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Article
COMPARISON STUDY OF TWO PCR PROTOCOL (DIRECT AMPLIFICATION AND NESTED) FOR QULITATIVE MEASUREMENT OF HEPATITIS B VIRAL DNA
دراسة مقارنة لتقنيتي تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل PCR (المباشر والمتداخل)المستخدمة في تشخيص نوعي دنا فايروس إلتهاب الكبد البائي

Author: آمنة نعمة الثويني
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 595-601
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study investigated thirty patients with chronic hepatitis B who were admitted to Hepatology and Gastroenterology Teaching Hospital in Baghdad, aged from 20-65 years during the period from beginning of February 2008 to the end of February 2009. The patients were suffering from different clinical symptoms with previous risk factors for transmission of HBV infection, also blood samples were collected from thirty healthy HBs Ag carrier was discovered accidentally through attending blood bank for donation of blood, aged from 18-52 years and served as a control group. A cross sectional study was conducted in the period between beginning of February 2008 to the end of February 2009.The establishment of the molecular techniques for identified HBV DNA in chronic patients and carrier group gives an obvious image especially when uses the Nested PCR. The current results confirm that a nested PCR protocol is more sensitive method to detect HBV DNA than PCR direct protocol. The positively of HBV DNA in carrier group and chronic group reached to 46.7% and 30.0%, respectively by employing direct protocol. Whereas, HBV DNA is 100% in both groups by Nested protocol with significant difference (p=0.001).

شملت الدراسة 30 مريضاً مصاباً بإلتهاب الكبد الفايروسي المزمن نوع (ب) و30 فرداً من الأصحاء الحاملين للمستضد السطحي لفايروس إلتهاب الكبد نمط ( ب) من المراجعين للمستشفى التعليمي لأمراض الجهاز الهضمي والكبد في بغداد ومصرف الدم المركزي في بغداد للمدة من الأول من شباط 2008 ولغاية نهاية شباط 2009. تراوحت أعمارالمرضى المصابين بإلتهاب الكبد الفايروسي المزمن نوع (ب) 20-65 سنة، وتتراوح أعمار الأصحاء الحاملين للمستضد السطحي لفايروس إلتهاب الكبد نمط ( ب) بين 18-52 سنة. وكان المرضى المزمنين يعانون من اعراض مختلفة مع وجود عوامل خطورة سابقة لحدوث الإصابة. أكدت النَتائِج الحالية بأن تقنية تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل نوع Nested أكثر حسّاسية من تقنية تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل المباشر Direct في تشخيص دنا الفايروس، إذ كانت نسبة الحامض النووي الرايبوزي منقوص الأوكسجين 100% لدى المرضى المزمنين و الحاملين الأصحاء بإستخدام تقنية تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل نوع Nested وبنسبة %30.0و %46.7 لدى المرضى المزمنين والأصحاء الحاملين على التوالي بإستخدام تقنية تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل المباشر مع وجود فرق احصائي (P=0.001).


Article
Patients with Childhood Leukemia are at High Risk for Transfusion-Transmitted HBV and HCV Infections

Author: Ruqia M. Al-Barzinji
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2006 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Pages: 442-446
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:This work presents estimation to the number of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among polytransfused leukemic children, who received chemotherapy.METHODS:A total of 88 serum specimens were collected from children with leukemia aged between 1-12 years (60 males and 28 females), attending Al-Mansoor Teaching Hospital, seen during the period from January to October 2004 to determine if the patients with childhood leukemia are at high risk for transfusion- transmitted HBV and HCV infections. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was used to determined infected and non infected individuals.RESULTS:Out of the 88 children studied, Hbs Ag was detected in 18 (20.45%) including 12 (66.6%) males and 6 (33.3%) females, whereas anti HCV was detected only in 4 (4.54%) children including 3 (75%) males and 1 (25%) female. The peak prevalence of HBV infection was recorded in children of age 9-12 years and reached (23.33%) while in HCV the peak prevalence was in age group (6-9), being (66.6).CONCLUSION:In this study, the prevalence of anti HCV and Hbs Ag were high in patients who were treated for children leukemia. The high incidence of hepatitis infections was recorded in polytransfused leukemic children.

Keywords

HBV --- HCV --- Leukemia --- Children


Article
First Report of Entecavir and Tenofovir Resistance in Iraq for Chronic Hepatitis B Patients

Author: Abeer A. Marhoon1 , Mohammed I. Altaai1 , Abbas M. Ahmed2
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2018 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 36-41
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The primary goal of therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is to prevent liver disease progression. In patients with drug-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV), a combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and entecavir (ETV), which is strongest combination therapy against HBV. However, long-term tolerance data are lacking, and cost may be an issue for combination therapies. Several, well-designed, randomized controlled trials have shown that TDF monotherapy provides similar antiviral efficacy compared with the combination of TDF and ETV. Mutations in the polymerase (Pol) gene of hepatitis B virus (HBV) are often associated with drug resistance. The pattern of mutations varies geographically, thus giving rise to infection to HBV diversity. This study was carried out to detect mutations in Pol gene of hepatitis B virus isolated from CHB Iraqi patients. Selected 20 CHB patients who's had highly viral load after treatment course (6 months) were analyzed by PCR and sequencing, also S202GCI mutation was most frequently detected 9/20 (45%) and followed by M204V/I/S (40%), L180M (35%), M250V/I/L and A181T/V (30%), T184SCGA, N236T and A194T (25%), T184ILFM (10%). T184SCGA, T184ILFM, S202GCI and M250V/I/L mutations association with Entecavir resistance, A194T mutation association with Tenofovir resistance and L180M, A181T/V, M204V/I/S and N236T mutations association with multi –drug resistance.

Keywords

Pol --- CHB --- HBV --- Tenofovir .


Article
Molecular Diagnosis in Differentiating Active and Inactive Forms of Hepatitis B Virus Carriers

Authors: Salah Tofik Jalal Balaky --- Saeed Ghulam Hussain --- Amer Ali KhaleelcFurat Tahseen Sabeer --- Ahang Hasan Mawlood
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2018 Volume: 26 Issue: 10 Pages: 41-45
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Background & objectives:Introducing a nucleic acid test program is aimed to diagnose and reduces the risk of viral infection or transmission. DNA assay for HBV can detect infection in the windows period, chronic occult infection and can discriminate between active and inactive HBV infection. This cross-sectional study designed to diagnose, analyze HBV infection and to differentiate active from inactive infection based on viral DNA detection.Methods: Blood samples were collected from 256 patients previously diagnosed on the clinical ground as hepatitis B seropositive in Erbil Central Lab. The viral nucleic acid quantitative assessment was done for the collected samples using RT-PCR. Q-square was performed for statistical analysis. Results: Out of 256 collected blood samples 93 (36.3%) showed HBV-DNA positive titers above 50 IU/ml. Among positive subjects, 67 (72.04%) was categorized as inactive carriers (˂ 2000-20.000 IU/ml HBV-DNA titers). Conclusions:The data produced from this study confirmed the importance of the RT-PCR technique in sensitivity and reliability as a superior diagnostics tool specifically in differentiating active from inactive HBV carriers.

الهدف: استخدام برنامج اختبار الحامض النووي لغرض تشخيص العدوى الفيروسية وتقليل انتقالها. ان فحص الحامض النووي الرايبوزى منقوص الاوكسجين لفايروس التهاب الكبد نمط B.يمكن استخدامه في تشخيص العدوى من خلال فترة النافذة والمزمنة الغامض ايضا، اضافة الى ذلك استخدام هذه الطريقة تودئ الى تشخيص النوع الفعال وغير الفعال للفايروس. اجريت هذه الدراسة المقطعية لتشخيص وتحليل عدوى فايروس التهاب الكبد نمط B والتميز بين الشكل فعال وغير فعال اعتمادا على الفحص النووي المكتشفة.الطرائق: تم جمع256عينة الدم من اشخاص تعرضوا سابقا للاصابة بفايروس التهاب الكبد نمط B وارجعوا مختبر الصحة العامة المركزي في اربيل. تم استخدام طريقة تقنية عكس رد الفعل الناسخ البلمرة المتسلسلRT-PCR لغرض التشخيص الكمي للحامض النووي الرايبوزى منقوص الاوكسجين. حللت النتائج الدراسية الحالية اخصائيا باستخدام اختبار Q-square.النتائج: اظهرت النتائج ان 93 (36.3٪) عينة دم من مجموع 256 عينة تحمل قياس تاثير اعلى من 50 وحدة دولية لكل مل من ضمن الاشخاص الحاملين للفايروس. 67 شخص صنفوا على انهم حامل لفايروس اقل 2000-20.000 وحدة دولية/ مل.الاستنتاجات: اظهرت الدراسة الحالية اهمية استخدام تقنية عكس رد الفعل الناسخ البلمرة المتسلسل RT-PCR في حساسيتها وقوتها كاداة معتمدة للتشخيص وخاصة التميز بين الحالة الفعالة وغير الفعالة لحاملي فايروس نمط B.


Article
Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Prevalence Among Screened Populations and Certain risk Groups in AL-Anbar Governorate, West of Iraq
مدى انتشار المستضد السطحي للفايروس ب في محافظة الانبار بين المجموعات التي تم فحصها

Author: Yasin. H. Majeed ياسين حمد مجيد
Journal: Al- Anbar Medical Journal مجلة الأنبار الطبية ISSN: PISSN: 27066207 / EISSN: 26643154 Year: 2016 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 14-19
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

Background:- Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a worldwide problem, two billion people have been infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 360 million have chronic infection and 600,000 die each year from HBV related liver disease or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aim of the study: This study aims to determine the prevalence of the HB virus in AL-Anbar Governorate among screened groups.Patients and methods:-This is a retrospective study conducted and achieved in Al-Anbar Central Laboratory during the period from January to December 2012. Requestionary sheet include age, sex and residency were recorded. The sera from study group individuals were submitted for screening by preliminary screening test, dipstick immunoassay which depends on immune-chromatography for detection of hepatitis B virus. After that all hepatitis B positive sera were examined for the presence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 1-Blood donors 2-Routine screened populations which include [before marriage, vaccination, endoscopical and dental procedure]. And 3- Among certain risk groups which include pregnant women, midwife, health worker and contacts [persons who in contact with positive HBsAg]. Results:- The prevalence of HBsAg among blood donor was 1.25% and among certain risk groups include pregnant women was 0.46%, health worker was 0.28%, non-urgent operation was 0.63%, midwife 0.64%, contacts were 0.97%. While the prevalence among routine screened populations were 12.39%. Conclusion: - The prevalence of hepatitis B surface Ag is high among routine screened population and low among certain high risk groups. Although there is discrepancy between these two groups HBV screening is highly recommended.

الخلفية : التهاب الكبد الفايروسي نوع ب مشكلة عالمية المصابين به حوالي ٢بليون حوالي ٣٦٠ مليون منهم يعانون من التهاب الكبد المزمن و٦٠٠ الف يموتون سنوياالأهداف : تهدف هذه الدراسة الى تحديد مدى انتشار الفايروس ب في محافظه الانبار بين المجموعات التي تم فحصها مواد وطريقة البحث : معلومات هذه الدراسة تم الحصول على معلوماتها من مختبر الصحة المركزي في الرمادي عام ٢٠١٢تم تسجيل إعمار وجنس المجموعات المفحوصين. تم اجراء الفحص الروتيني لمصل المجموعات لغرض التأكد من وجود المستضد السطحي بعدها تم اجراء فحص الاليزة للعينات الموجبة وشملت الدراسة متبرعين الدم والفحص الروتيني والذي يشمل (قبل الزواج قبل التطعيم ضد التهاب الكبد الفايروسي ب. وقبل فحص الناظور والأسنان) والمجموعة الاخرى وتشمل الحوامل والكادر الصحي والقابلات والملامسين النتائج : كانت النتائج كما يلي نسبه انتشار المستضد السطحي عند متبرعي الدم 1.25%وعند الحوامل 0.46% وعند الكادر الصحي 0.28% وعند الذين اجريت لهم عمليات جراحيه غير طارئة 0.63% وعند القابلات 0.64% وعند الملامسين 0.97% ولدى المفحوصين روتينيا 12.39% . الاستنتاجات: انتشار المستضد السطحي للكبد الفايروسي ب عالي عند المجموعات المفحوصين روتينيا وواطئ عند المجموعات الاخرى التي هيه اكثر عرضه للإصابة على الرغم من ذلك فان فحص المستضد السطحي مطلوب


Article
Real Time PCR as a Diagnostic Tool for HBV Infection in Iraq

Author: Mohammed Ghanim
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 146-150
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT :BACKGROUND:HBV infection is a worldwide infectious disease that acutely infects 2 billion yearly, thus finding a precise, accurate and sensitive diagnostic test for this infection is highly advisable. Real Time PCR has been introduced to achieve that mission.OBJECTIVE:Confirm the role of Real Time PCR as a precise tool for diagnosis of HBV infection in Iraq.PATIENTS AND METHODS:In this study, 40 patients of HBV with HBs Antigen positive serological test and 20 individuals with HBs Antigen negative were selected to be the material of the study and they were tested by Real Time PCR to estimate the exact amount of HBV genome in their blood.RESULTS:All the cases with HBs Antigen positive have had viral load with different values and no case with HBs Antigen negative have been found to have any viral element.CONCLUSION:Real Time PCR is useful and precise tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with HBV infection and further studies are required to find a useful classification of the viral load and a correlation need to be found between viral load and the serological panel and especially HBe Antigen and HBe Antibody

Keywords

real time pcr --- hbv --- diagnosis


Article
Detection of HBs-Ags in sera of hepatitis B virus infected patients
الكشف عن HBS-قسم الخدمات الزراعية في مصل فيروس التهاب الكبد B المرضى المصابين

Author: IMAD S. MAHMOUD
Journal: The Medical Journal of Tikrit مجلة تكريت الطبية ISSN: 16831813 Year: 2013 Volume: 19 Issue: 2 Pages: 280-285
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Objective and background: this study is aiming to evaluate the prevalence of HBV among patients attending AL-Ramadi Hospital for cases of hepatitis HBV is worldwide distributed and it is the etiological agent of acute and chronic liver disease in human. Two hundred and ninety four serum samples were the subject of this study in which each serum sample was subjected to two well-known serological methods for detection of HBs-Ag i.e. Health mate and HBs-Ag ELISA kits. Out of the total number (294) of serum samples it has been found that 96 serum were positive (32.7%) for HBs-Ag while 198 serum were negative (67.4%). It has been found also that HBs-Ag were higher in male (40.8%) than female (26.6%) in age group of 21-30 years of age. It is concluded that HBV is prevalent in age group less than 20 years (32.7%) while it is least in age group > 60 years (4.4%) and that age and gender can be considered as two important risk factors in acquiring HBV.

الهدف والخلفية: هذه الدراسة تهدف الى تقييم مدى انتشار الالتهاب الكبدي الوبائي بين المرضى المترددين على مستشفى الرمادي لحالات التهاب الكبد HBV يتم توزيعها في جميع أنحاء العالم وهذا هو العامل المسبب للمرض من أمراض الكبد الحادة والمزمنة في الإنسان. مئتان وأربعة وتسعون عينات مصل موضوع هذه الدراسة التي تعرض كل عينة المصل إلى طريقتين المصلية المعروفة للكشف عن HBS-حج أي الصحة زميله وHBS-حج مجموعات ELISA. من العدد الإجمالي (294) من عينات المصل وقد وجد أن 96 كانت إيجابية المصل (32.7٪) لHBS-حج بينما كانت 198 مصل السلبية (67.4٪). وقد وجد أيضا أن HBS-حج كانت أعلى في الذكور (40.8٪) من الإناث (26.6٪) في الفئة العمرية من 21-30 سنة من العمر. وخلص إلى أن HBV هو السائد في الفئة العمرية أقل من 20 سنة (32.7٪)، في حين أنه هو الأقل في الفئة العمرية> 60 عاما (4.4٪) وذلك العمر والجنس يمكن اعتبار اثنين من عوامل الخطر الهامة في الحصول على HBV.

Keywords

HBV --- HBs-Ag --- HBs-Ab.


Article
Incidence of HBV among Patients fromMaxillofacial Clinic in Ramadi Teaching Hospital

Authors: Dr. Hala F. Ahmed. د. هالة احمد --- Dr. Dunia W.S. AL- Fayad. * د.دنيا فياض
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2011 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 45-49
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem, occurring endemically in allareas of the world. Unlike hepatitis A, hepatitis B does not generally spread throughwater & food. Instead, it is transmitted through body fluids; prevention is thus theavoidance of such transmission. This study included a total of 43patients whoattended outpatient's maxillofacial clinic, in Ramadi Teaching Hospital, Ramadi city.Results showed that out of the 43 patients 3 cases turned out to be Hbs Ag positive.Contact with blood and blood products, or contaminated saliva, surgeons and dentistsare more at risk of this is a first investigation into the prevalence of acquiring HBV.All unvaccinated adults are at risk for HBV infection should be vaccinated. HepatitisB vaccine is made from a part of the hepatitis B virus.


Article
Prevalence of Antibodies to Hepatitis B Virus Antigens and Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Blood Donors

Author: Abdulrazak SH. Hasan عبد الرزاق شفيق حسن
Journal: Diyala Journal of Medicine مجلة ديالى الطبية ISSN: 97642219 Year: 2012 Volume: 3 Issue: 1 Pages: 57-61
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Background: Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the presence of HBV DNA in liver tissue and/or in serum in the absence of detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). It is a world-wide entity that is considered as a potential risk for transmission of HBV infection.Objectives: This study was aimed to determine the rate of occult HBV infection among unpaid blood donors in Diyala province-Iraq.Subjects and methods: This study was conducted for the period from 1st. May 2011 to 1st. April 2012. A total of 186 unpaid blood donors were chosen by simple random selection from those attending the Central Blood Bank in the Public Health Laboratory in Diyala province. 171 (91.9%) were male and 15 (8.1%) were female. The age range was 19-60 years. Sera of blood donors were subjected for HBsAg screening test, anti-HBs antibody, anti-HBc IgM antibody by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), as well as detection of HBV DNA by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Data were statistically analyzed.Results: The positivity rate of HBsAg, anti-HBc IgM and HBV DNA were 4.3%, 3.2% and 8.1%. Among the HBsAg negative blood donors, the HBc IgM positivity rate were 3.4% and the HBV DNA was detected in 3.9% (occult HBV). Conclusion: The relatively high rate of occult hepatitis B viral infection among blood donors may be responsible, at least in part, for the perpetuation of the infection in the community.Keywords: Occult HBV, Anti-HBc IgM, HBV DNA, blood donors.

خلفية: التهاب الكبد B الغامض فيروس (HBV) هو وجود DNA في أنسجة الكبد HBV و / أو في مصل الدم في حالة عدم وجود مستضد التهاب الكبد كشف السطح B (HBsAg و). بل هو كيان في جميع أنحاء العالم التي تعتبر خطرا محتملا لانتقال عدوى فيروس التهاب الكبد نوع B.الأهداف: تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى تحديد معدل الإصابة HBV غامض بين المتبرعين بالدم غير المدفوعة في محافظة ديالى العراقية.المواضيع والأساليب: قد أجريت هذه الدراسة للفترة من 1. مايو 2011 إلى 1st. أبريل 2012. وقد تم اختيار ما مجموعه 186 المتبرعين بالدم غير المدفوعة عن طريق الانتقاء العشوائي البسيط من أولئك الذين يحضرون بنك الدم المركزي في مختبر الصحة العامة في محافظة ديالى. وكانت 171 (91.9٪) من الذكور و 15 (8.1٪) من الإناث. كان الفئة العمرية 19-60 عاما. وتعرض سيرا من المتبرعين بالدم ل HBsAg اختبار الفرز، ومكافحة هبس الأجسام المضادة، ومكافحة فيروس الكبد الضد IgM بواسطة الاليزا (ELISA)، وكذلك الكشف عن الحمض النووي HBV بواسطة تفاعل البلمرة سلسلة التقليدية (PCR) التقنية. وقد تم تحليل البيانات إحصائيا.النتائج: كانت نسبة إيجابية من HBsAg و، الغلوبولين المناعي المضادة للمستضد اللب وDNA HBV 4.3٪، 3.2٪ و 8.1٪. بين المتبرعين بالدم HBsAg سلبي، كانت إيجابية الغلوبولين المناعي مستضد اللب معدل 3.4٪ وتم الكشف عن الحمض النووي HBV في 3.9٪ (غامض HBV).الاستنتاج: قد يكون معدل عال نسبيا من الإصابة بالتهاب الكبد الفيروسي B غامض بين المتبرعين بالدم تكون مسؤولة، جزئيا على الأقل، من أجل بقاء العدوى في المجتمع.كلمات البحث: الغيبيات HBV، نظام مضاد للمستضد اللب الغلوبولين المناعي، HBV DNA، المتبرعين بالدم.


Article
Sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors of hepatitis B and C among Iraqi health care workers

Author: Jalil I. Al-Mashhadani * MB ChB, MSc, PhD د. جلال المشهداني
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 3 Pages: 308-311
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:Background: Many workers have described the prevalence of HBV markers and anti-HCV among selected populations including health care personnel in Iraq. The purpose of this study is to describe the demographic characteristics and risk factors of hepatitis B and C in a sample of Iraqi health care workers (HCWs).Materials and methods: A total of 1656 HCWs selected from Baghdad city was included in this study. A questionnaire form was filled for each HCW by direct interview. The data requested included demographic characteristics and risk factors of exposure to HBV and HCV. HCWs were screened for the presence of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HCV.Results: A higher prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HCV was demonstrated among males (7.8%, 44.7% and 2.13%, respectively) than females (3.3%, 34.8% and 0.99%, respectively). The HBsAg carrier rates were decreasing with advancing age, while anti-HBs and anti-HCV showed an increase with advancing age. A higher rate of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HCV was detected among HCWs from low socioeconomic level than those from high socioeconomic level. Health personnel who had a personal history of hepatitis were more likely to be HBsAg positive than those without such a risk factor and HCWs with personal or family history of hepatitis were more likely to have anti-HBs than those without such risk factors. Health personnel with personal history of hepatitis or blood transfusion had significantly higher prevalence of anti-HCV when compared with those without such risk factors.Conclusion: This study indicates that non-paranteral route is the major route of transmission of HBV infection, while paranteral route is the major route for transmission of HCV among the health personnel.Keywords: Health care workers, HBV, HCV, Iraq

Keywords

Health care workers --- HBV --- HCV --- Iraq

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