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Article
Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols in Manets

Author: Ahmed M. Jasim
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2018 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 64-69
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are characterized by the absence of centralized management and the lack of any infrastructures. The frequent topology changes and variable propagation conditions make a routing is the most important issue, therefore, it becomes necessary for nodes within the networks to use appropriate routing algorithms. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of AODV, DSR, OLSR and GRP routing protocols using OPNET modeler 14.5 simulation software. In the simulated mobile ad hoc network, we made all nodes receiving FTP traffic from a FTP server as common source. we increased the possibility of multi-hop routes between nodes with each other or from the server to the nodes by placing them randomly in the network. Our simulations have suggested many of the scenarios to all selected protocols in the identical environmental conditions so as to evaluate their performance with respect to routing overhead, throughput, end-to-end delay and routing load.

Keywords

MANET --- OLSR --- AODV --- DSR --- GRP.


Article
Improving The Stability of GRP Routing Protocol

Authors: Turkan A. Khaleel --- Ahmed M. Fadhil --- RanaKh.Sabri
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2016 Volume: 34 Issue: 6 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1142-1149
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

More recent works aim at enhancing MANET performance, because of the multiple problems caused by the wireless transmission constraints. The problem that faces the routing protocol is to obtain the stable path with nodes movement. A route between a source to destination is called "stable" if it consists of mainly stable neighbors at each intermediate hops. In this paper, a Geographic Routing Protocol (GRP) algorithm was chosen as a MANET routing protocol to be modified for stability. A new protocol wasthen created called SGRP routing protocol which workslikethe GRP routing algorithm, but with some modification to obtain better link stability. The main objective of this research is to decrease the time delay caused by wireless network and enhance the network performance by selecting the best route in the set of available routes that will have the least distance and highest neighbor stability. The model for this research has been designed and simulated by using C/C++ language embedded in the OPNET Modeler 14.5 software package. The SGRP routing model has been compared with the original GRP protocol. Acceptable results have been obtained depending upon the performance of metrics (MANET delay, total packets dropped and Throughput). The average MANET Delay and total packets dropped during the use of SGRP have decreased, while the throughput was acceptable.


Article
Effects of Bedding Types on the Behavior of Large Diameter GRP Flexible Sewer Pipes
تاثيرات أنواع طبقة الفرش على تصرف أنابيب المجاري المرنة ذات الأقطار الكبيرة من نوع GRP

Authors: Raad Abdulkhudhur Sehaib رعد عبدالخضر سحيب --- Adnan Falih Ali عدنان فالح علي
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2017 Volume: 23 Issue: 1 Pages: 136-155
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Flexible pipes, such as GRP pipes, serve as effective underground infrastructure especially as sewer pipeline. This study is an attempt for understanding the effects of bedding types on the behavior of large diameter GRP flexible sewer pipes using three dimensional finite element approaches. Theoretical and numerical analyses were performed using both BS EN 1295-1 approach and finite element method (ABAQUS software). The effects of different parameters are studied such as, depth of backfill, bedding compaction, and backfill compaction. Due to compaction, an increase in the bedding compaction modulus (E’1) results in a reduction of both stresses and displacements of the pipe, especially, for well compacted backfill. An increase of (E’1) from 14MPa to 30MPa results in a reduction in stresses 40% and about 25% in displacements. Maximum reductions in stresses were found to be about 25% only while the reduction in displacement was found to be less than 10%. As backfill material compaction modulus (E’2) is increased from 14MPa to 40MPa, a maximum reduction in stresses within the pipe was found to be not less than 60% while the displacement reduces up to 65%.

تعتبرالأنابيب المرنة كأنابيب GRP المطمورة من خطوط انابيب البنى التحتية الفعالة وخصوصا" في خطوط أنابيب المجاري.هذه الدراسة محاولة لفهم تأثيرات أنواع الفرش على سلوك أنابيب المجاري المرنة ذات الأقطار الكبيرة من نوع GRP باستخدام نظرية العناصر المحددة ثلاثية الأبعاد. حيث أجريت التحليلات النظرية والعددية باستخدام كل من (BS EN 1295-1) وطريقةالعناصرالمحدودة ثلاثيةالأبعاد بأستخدام (برنامجABAQUS). تم دراسة تأثيرعدة متغيرات مثلا":عمق مادة الدفن , رص مادة الفرش تحت الأنبوب ورص مادة الدفن. بسبب الزيادة في حدل مادة الفرش (E’1) فانه ينتج انخفاض في كل من الأجهادات والتشوهات في الانبوب، وخصوصا" عندما تكون تربة الدفن محدولة جيدا". زيادة (E’1) من14MPa الى 30MPa ينتج اكبر انخفاض في الاجهادات ب40% وحوالي 25% في التشوهات. اكبر انخفاض في الاجهادات حوالي 25% فقط بينما الانخفاض في التشوهات اقل من 10%. عندما رص مادة الدفن(E’2) يزداد من 14MPa الى 40MPa فان اكبر انخفاض في الاجهادات خلال الانبوب يكون اكبر من 60% بينما التشوهات تقل باكبر من 65%.

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