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Article
CLINICAL STUDY OF RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME IN AL-KADHIMIYA TEACHING HOSPITAL

Authors: Lamia AK Al-Saady لمياء عبد الكريم حمودي السعدي --- Hayder H Al-Musawi حيدر هادي الموسوي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2012 Volume: 10 Issue: 4 Pages: 396-401
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background :Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or hyaline membrane disease (HMD) is an acute lung disease of the newborn caused by surfactant deficiency. It is Seen primarily in neonates younger than 36-38 weeks of gestational age weighing less than 2500 gram.Objective:To find out the incidence, main risk factors of HMD, note the changes in serum calcium, potassium and sodium and to study the outcome of HMD during the period of the illness.Methods:A prospective study was performed on one hundred neonate admitted to the neonatal care unit in Al-Kadhimiya Teaching Hospital. Sex, gestational age, weight, mode of delivery, maternal illnesses were studied as risk factors. Serum calcium, Na and K were measured.Results:The incidence of RDS was 0.75% of total live births, 98(98%) of them were below 2.499 kilograms and less than 37 weeks of gestational age. Risk factors of RDS are male sex accounted for 61% of total cases. Cesarean sections were 28% of the total. Maternal diabetes mellitus represented 25%. Perinatal asphyxia was 22%. Familial predisposition had an incidence of 8% and finally prolonged rupture of membranes stood for 5%. Hypocalcaemia and hypokalemia were common with serum sodium was within the lower normal limits. The time of improvement for most babies (about 40%) was by day 4 of life. Mortality was 30% with the major percentage of death (which was 90%) was between day 1 and day 4.Conclusion: RDS occurs predominantly in premature babies as a main risk factor with male sex and cesarean sections. In addition to other risk factors such as maternal diabetes mellitus and perinatal asphyxia. Associated changes in serum electrolytes and serum calcium including hypocalcaemia, hypokalemia and lower normal serum sodium are common. The 4th day of life was the time of improvement for most babies while most of them who died did so by the first 4 days of life. Among the admitted babies, about third of them (actually 30%) died because of RDS.Key words: RDS, Gestational age, Mortality.

Keywords

RDS --- Gestational age --- Mortality


Article
Study of some risk factors of small for gestational age in term babies

Author: Adiba M. Murad
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 23-28
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Background: The most common definition of small for gestational age newborns refers to a birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age. Intrauterine growth retardation may be caused by maternal, placental, or fetal factors, however no underlying etiology can be identified in at least 40% of those infants. Objectives: To assess some of the risk factors of small for gestational age in full term neonates. Patients and methods: A case control study extended over seven months from 1st June 2012 to end of December 2012, which was performed in the delivery rooms and neonatal special care baby unit in AL-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital in Baghdad. Data was collected by direct interview of the mothers, including different variables of newborns gestational age, weight, sex, presence of congenital anomalies and multiple gestation. Mother's age, residency, parity, employment, smoking, family history of small for gestational age, history of still birth, antepartum hemorrhage, antenatal care visit, presence of urinary tract infection, chronic hypertension or gestational hypertension, diabetes mellitus and anemia were evaluated. In this study, 100 small for gestational age newborns and 100 appropriate for gestational age newborns were evaluated within the first day of life. Results: There was significant relationship between small for gestational age and mother's age ≤16year (p=0.004), employed mothers (p=0.039) and primipara (p=0.002). Deliveries of small for gestational age had a significant relationship with irregular antenatal care visit (p=0.0001), and with family history of small for gestational age (P=0.0001). Newborns of small for gestational age had a significant relationship with maternal history of antepartum hemorrhage (p=0.010), still birth (p=0.017), maternal history of urinary tract infection (P=0.036), maternal history of hypertension (p=0.003) and history of maternal anemia (p<0.001). Conclusions: There was a significant relationship between small for gestational age births and: maternal age, employment, antenatal care visit, parity, family history of small for gestational age, antepartum hemorrhage, still birth, maternal history of hypertension, urinary tract infection and anemia, but no significant relationship with the newborn's sex, residency and diabetes mellitus of mothers.


Article
Prevalence and severity of hypoglycemia in a sample of neonates in Erbil city
انتشار وشدة نقص السكر في الدم لدى عينة من الوليدين في مدينة أربيل

Authors: Abbas A. Al-Rabaty --- Dlair A.K. Chalabi --- Ahmed S. Rajab
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 1 Pages: 134-140
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Transient hypoglycemia may affect the newborn in the first hour of life and is the most prevalent metabolic disorder. The maternal-fetal diffusion that keeps the fetal glucose level nearly two thirds of the maternal glucose concentration. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of hypoglycemia and detect certain demographic and maternal factors that may be associated with and their relation to neonatal blood glucose level.Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Erbil Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil city during a period of 4 months, from February 1st to May 31st, 2013. A total of 400 newborns from the neonatal care unit and the delivery and waiting rooms were included in the study. All of them were less than 3 hours of age and didn’t receive oral feeding.Results: Among 400 neonates, 65 were hypoglycemic confirmed by serum sample with a prevalence of 16.25% during the first 3 hours. Most of the screened neonates were male (male: female ratio 1,45: 1). A highly significant association was found between neonatal hypoglycemia with preterm babies and hypoglycemic mother. Grand multiparity, low birth weight and head circumference also may predispose to hypoglycemia while mean length of affected babies was lower than the normoglycemic group. The severity of hypoglycemia was significantly associated with gestational age, birth weight and maternal serum glucose status.Conclusion: Hypoglycemia is present in relatively high frequency among newly born babies and certain factors like prematurity, low birth weight and maternal hypoglycemia can predict its occurrence and its severity.


Article
Risk Factors of Small for Gestational Age
عوامل الاختطار في تدني الوزن عند الولادة

Authors: Nahlah I. Al-Gabban د. نهلة الغبان --- Waleed A.T. Al-Ani د. وليد العاني
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2008 Volume: 21 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-5
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Objectives: A case-control study conducted in Al-Yarmouk & Al-Kadhmya Teaching Hospitals for the period from the 1st of March 2000 to the 28th of February 2001, to identify the risk factors for small for gestational age neonate in our hospitals.Method: The study was done in the delivery rooms & the intensive care units, detailed history; including mother health before & during pregnancy.100 small for gestational age neonate &100 normal were evaluated within the 1st hour of delivery. Risk factors include antenatal care, parity, birth order, exposure to radiation, drugs or smoking, placental infarction, previous history of abortion, stillbirth, or premature delivery, age of the mother & weight, history of toxemia, hypertension, & renal diseases.Result: Among the 100 small for gestational age neonates, we found 52% male &48% female; there is significant relation between small for gestational age & asymmetrical growth, with twin pregnancy, 62% in primigravida, was more in those with inadequate antenatal care 52%, with decrease placental size 40%. 33%had exposure to drugs & smoking. Small for gestational age was more with chronic illnesses, more with cesarean section, mothers who had low weight before pregnancy were at high risk to have small for gestational age neonate.Conclusion: SFD is associated with significant risk factors, which should be considered by both Obstetrician & Pediatrician to decrease the incidence of the problem.Keywords: Risk factors, small for gestational age.


Article
EFFECT OF MATERNAL HEMOGLOBIN ON ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS OF FULL TERM NEWLY BORN BABIES

Authors: Sabah M Ali صباح محسن علي --- Ali M Murad علي محمد مراد --- Adiba M Murad اديبة محمد مراد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 176-180
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Hemoglobin of the mother during pregnancy is well established to be contributors to abnormal prenatal development and pregnancy outcomes.Objectives:To study the effect of maternal anemia on anthropometric measurement of full term newly born babies.Methods:Two hundred pregnant women at time of delivery were investigated for their Hemoglobin. Their newborns were investigated for anthropometric measurement (weight, length, head circumference and chest circumference) immediately after birth. The questionnaire involved questions about age, parity, economy, educational level, and antenatal care of the mothers, and also sex, gestational age, anthropometric measures (weight, length, head circumference and chest circumference) and outcomes of the newborns.Results:From 200 pregnant women who were included in our study, 115 (57.5%) of them delivered by normal vaginal delivery and 85 (42.5%) delivered by caesarian section. Sixty (30%) of mothers were anemic. Five (2.5%) of the newborns were small for gestational age all of them from anemic mothers.Conclusion:Anemia affects neonatal outcomes in full term babies; full term babies of anemic mothers were in the normal anthropometric range, but they were much lower than babies of normal mothers.Keywords:Pregnancy, Anemia, Small for gestational age


Article
BODY MASS INDEX AND TOTAL SERUM LEPTIN LEVEL IN ABORTION

Authors: Nesreen A. Nasser نسرين احمد ناصر --- May F. Al-Habib مي فاضل ماجد الحبيب --- Rayah S. Baban ريا سليمان بابان
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 361-367
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background:Adipose tissue secretes variety of adipokines, including leptin, which is involved in endocrine processes regulating reproduction and plays an important role in energy metabolism and fetal development during pregnancy.Objectives:To investigate the relationship between total serum leptin concentrations and anthropometric parameters including body mass index (BMI) in aborted women at the second trimester.Methods:A case control study was carried out from November 2011 to April 2012. The patients' group includes 30 aborted women at the second trimester. They were collected from Al-Elweyia, Al-Hakeem and Al-Khadhemiyia Teaching Hospital in Baghdad. Thirty healthy pregnant women (at their second trimester of gestation) were used as control. Patients and control were comparable in age. Blood HbA1c and serum concentrations of total leptin, lipid profile, and glucose were measured in both groups.Results:Total serum leptin concentration were significantly lower in those with abortion at the second trimester compared with healthy pregnant control (3.5±0.8 pg/ml vs. 24.4±0.7 pg/ml, P = 0.0001) and leptin/BMI ratio vs. control (0.1±0.02 vs. 0.9±0.01 ml, P=0.0001). No correlation was found between leptin level and patient’s age or gestational age in the case group. Highly significant correlation was found between patient’s total serum leptin and their body mass index, HDL-C, total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio and atherogenic index (P < 0.0001).Conclusion:The significant correlation between patient’s leptin and their BMI in addition to Leptin/BMI ratio even in non obese patient supports our objective that the unexplained abortion at second trimester is due to abnormality in their metabolic hormone action and reflect leptin resistance condition.Keywords:Second trimester abortion, Leptin, BMI, Gestational age.


Article
Noise Reduction and Gestational Age Estimation for Ultrasound Fetuses Images.
الحد من الضوضاء وتقدير عمر الأجنة لصور الموجات فوق الصوتية.

Authors: Ebtesam F. Kanger ابتسام فاضل خنجر --- Ahlam A. Hussein احلام علي حسين
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2016 Volume: 57 Issue: 4B Pages: 2780-2789
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Ultrasound imaging is often preferred over other medical imaging modalities because it is non-invasive, non-ionizing, and low-cost. However, the main weakness of medical ultrasound image is the poor quality of images, due to presence of speckle noise and blurring. Speckle is characteristic phenomenon in ultrasound images, which can be described as random multiplicative noise that occurrence is often undesirable, since it affects the tasks of human interpretation and diagnosis. Blurring is a form of bandwidth reduction of an ideal image owing to the imperfect image formation process. Image denoising involves processing of the image data to produce a visually high quality image. The denoising algorithms may be classified into two categories, spatial filtering algorithms and transform domain based algorithms. In this work three adaptive filters are used to denoising speckle noise in ultrasonic (B-mode) images based on calculating the Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) value as a metric is presented, then estimated the gestation age from filtered images using MATLAB program, as well as using Wiener filter to restore the degradation images.

التصوير بالموجات فوق الصوتية غالباً ما يفضل على تقنيات التصوير الطبي الأخرى لأنها تقنيىة غيرظارة وغيرمؤينة ومنخفضة التكلفة. ان نقطة الضعف الرئيسية في الصور الطبية للموجات فوق الصوتية هي رداءة نوعية الصور وعدم وضوحها، وذلك بسبب وجود ضوضاء البقع واللطخ. ان ضوضاء البقع واللطخ هي ظاهرة مميزة في عملية التصوير بالموجات فوق الصوتية، والتي يمكن وصفها بأنها ضجيج عشوائي مضاعف ,وجود هذه الضوضاء امر غير مرغوب فيه لأنها تؤثر سلبآ في عملية التشخيص الطبي. ان تقليل ضوضاء الصورة تنطوي على معالجة بيانات الصورة لإنتاج صورة ذات جودة عالية بصريا. وخوارزميات ازالة العشوائية يمكن تصنيفها إلى فئتين، خوارزميات التصفية المكانية وخوارزميات تستند إلى مجال التحويل. في هذا العمل استخدمنا ثلاث انواع من الفلاتر لتقليل ضوضاء البقع واللطخ في صور الموجات فوق الصوتية B-mode)) استناداً إلى حساب متوسط مربع الخطأ (MSE) وذروة إشارة إلى قيمة نسبة الضوضاء ( PSNR) ، ثم خمنا عمر الجنين من الصور التي تمت فلترتها باستخدام برنامج الماتلاب. ايضآ استعملنا المرشح(Wiener) للتخلص من عدم وضوحية الصور.


Article
Risk Factors of Small for Gestational Age Newborn Babies

Authors: Numan Nafie Hameed --- Munib Ahmed ALZubaidi --- Sajjad H.Kadhim
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 54-60
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:The most common definition of Small for gestational age (SGA) newborns refers to a birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age. Intrauterine growth retardation(IUGR) may be caused by maternal, placental, or fetal factors. However, no underlying etiology can be identified in at least 40 % of SGA infants.OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the risk factors of SGA births in a sample of Iraqi term newborns.PATIENTS& METHODS:A case control study extended over eight months from Dec. first 2007 to July 31st, 2008 . In this study, 100 SGA newborns &100 control newborns evaluated within the first day of life.This study was performed in delivery rooms &neonatal special care birth unit in Baghdad Teaching Hospital in Medical City . Data were collected by direct interview of the mothers. Data included different variables related to mothers & neonates.RESULTS:There was a significant relationship between SGA births & maternal urinary tract infections (OR=5.231, P<0.0001) & with antepartum hemorrhage (8.6 time risk ,0R=8.609, P=0.0349).The majority of SGA newborns(15%) occurred in multiple pregnancies (OR=17.471, P=0.0003). SGA newborns were more common among non employed mothers (OR=2.100, P=0.0355).Also SGA newborns had significant relationships with mothers not attended antenatal care (OR=3.648, P=0.0001),those with maternal history of SGA births (OR=15.474, P<0.0001) , those mothers with anemia (OR=5.532, P<0.0001) & lastly with mothers suffering from hypertension (OR=8.877, P<0.0001).CONCLUSION:There was significant relationship between SGA births and :Multiple pregnancies& maternal history of SGA births, mothers suffering from hypertension& maternal history of APH and maternal anemia& UTI, mother not attended antenatal clinic & with no employment.


Article
Use of colon caliber diameter as auxiliary method in pregnancy dating between 34-40 weeks of gestation

Author: Wisam Akram1
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 52-57
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Objective: to verify whether fetal colon caliber correlate with gestational age from 34 to 40 weeks of gestation and to develop equation and chart which can be used for pregnancy dating by measuring colon caliber. Methods: a total of 220 healthy pregnant women whose age range from 18- 35 years were collected. They were distributed as 30 patients for each of the following gestational ages 34, 35, 36,37,38,39 weeks and 40 patients for 40 weeks of gestation. Their head circumference, abdominal circumference, bi-parietal diameter and femoral lengths were assessed by ultrasound. In addition colon caliber was assessed in the transverse colon. Result: there was a highly significant correlation between colon caliber and gestational age in days. In addition a highly significant correlation between colon caliber and bi-parietal diameter, femoral length, head circumference and abdominal circumference were found with P values < 0.0001. A formula was developed to calculate gestational age directly from the fetal colon caliber alone. The equation accuracy was checked by Kappa- Cohen coefficient and found to be 0.71 indicating good predicative ability of this formula. Conclusions: despite a new easy to use formula and associated easy to use chart was developed yet we call for extreme caution in its use as we don’t know its significance in real life obstetrical world. Further studies are required to confirm its reliability and safety


Article
The Effect of Weight and Gestational age on Neonatal Mortality
تأثير الوزن والعمر على الوفيات لحديثي الولادة

Authors: Lamia Abdul Karim لمياء عبد الكريم --- Sabeeha Al-Mafraji. صبيحه
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2006 Volume: 19 Issue: 4 Pages: 286-290
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract:Background: neonatal mortality has progressively declined in recent decades, this depend primarily on preventing the low birth weight infants, prenatal diagnosing and early treatment of diseases that result from factors during gestation and delivery.Patients & methods: retrospective study was done in the nursery unit at Al- Kadhimia Teaching Hospital to study the risk factors of neonatal mortality; we study the birth weight, the gestation age and sex as risk factors during the period 1997-2000.Results: The total no. of admission to NCU (Nursery care unit) was 1264 newborn baby, the no. of death was 402 cases, and most of these cases 341 were below 2.500 kg. The higher mortality occurs in newborn with gestation age 28- 32 weeks mostly among males in all gestational age and birth weight.Conclusion: birth weight and gestational age consider the major determinants of neonatal death, the lower the birth weight and gestational age the higher the mortality.

الملخص:المقدمة: شهدت العقود الماضية انخفاض في وفيات حديثي الولادة وهذا نتيجة التحوط من الولادة المبكرة ومنع وتشخيص وعلاج الأمراض التي تنتج من العوامل المسببة خلال فترة الحمل والولادة .المرضى وطريقة العمل : تمت دراسة راجعة للأطفال حديثي الولادة في مستشفى الكاظمية التعليمي ودراسة العوامل ذات الخطورة لحدوث الوفاة عند الأطفال حديثي الولادة بدراسة الوزن والعمر بالأسابيع والجنس للفترة بين 1997-2000.النتائج: عدد الدخول في وحدة حديثي الولادة كان 1264حالة وكان عدد الوفيات 402حالة .أكثر هذه الحالات 341كان دون ال 2500غرام والأطفال دون ال1500غرام هم الأكثر خطورة و أعلى مستوى للوفيات للأعمار 28-32 أسبوع . اكثر هذه الوفيات كانت بين الذكور لكل الأعمار والأوزان .الاستنتاج: الوزن والعمر تعتبر من العوامل الرئيسية المحددة للوفاة وكلما نقص الوزن والعمر زادت نسبة الوفيات.

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