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Article
BEHAVIOR OF SHELL FOUNDATIONS ON SANDY SOIL REINFORCED WITH A CIRCULAR GEOGRID
تصرف الأسس القشرية على التربة الرملية المسلحة بالمشبك الدائري

Authors: Madhat Shakir Al-Soud --- Sawsan Akram Hassan
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 5 Pages: 147-158
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The purposes of this study are to investigate and evaluate the benefits of using of geogrids as a circular pipe of two different lengths of (20 cm and40 cm) under the footing base in improvement of bearing capacity and settlement in term of the bearing capacity ratio (BCR) and the settlement reduction factor (SRF). A load-frame assembly was designed for the experimental work. Two types of aluminum rigid foundation were used; flat footing and shell footing of dimensions (20× 20 cm) and different angles of (20˚, 30˚, and 45˚) for shell. Sand rainer device technique was used to fill the tank to obtain a homogenous sandy soil. The result show that using a circular geogrid with a length (H=20cm) leads to increase the BCR by (14-41)% higher than that for unreinforced sand, while increasing the geogrid length to 40 cm leads to increase BCR by (6-19)% .The SRF for a certain footing decreases with decreasing the geogrid length from 40 cm to 20 cm by (11-21) % .This may be related to the punching effect caused by the longer geogrid through the loose sand stratum.


Article
Reducing Settlement of Soft Soils Using Local Materials
تقليل هبوط الترب الضعيفة باستخدام مواد محلية

Author: Mohammed A. Mahmoud Al-Neami
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2010 Volume: 28 Issue: 23 Pages: 6649-6661
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The present work investigates the settlement behaviour of weak soils which cover the middle and southern part of Iraq. Physical and chemical properties were studied for weak soil brought up from Baladroz city, Dyalah Governorate. To decrease the excessive settlement of soft soil under study, reed materials which are widespread at Iraq marshes and geogrid materials were selected as reinforcement materials. For this purpose, steel container with dimensions (500 ×250 ×20 mm)and square footing (80 × 80 mm) were used.To prepare the soil with sameproperties of soft soils, the quantity of water was calculated using the liquidity index formula with LI equal to (0.42) corresponding to undrained shear strength of (10 kPa). This value of liquidity index was chosen according to the previous studies which showed that the liquidity index of such soil is ranging between (0.2 – 0.5).The results of soil model under the applied stress (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 kPa) marked that the maximum settlement reduction (S/B) is get when the reed mat or geogrid mat is used directly under the footing and this value decreases with increase of the distance between the surface layer and position of the reinforcement. Also, the settlement improvement (St/Sunt) can be clearly seemed for all cases of improvement compared with settlement of untreated soil It is worth noting, that to achieve the durability of the reed in the soil, asphalt coating must be used to prevent the reed decay.

يهدف البحث الحالي على التعرف الى خاصية هبوط الترب الضعيفة والمنتشرة بكثرة في وسط وجنوب العراق. في هذا البحث جلبت تربة ضعيفة من مدينة بلدروز في محافظة ديالى واجريت عليها الفحوص للتعرف على خصائصها الفيزياوية والكيمياوية. لتقليل هبوط المتزايد للتربة اختيرت مادتي القصب الموجود بكثرة في اهوار العراق ومادة المشبكات البلاستيكية المصنعة كمواد تسليح لهذا النوع من الترب. لتحقيق الهدف تم تصنيع حاوية حديدية بابعاد ( 2080 ملم). × 500 ملم) واستخدام اساس مربع حديدي بابعاد ( 80 × 250 ×لغرض تحضير تربة بمواصفات تربة ضعيفة، احتسبت كمية المياه الواجب اضافتها( الى التربة باستخدام معادلة مؤشر السيولة حيث اختيرت قيمة مؤشر السيولة بحدود ( 0.42 اعتماداً على دراسات سابقة اجريت على مثل هذا النوع من الترب والتي بينت بأن مؤشر 0.5 ) لهذه الترب وتم ايجاد مقاومة القص الغير مبزول للتربة - السيولة يتراوح ما بين ( 0.2 التي تم تحضيرها وبلغت ( 10 ) كيلوباسكال.بينت نتائج فحوص الموديل تحت الاحمال المسلطة ( 25 ،20 ،15 ،10 ،5للتربة المعالجة يمكن الحصول عليها عند (S/B) كيلوباسكال) بان اعلى قيمة تقليل للهبوط وضع حصيرة من القصب او المشبكات البلاستيكية تحت الاساس مباشرة.كذلك بينت النتائج بانه كلما ازدادت المسافة بين سطح التربة ومكان وضع موادالتحسين تقل كفاءة هذه المواد. كما بينت النتائج بان نسبة تحسين الهبوط تظهر بشكل ملحوظ في كافة حالات وضع مواد التحسين عند استخدامه اذا ما قورنت بقيمة نسبة الهبوط للتربة غير المعالجة. لغرض ديمومة القصب في التربة فانه من الضروري طلاء القص بالاسفلت لمنعة من التعفن داخل التربة المحسنة

Keywords

soft soil --- reed --- geogrid --- settlement --- reinforced soil


Article
Experimental Study on Geogrid-Reinforced Subbase over Soft Subgrade Soil under Repeated Loading
دراسة تطبيقية لطبقة ما تحت الاساس مسلحة بمشبك بلاستيكي فوق تربة ضعيفة تحت التحميل المتكرر

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Abstract

The present work investigates the behavior of unpaved road overlying soft clay layer reinforced with single layer of geogrid placed at the subgrade/subbase interface. A laboratory model is reinforced with two different types of geogrid and subjected to repeated load using Wheel Tracking Apparatus. Unreinforced and reinforced subbase over soft subgrade were constructed in a large testing box (500mm*500mm*750mm). The test results show that for the same rutting value (75mm); the using of geogrid reinforcement layer produces an increase in number of passes and stress distribution angle and a decrease in displacement on the soft subgrade surface on the reinforced models as the equivalent unreinforced one.

العمل الحالي يتحرى تصرف طريق غير مبلط فوق تربة طينية ضعيفة مسلح بطبقة واحدة من المشبك البلاستيكي موضوعة بين التربة الضعيفة و طبقة السبيس. موديل مختبري سلح بنوعين مختلفين من المشبك البلاستيكي و عرض لحمل متكرر بأستخدام جهاز الـ (Wheel Tracking Apparatus). طبقة سبيس غير مسلحة و أخرى مسلحة فوق تربة ضعيفة تم أنشاؤها في صندوق فحص كبير (500ملم*500ملم*750ملم). نتائج الفحوصات أظهرت بأنه لنفس قيمة التخدد (75ملم)، أستخدام طبقة تسليح من المشبك البلاستيكي تنتج زيادة في عدد مرات المرور وزاوية نشر الأجهادو تقليل في الازاحة على سطح التربة الضعيفة للنماذج المسلحة أذا ما قورنت بالنماذج غير المسلحة.


Article
Evaluation of Reinforced Sub-Base Layer on Expansive Sub-Grade Soil

Authors: Mohammed Y. Fattah --- Aqeel S. Aladili --- Hussam F. Yousif
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2016 Volume: 34 Issue: 9 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1789-1803
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Reinforcedpavementlayershavebeengainingpopularityinthefield ofcivil engineeringdue totheir highlyversatileandflexible nature.Withthe adventofgeosynthetics in civil engineering, reinforced earth technique has taken a new turn in its era. The practice of reinforced earth technique became easy and simple with geosynthetics. The research requirementsareproviding thematerials and manufacturing of the loading machine (loading test apparatus). Materials include soil (bentonite), granularsub base, sand, and geogrid. The testing program consists of preparing of 6 models that represent layers beneath flexible pavement layers (subgradeand sub base layers). The model dimensions are 800*800*800 mm, subgrade layer is 400 mm thick and sub base layer 300 mm thick. The model tests include using geogrid reinforcement at the interface of the subgrade and sub base layer and in the center of sub base layer.It was concluded that a geo-grid reinforced soil is stronger and stiffer and gives more strength than the equivalent soil without geo-grid reinforcement. Geo-grids provide improved aggregate interlock instabilizing road infrastructure through sub base restraint and base reinforcement applications, Geo-grid reinforcement provided between the sub base course and subgrade soil carries the shear stress induced by vehicular loads and thus it reduces the load transferred to the subgrade and the volume changes induced by swelling of the subgrade soil. The load carrying capacity of the pavement system is significantly increased for geogrid reinforced sub base stretch compared to unreinforced sub base layer on expansive soil subgrade. Comparison of the results of the model without geogrid reinforcement with other models reveals that there is an increase in the bearing capacity of model that includes geogrid reinforcement at the interface of subgrade by about 40%; and 20% for the model that consists of geogrid reinforcement in the center of sub base layer.


Article
Influence of Geogrid Reinforced Loose Sand In Transfer of Dynamic Loading To Underground Structure

Authors: Mohammed Y. Fattah --- Nahla M. Salim --- Mohammad S. Ismaiel
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2016 Volume: 34 Issue: 11 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1915-1927
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Underground facilities are an integral part of the infrastructure of modern society and are used for a wide range of applications, including subways and railways, highways, material storage, and sewage and water transport. Underground facilities built in areas subject to dynamic activity must withstand both dynamic and static loading. This study focuses on the effect of the geogrid reinforcement in transfer of the dynamic load to the underground structure. The underground structure was simulated as a PVC pipe 110 mm in diameter inside the sandy soil. In order to investigate the response of soil, footing and underground tunnel to dynamic loading, a physical model was manufactured. The manufactured physical model could be used to simulate the application of dynamic loading. The total number of the tests carried out is 4 models. All the 4 model tests with relative density equal to 40% corresponding to loose sand. The applied harmonic load has an amplitude of 0.5 ton and a frequency of 2 Hz. For each amplitude and frequency of the load, the sand models were tested without geogrid and with geogrid of three series of geogrid depths from the model surface (0.5B, 1B and 1.5B) and width equal to (1B), where B is the strip footing width. The dynamic load was applied in the tests by a hydraulic jack system. The response of the tunnel to dynamic loading includes measuring the pressure above the crown of the tunnel by using a pressure cell (manufactured by Geokon company) as well as measuring the amplitude of displacement by using a vibration meter. The response of footing was elaborated by measuring the total settlement using sensors in the dynamic load apparatus. It was found the pressure above the crown of the tunnel decreased by about (14-33) % when using geogrid reinforcement. Also, it was found the settlement decreased by about (13-20) % when using geogrid reinforcement.

Keywords

Tunnel --- dynamic load --- geogrid --- load transfer


Article
IMPROVEMENT OF LOOSE GRANULAR SOIL BY USING GEOGRID REINFORCEMENT
تحسين التربةِ الحبيبيةِ الضعيفة بإستعمال تسليح المشبكات

Author: Mohammed Kadum Fakhraldin محمد كاظم فخرالدين
Journal: KUFA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING مجلة الكوفة الهندسية ISSN: 25230018 Year: 2016 Volume: 7 Issue: 3 Pages: 66-79
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

There are several uses of granular soils in civil engineering works such as but not limited to under foundations structures, subbase course of roads, unpaved roads and soil embankments. This research attempts to overcome the problems of low-quality (by means of strength) of granular soil by enhancing California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test by utilizing geogrid. The research aim's to investigate the potential benefits of using the geogrid to improve CBR of granular soil. The results of tests showed that the granular soil under study was inferior than the materials comply on class C of Iraqi specifications for granular soil material. On the other hand, using of geogrid type Tensar SS2 at 0.15H (where H the total thickness of granular material samples) improves extremely the CBR value of the granular soil as it is increased by about three times in comparison with untreated soil.

هناك عِدّة إستعمالات للتُرَبِ الحبيبيةِ في أعمالِ الهندسة المدنيةِ غير محدده تحت اسفل اسس المنشاءات فقط، لكن على سبيل المثال تستخدم في الطبقة الثانوية للطرقِ، طرق غير مُعَبّدة تعليات الترابيه. هذا البحثِ يُحاولُ التغلب على المشاكلَ واطئة التحمل (بواسطة القوّةِ) مِنْ التربةِ الحبيبيةِ بتَحسين نسبةِ اختبار تحمل كاليفورنيا (CBR) بإسْتِعْمال المشبكات, يهدف البحثَ لتَحرّي الفائدة المحتملةِ لإستعمال المشبكات لتَحسين نسبةِ تحمل كاليفورنيا في التربةِ الحبيبيةِ. بينت نَتائِجَ في الإختباراتِ بأنّ التربةَ الحبيبيةَ التي درست كانت اقل من صنف C حسب المواصفاتِ العراقيةِ لمادّةِ التربةِ الحبيبيةِ. من الناحية الأخرى، إستعمال مشبكات نوعِ Tensar SS2 على عمق 0.15 H (حيث H السُمك الكليّ للعيناتِ الماديةِ الحبيبيةِ في قالب CBR) تتحسن قيمةَ نسبةِ تحمل كاليفورنيا التربةِ الحبيبيةِ المسلحة بالمشبكات حوالي ثلاث مراتِ بالمقارنة بالتربةِ الغير مُعالجةِ. 


Article
IMPROVEMENT OF SOFT CLAYS BY END BEARING STONE COLUMNS ENCASED WITH GEOGRIDS
تصرف الأعمدة الحجرية محملة النهايات المغلفة

Author: Mohammed Y. Fattah محمد يوسف فتاح
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2010 Volume: Engineering Sc. Conference Issue: First Pages: 310-326
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:- In this paper, the finite element method is utilized as a tool for carrying out different analyses of stone column–soil systems under different conditions. A trial is made to improve the behaviour of stone column by encasing the stone column by geogrid as reinforcement material. The program CRISP2D is used in the analysis of problems. The program adopts the finite element method and allows prediction to be made of soil deformations considering Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion for elastic-plastic soil behaviour. A parametric study is carried out to investigate the behaviour of ordinary and encased floating stone columns in different conditions. Different parameters were studied to show their effect on the bearing improvement and settlement reduction of the stone column. These include the length to diameter ratio (L/d), end support of the stone column and the area replacement ratio (as). It was found that the effect of encasement length ratio on bearing improvement and settlement reduction increases with the increase in the end bearing soil undrained shear strength.The encasement of the stone column should be extended to the full stone column length to make the stone column take the full benefit of the end bearing soil support especially for long columns with (L/d) more than 4. Keywords:- Stone columns, Encased, Geogrid, End bearing, Finite elements.

الخلاصة في هذا البحث تم استخدام طريقة العناصر المحددة كوسيلة لأجراء تحليلات مختلفة على منظومة الأعمدة الحجرية-التربة بظروف مختلفة. أجريت محاولة لتحسين تصرف الأعمدة الحجرية بواسطة تغليف الأعمدة باستخدام المشبكات (geogrid) كمادة تسليح. تم استخدام برنامج CRISP2D لإجراء هذه التحليلات و الذي يعتمد طريقة العناصر المحددة ويمكن من خلاله الحصول على التشوه المتوقع من خلال اعتماد معيار فشل Mohr–Coulomb لتصرف التربة المرن - اللدن.أجريت دراسة للمعاملات لتحري تصرف الأعمدة الحجرية لظروف مختلفة. تمت دراسة عدة معاملات لبيان تأثيرها على تحسين قابلية التحمل والهبوط للأعمدة الحجرية وهذه المعاملات هي نسبة طول الركيزة إلى قطرها (L/d), وإسناد النهاية للعمود الحجري وكذلك نسبة المساحة التعويضية (مساحة العمود الحجري/مساحة الأساس الكلي) لكل من الأعمدة الحجرية العادية والمسلحة. وقد وجد أن تأثير نسبة طول التغليف للأعمدة الحجرية (طول التغليف بالمشبك على طول العود الحري / الطول الكلي للعمود) على كل من تحسن التحمل و تقليل الهبوط يزداد مع زيادة مقاومة القص للطبقة التي تستند إليها نهاية العمود. إن تغليف العمود الحري يجب أن يمتد إلى الطول الكلي للعمود الحجري لجعل العمود يستفيد استفادة قصوى من التربة التي تستند إليها نهايته و خاصة للأعمدة الطويلة ذات نسبة (L/d) أكثر من 4.


Article
Finite Element Method for Improving Soft Soil Underneath a Ballast Railway Track

Authors: Saad Farhan سعد فرحان ابراهيم --- Ali H. Aziz علي حميد عزيز --- Ghufraan Mohammed Aboud غفران محمد عبود
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2013 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 200-218
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

It is always recommended to improve the properties of the soft soil beneath the railway networks often in such cases to increase its ability in bearing different applied loads and to control the expected generated settlements. The most methods used to improve the soil is by using a ballast layers with or without reinforced single geogrid layer or a geogrid layers at different spacing. This study presents a three-dimensional finite element analysis for soft soil underneath a ballast railway track by using a finite element program (ANSYS) which considers in these days the most software using in many engineering applications and most completeness. Twenty four models were created using a nonlinear three- dimensional finite element to study the effect of ballast thickness, mechanical properties of soft soil (undrained shear strength and modulus of elasticity), geogrid layer reinforcement to improve the soft soil. The ballast, soft soil and steel plates were modeled by using 8-nodes brick element with three degree of freedom per node. While, 4-nodes Shell element with six degree of freedom per node was used to represent the geogrid layer under and between ballast. The results show that increasing the undrained shear strength (Cu) and modulus of elasticity (E) lead to decreasing the settlement of soft soil and increasing the ultimate load. Increasing ballast thickness lead to decreasing the settlement of soft soil and increasing the ultimate load, this means that modulus of elasticity and shear strength playing main role to controlling in settlement of soft soil (ultimate displacement under plate loading ) and ultimate load

يوصى بتحسين خواص التربة تحت شبكة خطوط سكك الحديد لزيادة قابلية تحملها لمقاومة الاحمال المختلفة وللسيطرة على الهبوط المتولد. ان اكثر الطرق المستخدمة لتحسين التربة هي باستخدام طبقات من حجر التحكيم المسلحة مع اوبدون طبقة منفردة من المشبكات اللدائنية او المسلحة بطبقات من المشبكات اللدائنية وبمسافات مختلفة.تتناول هذة الدراسة بحثا نظريا للتحليل بطريقة العناصر المحددة للتربة الضعيفة المثبتة اسفل حجرالتحكيم لخط سكة حديد باستخدام برنامج العناصر المحددة (ANSYS) الدي يعتبر في الوقت الحاضراحد البرامج الواسعة الاستعمال في العديد من التطبيقات الهندسية واكثرها شمولا. تم في هذه الدراسة بناء اربعة وعشرون نموذجا رياضيا باستعمال طريقة العناصر المحددة ثلاثية الأبعاد اللاخطية لتقصي تاثير سمك حجر التحكيم (Ballast)، خواص التربة (معامل مقاومة القص(Cu) ومعامل المرونة (E))، التقوية باستخدام المشبكات اللدائنية (Geogrid) على تحسين و تثبيت التربة بالاستفادة من برنامج العناصر المحددة ANSYS.تم استخدام عنصر صلب ثلاثي الأبعاد ذو ثمانية عقد مع ثلاثة درجات للحرية في كل عقده لتمثيل حجر التحكيم (Ballast)، بينما تم استخدام عنصر صلب ثلاثي الأبعاد ذوثمانية عقد مع ثلاثة درجات للحرية في كل عقده لتمثيل طبقات التربة والصفائح الحديدية.بينما تم استخدام عنصر قشري ثلاثي الأبعاد ذو أربعة عقد مع ستة درجات للحرية في كل عقده لتمثيل المشبكات اللدائنية اسفل وداخل طبقات حجر التحكيم . اظهرت النتائج ان الزيادة في قيم معامل القص) (Cuومعامل المرونة (E ) قلل من هبوط التربة وكذلك ادى الى زيادة التحمل الاقصى ، كدلك بينت النتائج ان زيادة سمك طبقة حجر التحكيم قلل من هبوط التربة وكذلك ادى الى زيادة التحمل الاقصى، هذا يعني ان هذه المعاملات تلعب دورا أساسيا في السيطرة على هبوط التربة (الإزاحات القصوى المتولدة أسفل صفيحة التحميل ) وكذلك الاحمال القصوى.


Article
Effective Length of Geogrid Reinforcement Layers under Circular Footing Resting on Sand

Author: Jawdat Kadhim Abass
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2016 Volume: 34 Issue: 9 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1823-1833
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

This investigation aims at finding the effective length of geogrid reinforcement layers under circular footing. For this purpose xperimental models were used.The effect of relative density of the sand and the depth of the footing on the effective length of geogrid reinforcement layer was studied. Also the effect of the change in the length of reinforcement layers on the ultimate bearing capacity was investigated. The results show that the length of reinforcement layers to diameter ratio of circular footing increased withdecreasing relative density of the sand and is not affected by the changeof the depth to diameter ratio of circular footing.


Article
THE EFFECT OF USING LAYERED GEOGRID REINFORCEMENT ON THE COLLAPSIBILITY OF GYPSEOUS SOILS

Author: *Raghad Mohammed Kudadad
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 4 Pages: 39-56
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The geotechnical engineering considers the gypseous soils as collapsible soils. The existence of these soils causes problems for the structures, because of the dissolution and filtration of the gypsum from soil texture by the flow of water through the soil mass, this problem was the focus of attention of many researchers over the years to improve the properties of these soils. This research aims to study the effect of using geogrid reinforcement to reduce the collapse of gypseous soils upon soaking. A series of laboratory models tests in addition to routine laboratory tests carried out on three soils with different gypsum contents. The soils were brought from AL-Najaf district, the first soil S1 was taken from 0.5 meter below the ground surface with high gypsum content (26%). The second soil S2 was taken from 4 meter below the ground surface, with Slight gypsum content (6.9%), the third soil S3 was artificially prepared, by mixing the first soil S1 with the second soil S2 to get the required moderate gypsum content. A new technique manufactured locally for this work and a series of tests including dry and soak tests carried out using steel container (280×280×250) mm. The soils were placed in steel container at their field densities. The single layer geogrid reinforcement test was conducted by placing the geogrid layer at three different depths for all soils [(Depth of the reinforcement layer, D = 0.25 width of foundation, B), (D = 0.5B) and (D = 0.75B)]. The study includes also the effect of number of reinforcing layers (N) on the collapse behavior of gypseous soils. The models were reinforced with N=1, N=2 and N=3 (the vertical distance between geogrid layers, Z=0.25B). The study includes the observation of collapsibility of soaked gypseous soils at stress level of 100 kPa. A strip footing of (270×40×30) mm dimensions was taken as a testing model. This footing was placed at the center of the top surface of the bed soil. For all testing models, the footing was loaded gradually up to 100 kPa, after 24 hours, the corresponding settlement was recorded. Then, the soil is soaked for 24 hours and the generated settlement recorded under the same stress level 100 kPa. The results showed that the most effective depth for single layer reinforcement is at (D=0.25B) for the three soils, which gives a collapse reduction factor (CRF) of about (28.5%, 29.41%, 30.43%) for soils (S1, S2, S3) respectively. The effective number of reinforcement layers was (N=3: D=0.25B: Z=0.25B), which gives (CRF) of about (54.08%, 82.35%, 69.56%) for (S1, S2, S3) respectively compared with unreinforced model.

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