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Article
GIANT FIBROADENOMA; CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Author: Issam Merdan
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2006 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 16
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

IntroductionFor a variety of reasons, giant breast tumors continue to pose a challenge in diagnosis and management. These tumors are poorly understood because of their rarity and unpredictable behavior. Their rapid growth, associated with skin congestion and ulceration, and tendency to recur, gives rise to a suspicion of malignancy1,2. In addition, owing to the varied histological features seen in these tumors, there have been widely varying interpretations and diagnoses by pathologists3. This has led to inappropriate, and at times unnecessarily radical, surgical therapy. In the 1950s, breasts were amputated for this relatively non-threatening condition4. However, the present trend is towards more conservative management. In order to ensure proper surgical management, an under-standing of the natural history of the disease and its biologic behavior is essential. Bas J Surg, March, 12 2006

Keywords

GIANT --- FIBROADENOMA


Article
A case of Giant Uterine Fibroid in a Young Woman

Authors: Safa M.Al-Obaidi --- Mohammed Abd-Zaid Akool
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 588-592
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:The incidence of uterine fibroid tumor increase as women grow older and they may occur in more than 30 percent of women 40 to 60 years of age. Risk factors include nulliparity, obesity, family history, black race, and hypertension.These neoplasms frequently cause abnormal period, pelvic pain, and pressure symptoms. We present a case report of a large leiomyoma in an adult woman


Article
Bilateral Giant Fibro Adenoma of Breast(Case Report)

Author: Dr. Mohammad Bresam
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2008 Volume: 4 Issue: 2 Pages: 103-105
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Fibro-adenoma is the most common lesion of the breast, it occurs in25%of asymptomatic women (1,2 )
It is usually a disease of early reproductive life, the peak incidence is between the ages15 and 35 years.(3,4) It presents as firm highly mobile, non tender mass .(5)
Less than 5% of fibro-adenomas grow rapidly and display the clinical and histologic characteristics of giant fibro-adenoma which is defined as a-tumour either having a diameter greater than 5 cm. And /or amass weighing more than 500 grams, and are conventionally a benign tumor of breast.(6)
Giant fibro-adenomas appear as well-circumscribed but not encapsulated masses on mammography and solid and the texture is homogenous and hypoechoic with low level echoes on U/S. (6, 7)
It is hormone dependent that lactates during pregnancy and involutes along with the rest of the breast in perimenopause.(5)
Excessive estrogen stimulation and /or receptor sensitivity, or lack of estrogen antagonist havebeen implicated in the etiology. (2)
Giant fibro-adenoma is often confined to one breast as a solitary mass occupying part or the whole breast and in rare cases it may be multifocal and involve both breasts. (8)
Giant fibro-adenomas are benign and do not become malignant. (9)
Histological cut surfaces have a lobulated grey-white myxoid semitransparent to dens fibrous appearance, it consist of epithelial and fibrous components, the pericanalicular fibro-adenoma maintains round and oval dilated ductal spaces whereas in the intracanalicular type the ductal lumens are compressed by polypoid fibrous stroma creating slit –like irregular spaces , the ducts are lined by two layers of cells: epithelial and myoepithelial cells and under influence of hormones the ducts become hyper plastic with papillary formation and more than two layers of cells varies from myxoid and hypo cellular to fibrous and moderately cellular . (2)
Surgical treatment of giant fibroadenoma ranges from shelling the tumour out in case it occupies part of the breast, to simple mastectomy. (10) .

Keywords

giant fibro --- breast --- fibro adenoma


Article
Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study of Giant Cell Granuloma of the Jaw and Giant Cell Tumor of Long Bones (Comparative Study)

Authors: Luay Edward. M --- Bashar H. Abdullah --- Omar A. Kader
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 33-39
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) and peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) are tumor like lesions that affect jaw bones, while giant cell tumor (osteoclastoma) is a tumor that affects the long bones (e.g. tubular bones). Its affection of the jaw bones is a matter of debate. Both are very similar in their histopathological features while they vary in their clinical behavior. GCT shows a more aggressive behavior than GCG.OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the expression of (Proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and (P53) in peripheral and central giant cell lesion of the jaw and giant cell tumor of long bones with correlation to histopathological parameters.METHODS:A total of 17 (GCT), 15 (CGCG) and 16 (PGCG) cases where enrolled in this study. Immunohistochemical staining with PCNA and P53 monoclonal antibody was performed.RESULTS:A non-significant difference in proliferative activities was recorded among different histological giant cell lesion subtypes. Giant cell granuloma expressed the same proliferative potential to that of giant cell tumor, moreover PCNA expression was not statistically correlated to different histopathological paramters of lesion subtype.On the other hand. The anti-apoptotic potential of giant cell granuloma which expressed by anti P53 monoclonal antibody was the same of that of giant cell tumor.CONCLUSION:Results of this study proved that the biological behavior namely P53 and PCNA activities was comparable between giant cell lesions and giant cell tumor. This suggest that these two conditions may act as one disease entity with a spectrum of clinical behavior, possibly due to certain differences in anatomical location which by itself affect its biological behavior. This hypothesis needs further verification concerning the clonality of the lesion to be accepted or refused


Article
Palmar Lipomas;Different Clinical Presentations

Author: Zakaria Yahya Arajy
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 4 Pages: 285-289
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Lipomas arise as soft tissue tumors almost, every where in the body and follow the distribution of the fat Those presenting in the hand are uncommon slowly growing masses within the hand spaces..OBJECTIVE:To highlight the various presentations of large sized lipomas growing in the palm with different clinical pictures.PATIENTS AND METHODS:Five patients with hand lipomas , ages (7-45) years,pesented with palmar swellings , three were diagnosed clinically and two were diagnosed with magnetic resonance. The lipomas were surgically excised under general anesthesia.RESULTS:Compressive neuropathy was elicited in three patients, one patient had mild motor weakness due to muscle stretching. All patients had marginal excisions, histopathology proved to b lipomas. The paresthesia in three patients improved postoperatively ,all patients had full recovery of hand function during the follow up period of one year .CONCLUSION:The palm has limited spaces ,yet lipomas can grow for some time with minimal ill effect, surgical excision is the only remedy.


Article
Incorporation of Ions into Giant Molybdenum-oxide Cluster as a General Phenomenon

Author: Al-Ameen Bariz Omarali
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2018 Volume: 21 Issue: 3 Pages: 1-12
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

In spite of the integration and concomitant release of all 16 {Mo1} (necessary for ions Recently, the integration of different kinds of matter into giant wheel-shaped molybdenum-oxide clusters has been investigated with so-called chemical adaptability phenomenon. This refers to the integration of a large number of appropriate cations and anions even of the large “salt like” {M(SO4)}16 rings (M = K+ or NH4+) based on the cooperative/synergetic activation of silent receptor sites. An even more remarkable consequence of the flexibility behavior of the molecular giant wheel-shaped molybdenum-oxides of the type {Mo176} and {Mo154}: the possibility of the integration of Cu2+ as tetrahedrally coordinated divalent cations at the same wheel area. In this study and in order to make the phenomenon as a general, the incorporation of ions into giant molybdenum-oxide cluster was expanded to involve the integration of some other cations (Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+ or Zn2+) or salt like ring{Tl(SO4)}16. Uptake and almost half of the 16 {Mo2} units the parent ring structure is maintained in the following resulting hybrids {(Mo146) (K(SO4))16} 1compound, {(Mo146) (NH4(SO4))16} 2 compound and {(Mo146) (Tl(SO4))16} 3. Moreover, the integrating of a tetrahedrally coordinated divalent cation like Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+ or Zn2+ in addition to Cu2+, at the same wheel area (after releasing six {Mo2}-type building blocks of the parent wheel-shaped cluster) produced hybrid compounds with the general formula: [H4MIIn MoV28MoVI114O432(H2O)58]-26+2(n-5) (where MII= Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+ or Cu2+, n=5, but with Zn2+, n=6) compounds (4–8). The result corresponds to the extreme flexibility of molybdenum-oxide building block linking resulting in the formation of a huge variety of structures from “molybdate” containing solutions (a unique molybdenum-oxide diversity phenomenon). The prepared compounds were characterized by CHN, Cit.Tit for the determination of the number of the MoV centers, spectroscopic methods (IR and UV-Vis) and X-ray crystallography (determination of the characteristic unit cell dimensions).


Article
Risk factors of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy among a sample of patients in Erbil City
عوامل الخطر من اعتلال الأعصاب البصرية الإقفاري الأمامي لدى عينة من المرضى في مدينة أربيل

Authors: Eman Hussein Alwan --- Ahmed Kareem Joma --- Mutaz F. Hummadi
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 3 Pages: 307-314
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objectives: Although a lot of studies suggested the predisposition of many risk factors, non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy was considered for a long time to be idiopathic. This study aimed to assess the relationship between different factors and anterior ischemic optic neuropathy among a sample of patients in Erbil city.Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Erbil city, Iraq from 2008 to 2011. A total of 36 cases of non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and 36 controls with other visual problems were included.Results: Eight percent of patients in this study had one or more risk factors (P = 0.001), in particular hypertension and diabetes were shown to have a significant relationship (P = 0.046 and 0.001, respectively). The absence of physiological cup over the optic disc has crucial importance both independently (P = 0.001) and in association with diabetes (P = 0.001). Old age and male gender were significant factors in relation to co-morbidities (P = 0.001 and 0.038, respectively).Conclusion: The study had concluded that hypertension, diabetes, age, male gender and absent physiological cup over the optic disc were important risk factors for anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.


Article
Anaerobic Co-digestion of Giant Reed for Biogas Recovery
الهضم المشترك اللاهوائي للقصب البري لاستخلاص الغاز الحيوي

Author: Zainab Ziad Ismail زينب زياد اسماعيل
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2018 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 68-83
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study investigated the feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of giant reed (GR) inoculated with waste manure as a co-substrate for biogas production. The performance of co-digestion was evaluated in 4 anaerobic digesters operated in batch mode at different conditions. The effects of alkali pretreatment with NaOH (4% w/v) solution, inoculum type, and thermal condition were studied. The results demonstrated that the alkali-pretreatment of GR enhanced the biogas generation by about 15% at mesophilic conditions. Thermophilic conditions enhanced the biogas recovery from both alkali-free and alkali pretreated GR by 15% and 127%, respectively. The kinetic study of the co-digestion process of GR for biogas recovery suggested a significant agreement between measured and predicted values obtained by Modified Gompertz Model with correlation coefficients ≥ 0.98 indicating favorable conditions for the co-digestion of inoculated GR.

تهدف هذه الدراسة الى اختبار امكانية تطبيق الهضم المشترك اللاهوائي للقصب البري مع فضلات الحيوان لإنتاج الغاز الحيوي. تم تقييم أداء الهضم المشترك وذلك بتشغيل سبعة مفاعلات هضم لاهوائيِ تعمل جميعها بنمطِ التشغيل الدفعي بظروف تشغيلية مختلفة وتم دراسة تأثير العوامل التالية : المعالجة الكيمياوية التمهيدية للقصب بأستخدام محلول هيدروكسيد الصوديوم بتركيز (4% w/v) ، نوع المادة المضافة كمصدر للبكتريا (تحديدا مخلفات الماشية والدجاج)، و درجة الحرارة. أظهرت النتائج زيادة واضحة في انتاجية الغاز الحيوي من القصب المعالج بالقاعدة مقارنة بكميته المتحررة من القصب الغير معالج وذلك بنسبة 15% عند ظروف حرارة معتدلة.. أظهرت النتائج أيضا زيادة في كمية الغاز الحيوي المتحرر تحت ظروف الحرارة المرتفعة مقارنة بظروف الحرارة المعتدلة للقصب الغير معالج والمعالج بالقاعدة بنسبة زيادة حوالي 15%و %127 ،على التوالي. لغرض وصف عملية الهضم اللاهوائي المشترك، تم تطبيق الموديل الرياضي الخاص لهذه التطبيقات وهو Modified Gompertz Model وقد اظهرت نتائج تطابقا كبيرا بين نتائج القياسات المختبرية وتلك التي تم احتسابها من الموديل الرياضي وبمعامل ارتباط ≥ 80.9 للظروف التي تم تطبيقها لعملية الهضم اللاهوائي المشترك للقصب.

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