف البيت الزجاجي، إذ بلغ اعلى مقدار لشدة ونسبة الاصابة ودليل شراسة الفطر 0.856 و100% و5.67 بالنسبة للعزلة28 للفطر F. graminearum المعزولة من بغداد،كما ظهر اعلى مقدار لشدة ونسبة الاصابة ودليل شراسة الفطر، إذ بلغ 0.362 و100% و4.94 في العزلة 151 للفطر F. pseudograminearum المعزولة من أربيل. أما مقدار ما تنتجه عزلات الفطر Fusarium spp من السم DON في اثناء اصابته لبادرات القمح صنف اباء 99 فقد تراوحت بين 0.002و0.807µg/g . وجد ان هناك علاقة ارتباط معنوية بين كمية السم DON وكل من شدة الاصابة بالفطر Fusarium spp، ونسبة الاصابة ودليل شراسة الفطر وبقيم ارتباط بلغت r= 0.431 و 0.409 و0.556 بالتتابع. اثرت المعاملة بعزلات الفطر بشكل سلبي في معظم معايير نمو بادرات القمح مثل ارتفاع النبات وعدد الاوراق والوزن الجاف.


Article
Antifungal Activity of Two Plants La wsonia inermis and Myrtus communis On The Growth of Two Fungus Fusarium chlamydosporium and F . oxysporum
الفعالية التثبيطية لمستخلصات نباتي الحناء و الآس على نمو الفطرين Fusarium chlamydosporium و Fusarium oxysporum

Author: Zainab F. Mansowr , Furdos N. Jafar , Fatema S. Sabah زينب فاضل منصور, فردوس نوري جعفر, فاطمة صيوان صباح
Journal: basrah journal of science البصرة للعلوم ISSN: 18140343 Year: 2014 Volume: 32 Issue: 1b arb Pages: 1-19
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The inhibitory effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of two plants Lawsonia inermis and Myrtus communis against the radial growth and the dry weight of two fungal species Fusarium chlamydosporium and F . oxysporum, were studied. The ethanolic extract of the two plants gave the maximum inhibitory effect against radial growth of F. chlamydosporium with an inhibitory percentage 88.8% inhibitory percent in 4000 ppm concentration,also the ethanolic extract of the Lawsonia inermis plant showed the maximum effect in reducing the dry weight of the fungus using 3000 ppm concentration. comparing with control treatment (0.05 gm, 2 gm) respectively . Concentration. for the fungus F. oxysporum the aqueous extract of Lawsonia inermis plant showed the maximum inhibitory effect on the radial growth which about 88.8 % using 4000 ppm concentration, while the ethanolic extract of the Lawsonia inermis plant gave the maximum effect in reducing the dry weight of the fungus in 3000 ppm concentration in which the fungus gave no growth.Key word: Fusarium spp., Plant extract

تم خلال هذا البحث دراسة الفعالية التثبيطية للمستخلصات المائية والكحولية لنباتي الحناء و الآس على نوعين من الفطر Fusarium هما الفطر F. chlamydosporium والفطر F. oxysporum، حيث تمت دراسة تاثير هذه المستخلصات على النمو الشعاعي والوزن الجاف لهذين الفطرين، واظهر المستخلص الكحولي للحناء والمستخلص الكحولي للآس اعلى فعالية في تثبيط النمو الشعاعي للفطر F. chlamydosporium وذلك بتركيز 4000 جزء بالمليون وبنسبة تثبيط 88.8% لكلا المستخلصين، كما اظهر المستخلص الكحولي للحناء اعلى فعالية مقارنة ببقية المستخلصات باختزال الوزن الجاف للفطر وذلك بتركيز 3000 جزء بالمليون وبوزن مقداره 0.05 غم مقارنة بمعاملة السيطرة التي اعطت وزن مقداره 2غم.اما بالنسبة للفطر F. oxysporum فقد اظهر المستخلص المائي للحناء اعلى فعالية بتثبيط النمو الشعاعي وبالتركيز 4000 جزء بالمليون وبنسبة 88.8%، بينما اظهر المستخلص الكحولي للحناء اعلى فعالية باختزال الوزن الجاف للفطر وذلك بالتركيز 3000 جزء بالمليون حيث تمكن من تثبيط نمو الفطر كلياً.


Article
Molecular identification of Fusarium spp. isolated from tomato plant in Iraq and China

Authors: Iman S. Al-Jaafari --- Adnan I. Al-Badran --- Mohammed A. Fayyadh
Journal: Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences مجلة البصرة للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 18175868 Year: 2017 Volume: 30 Issue: 1 Pages: 65-72
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

This study was conducted to identify Fusarium spp isolated from tomato plant in Iraq and China. 12 isolates from Iraq and four isolates from China were used in this study. Based on Morphological characteristics (color, growth pattern, Macro and Micro-conidia shape) high differences between Fusarium isolates were found. Sensitivity test to the fungicide carbendazim revealed that one third of isolates(4/12) from Iraq had EC50 values over than 1000µg/ml indicated that many Iraqi isolates have developed resistance to carbendazim. Based on ITS sequences, Fusarium isolates which were isolated from Iraq and China were identified as follow, isolates 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10 were identified as Fusarium oxysporum, isolates 8, 11 as F. solani, isolates 12, M1 and M3 as F. moniliforme, isolates 2, M2 and M4 as F. proliferatum, F. chlamydosporum and F. kyushuense respectively. Isolates from1-12 were isolated from Iraq while M1-M4 from China.

Keywords

RAPD-PCR --- Fusarium spp. --- tomato plant --- Iraq --- China.


Article
Isolate and diagnose Mycotoxins associated with some producers of Indomie and Chips that available in local markets
عزل وتشخيص السموم الفطرية المرافقة لبعض منتوجات الاندومي والشيبس المتوافرة في الاسواق المحلية.

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Abstract

This study aimed to survey fungi associated with the product Indomie and Chips being the trades Iargely by a very important segment of society who are the children, beside consumed by adults, but less so, as the survey results to accompany some fungui samples sterile showed proportions presence included various fungi like. Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium Spp., Fusarium graminearum, F.moniliforme, Alternaria alternate and Rhizopus Spp., and other fungi sterile are not diagnosed. The results showed large dominion fungi A. niger by presence sterile samples of both producers, followed by infection in Fusarium Spp., Penicillium Spp., and A. alternata by infection percentage 55, 20 and 17% respectively for the product sterile Indomie, valuable when the infection A. flavus, Penicillium Spp., and A. alternata 43, 25 and 12% respectively for sterile product chips. As shown test results ELISA ability of some isolates to produce toxin DON and AFB1 at the rice medium, They are hazardous to human health and animal toxins was fungus Fusarium Spp. Product toxin DON concentrations ranged 13.2-134.5 µg/kg while the fungus A. flavus toxin producing aflatoxin B1 concentrations ranged 14.3-115 µg/kg.

هدفت هذه الدراسة إلى أجراء مسح الفطريات المرافقة لبعض منتوجات الاندومي والشيبس كونهما متداولين بشكل واسع من قبل شريحة مهمة جدا في المجتمع وهم الأطفال (الثروة القومية للبلد) فضلا عن استهلاكها من قبل البالغين لكن بنسبة اقل, إذ أظهرت نتائج المسح مرافقة بعض الفطريات للعينات المعقمة وبنسب وجود مختلفة تضمنت الفطريات Aspergillus flavus وAspergillus niger وPenicillium Spp. وFusarium graminearum وF. moniliforme وAlternaria alternata وRhizopus Spp. وفطريات أخرى عقيمة لم يتم تشخيصها,واظهرت النتائج سيادة كبيرة للفطر A.niger بنسبة اصابة 55% في العينات المعقمة لكلا المنتجين, تلاها الاصابة بالفطر Fusarium Spp. وPenicilium Spp. وA. alternata بنسبة اصابة 55 و20 و17% على التوالي لمنتوج الاندومي المعقم في حين كانت الاصابة بالفطر A. flavus وPenicilium Spp. وA. alternata 43 و 25و12% لمنتوج الشيبس المعقم.كما بينت نتائج الفحص بتقانة الاليزا مقدرة لبعض العزلات عن انتاج سم DON وAFB1 على وسط الرز وهما من السموم الخطرة على صحة الانسان والحيوان, وكان الفطر Fusarium Spp. منتجا لسم DON بتراكيز تراوحت بين 13.5 الى 134.5 مايكروغرام/كغم في حين كان الفطر A. flavus منتجا لسم AFB1 بتراكيز تراوحت بين 14.3الى 115 مايكروغرام/كغم.


Article
Effect of Dodoaea viscosa jacq on the activity of fusarium spp
تاثير مستخلصات نبات الدودونيا Dodonaea viscosa jacq على فاعلية الفطر Fusarium spp

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Abstract

Abstract This study was performed to examine the activity of water and Alcohol extracts for the leaves and stem bark of the Dodoaea viscosa jacq on three plant pathogens belonging to the genus Fusarium ; F.solani , F.oxysporium , F.moniliforme The influense of cold and hot extracts from the plant on the Invitro growth of three Fusarium species . Exhibited the following results : First:the acohol extracts (cold and hot) Dodonaea leaves showed higher significant reduction on the growth of the three Fusarium sp than cold and hot water extracts of the leaves at low and high concentrations . Moreover, the cold acohol extracts of the leaves had a higher percentage growth reduction on the three plant pathogens Fusarium at higher concentration ;(40 Mg/ml) . the redactions were between (86-89)% and lower than the growth redactions were established by the control and Benomyl fungicide (100%) Second: the four types of Dodonaea bark extracts in general , has less percentage of growth inhibition in the three Fusarium sp , than leaves extracts . However , hot alcohol extract of this plant part has significant growth reduction on fungi than the other three types ranged between (74-84)% at higher concentration (40 Mg/ml)used in this study. * Science of cologe / university of Thi-Qar ** Science of cologe / university of AL-mostinsirhi*** Iraqi atomic power organization Abstract This study was performed to examine the activity of water and Alcohol extracts for the leaves and stem bark of the Dodoaea viscosa jacq on three plant pathogens belonging to the genus Fusarium ; F.solani , F.oxysporium , F.moniliforme The influense of cold and hot extracts from the plant on the Invitro growth of three Fusarium species . Exhibited the following results : First:the acohol extracts (cold and hot) Dodonaea leaves showed higher significant reduction on the growth of the three Fusarium sp than cold and hot water extracts of the leaves at low and high concentrations . Moreover, the cold acohol extracts of the leaves had a higher percentage growth reduction on the three plant pathogens Fusarium at higher concentration ;(40 Mg/ml) . the redactions were between (86-89)% and lower than the growth redactions were established by the control and Benomyl fungicide (100%) Second: the four types of Dodonaea bark extracts in general , has less percentage of growth inhibition in the three Fusarium sp , than leaves extracts . However , hot alcohol extract of this plant part has significant growth reduction on fungi than the other three types ranged between (74-84)% at higher concentration (40 Mg/ml)used in this study. * Science of cologe / university of Thi-Qar ** Science of cologe / university of AL-mostinsirhi*** Iraqi atomic power organization Abstract This study was performed to examine the activity of water and Alcohol extracts for the leaves and stem bark of the Dodoaea viscosa jacq on three plant pathogens belonging to the genus Fusarium ; F.solani , F.oxysporium , F.moniliforme The influense of cold and hot extracts from the plant on the Invitro growth of three Fusarium species . Exhibited the following results : First:the acohol extracts (cold and hot) Dodonaea leaves showed higher significant reduction on the growth of the three Fusarium sp than cold and hot water extracts of the leaves at low and high concentrations . Moreover, the cold acohol extracts of the leaves had a higher percentage growth reduction on the three plant pathogens Fusarium at higher concentration ;(40 Mg/ml) . the redactions were between (86-89)% and lower than the growth redactions were established by the control and Benomyl fungicide (100%) Second: the four types of Dodonaea bark extracts in general , has less percentage of growth inhibition in the three Fusarium sp , than leaves extracts . However , hot alcohol extract of this plant part has significant growth reduction on fungi than the other three types ranged between (74-84)% at higher concentration (40 Mg/ml)used in this study. * Science of cologe / university of Thi-Qar ** Science of cologe / university of AL-mostinsirhi*** Iraqi atomic power organization Abstract This study was performed to examine the activity of water and Alcohol extracts for the leaves and stem bark of the Dodoaea viscosa jacq on three plant pathogens belonging to the genus Fusarium ; F.solani , F.oxysporium , F.moniliforme The influense of cold and hot extracts from the plant on the Invitro growth of three Fusarium species . Exhibited the following results : First:the acohol extracts (cold and hot) Dodonaea leaves showed higher significant reduction on the growth of the three Fusarium sp than cold and hot water extracts of the leaves at low and high concentrations . Moreover, the cold acohol extracts of the leaves had a higher percentage growth reduction on the three plant pathogens Fusarium at higher concentration ;(40 Mg/ml) . the redactions were between (86-89)% and lower than the growth redactions were established by the control and Benomyl fungicide (100%) Second: the four types of Dodonaea bark extracts in general , has less percentage of growth inhibition in the three Fusarium sp , than leaves extracts . However , hot alcohol extract of this plant part has significant growth reduction on fungi than the other three types ranged between (74-84)% at higher concentration (40 Mg/ml)used in this study. * Science of cologe / university of Thi-Qar ** Science of cologe / university of AL-mostinsirhi*** Iraqi atomic power organization

الخلاصة:- Abstract اجريت هذه الدراسة لاختبار فعالية المستخلصات المائية والكحولية لاوراق وقلف الساق لنبات الدودونيا Dodonaea viscosa jacq في تثبيط نمو ثلاثة انواع من جنس الفطر ; Fusarium F.solani , F.oxy sporum , F.moniliforme المسببة للعديد من الامراض النباتية الفطرية. كانت نتائج معاملات الاستخلاص المائي والكحولي (البارد والحار) لنبات الدودونيا في تثبيط نمو الانواع الثلاث للفطر خارج الكائن الحي كلاتي:- 1. تفوق معنوي للمستخلصات الكحولية على المائية لاوراق الدودونيا ولاسيما المستخلص الكحولي البارد فقد حقق نسبة مئوية في التثبيط تراوحت بين (89 - 86)% عند التركيز (40) مليغرام/مللتر مقارنة مع السيطرة والمبيد Benomyl.2. حقق مستخلص قلف الدودونيا نسبة اقل مقارنة بالاوراق وتميز المستخلص الكحولي الحار احصائيا عن باقي المستخلصات وحقق نسبة تثبيط تراوحت بين (87 - 74)% عند التركيز (40) مليغرام/ مللتر


Article
Isolation and Identification of Fusarium and Aspergillus Fungi Species from Recent and Stored Wheat Grains and Their Effects on Seeds Germination
عزل وتشخيص انواع فطريات Fusarium and Aspergillus من حبوب الحنطة الحديثة والمخزنة وتاثيرها في انبات البذور

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Abstract

Results of the study of mycoflora content of wheat seeds samples (Abaa 99 variety) recent and stored for one year showed that the seed stored for one year contained 37 fungal isolates, 16 isolates belong to the genus Aspergillus and 9 belong to the genus Fusarium, while 12 belonging to other genera, but in the recent grains only 8 fungal isolates were isolated, including 3 isolates belong to the genus Aspergillus and 2 belong to the genus Fusarium and 3 belong to other genera. These two types of wheat seeds were treated with mercury chloride and its effect on seed germination by blotter method. The results revealed that the stored seeds that treated with mercury chloride gave the highest germination percentage 92% compared with 81% for non-treated seeds, while the recent seeds that treated with mercury chloride showed the germination percentage of 78% compared with the germination percentage of 43% for non-treated seeds.

اظهرت نتائج دراسة المحتوى الفطري لنماذج بذور نبات الحنطة (صنف أباء 99) التي تم خزنها لمدة عام واحد، انَ هذه البذور كانت مصابة بعدد من الفطريات الممرضة للنبات ، اذ أمكن عزل 37 عزلة فطرية من هذه البذور والتي كانت تعود للفطرين Aspergillus ( 16 عزلة ) و Fusarium ( 9 عزلة ) فيما كانت بقية العزلات ( 12 عزلة ) تعود لاجناس فطرية أخرى، أما فيما يخص البذور الحديثة ( التي لم تخزن ) فأمكن عزل 3 عزلات من الفطر Aspergillus و2 عزلة من الفطر Fusarium فيما كانت هنالك 3 عزلات تعود لاجناس فطرية أخرى. ومن ناحية أخرى أظهرت نتائج تجربة تأثير كلوريد الزئبق في نسبة انبات بذور الحنطة اذ البذور المخزونة والمعاملة بهذه المادة حققت أعلى نسبة من الانبات بلغت ( 92%) مقارنة بالبذور غير المعاملة (81%) ، أما فيما يخص البذور الحديثة المعاملة بكلوريد الزئبق كانت نسبة أنباتها (78 % ) هي الافضل قياساً الى البذور غير المعاملة (43 %).

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