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Article
13- HEPATIC TUBERCULOSIS: A REPORT OF TWO CASES

Authors: Mohammed H Saeed --- Hashim S Khayat
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2008 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 62-65
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

During the second half of the 20th century, as a result of improved nutrition, reduced crowding,public health measures, and effective chemotherapy, a dramatic decrease in the incidence oftuberculosis was seen in the world. But in recent years, increased incidence of tuberculosis hasbeen attributed to several causes, including AIDS epidemic, intravenous drug abuse andincrease in the number of immunocompromised. Hepatic tuberculosis is the most commonmanifestation of upper abdominal parenchymatous organ tuberculosis and its incidence hasbeen increasing. Lack of familiarity with this condition was apparently responsible for thediagnosis of hepatic tuberculosis being made at autopsy or surgery in the past. Sincetuberculosis remains a potentially curable disease, an awareness of its protean manifestationsis essential.

Keywords

HEPATIC --- TUBERCULOSIS


Article
Etiology & Prognostic Factors of Fulminant Hepatic Failure In Children (A Hospital –Based Study)

Authors: Sawsan I. Al-Azzawi --- Mohammad F. Ibraheem --- Rasha Kasim Mohammad
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 26-31
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is one of the most challenging pediatric emergencies encountered in clinical practice and encompasses a pattern of clinical symptoms and pathophysiological responses associated with the rapid arrest of normal hepatic function. Major differences exist in etiology of FHF between western & eastern countries.OBJECTIVE:To study etiologies, prognostic factors and the outcome of Fulminant Hepatic Failure in a sample of Iraqi children.PATIENTS AND METHODS:A prospective study was done on (31) patients with (FHF) admitted to the Gastroenterology and Hepatology unit in Children Welfare Teaching Hospital (During the period from January 2010- January 2011). The patients referred to our center from all over Iraq.The diagnosis of FHF was based on the presence of biochemical evidence of acute liver injury (elevated plasma transaminases), associated with PT > 15 seconds, not corrected by vitamin K, in the presence of clinical hepatic encephalopathy, or PT > 20 seconds with or without clinical hepatic encephalopathy in a patient previously healthy or have well compensated liver disease. Detailed history, clinical examination, routine biochemical parameters, and relevant diagnostic test carried out to all patients.RESULTS:During the study period, (31) patients admitted with the diagnosis of FHF. Eighteen males (58.1%) and 13 females (41.9%), the most common affected age group was toddlers. The mean age of the study population was (2.93± 1.06).The most common etiology was viral in 15(48.3%) cases. {10(32.2%) had HAV}, 3(18%) had HBV, and 2(6.5%) had HEV} viruses, 2(6.5%) had CMV & 1(3.2%) had herpes virus hepatitis. Two (6.5%) had Galactosemia, 2(6.5%) had Wilson's disease and 2(6.5%) had autoimmune hepatitis. Etiology could not be established in 5(16.1%) of cases .Twenty patients died with death rate of (64.5%).CONCLUSION:The study indicates that Hepatitis A was the most common cause of FHF with high mortality rate. Those who died were younger, suffered GI bleeding, a higher grade of encephalopathy, longer duration of illness before onset of encephalopathy, prothrombin time > 41seconds, had higher bilirubin & lower SGPT, lower albumin, & lower blood sugar.


Article
A comparison of the effects of valsartan and captopril monotherapy on hepatic enzymes activities

Author: Ashraf H. Ahmed اشرف هاشم احمد
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2006 Volume: 32 Issue: 1&2 Pages: 63-66
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Objective: This study was conducted to assess the effect of valsartan and captopril, each as monotherapy in hypertensive patients, on hepatic enzymes activities including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP).
Patients and methods: Thirty nine hypertensive patients were included in the study, 20 of them using captopril and 19 using valsartan. Serum ALT, AST, and ALP activities were measured before and after 2 months of starting treatment.
Results: Patients on captopril showed significantly increased mean level of ALT and AST (P<0.001),( although still within normal limits) while mean ALP levels showed no significant difference. In the valsartan group, mean ALT, AST and ALP values showed insignificant differences.
Conclusion: In hypertensive patients with liver disease, valsartan may be more suitable than captopril for the potential influence of the latter on serum transaminase levels.

Keywords: captopril, valsartan, hepatic enzymes activities.


Article
Extrahepatic Biliary Tract Injuries

Author: Gasan Al-Quzweeny
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 13-16
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background Extra hepatic biliary tract (EBT) injuries are injuries that involve the gall bladder (GB), the common hepatic (CHD) and the common bile ducts (CBD). They are rarely encountered during external abdominal traumas. They are serious and associated with high morbidity and mortality when the ductal system is involved and because of the associated visceral and vascular injuries and thus they need special care to be diagnosed early, and managed properly. Objectives: To study the incidence, clinical presentation, management, and complications of extrahepatic biliary tract injuries. Methods Retrospective review was done for all the patients who had laparotomy for their abdominal traumas during a year at Al Yarmouk Teaching Hospital with special emphasis on extrahepatic biliary tract injuries. Results Nearly 700 people had severe abdominal injuries necessitating an explorative laparotomy for their management. Out of this number only 8 definite extrahepatic biliary tract injuries were discovered. 6 of them had cholecystectomy and 2 had biliary ductal injuries for which drainage was the major step in their management. 4 cases were labeled to have missed EBT injuries. Conclusion Extrahepatic biliary injuries are rare coincidences on exploring traumatized abdomen. They are serious injuries associated with high morbidity and mortality when the ductal system is involved and are usually accompanied by severe other visceral injuries. Their management should be done by the most senior surgeon and if possible in a well equipped center.

Keywords

extra‐hepatic --- biliary --- injuries --- Iraq


Article
Extrahepatic Biliary Tract Injuries

Author: Gasan Al-Quzweeny
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 13-16
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Extra hepatic biliary tract (EBT) injuries are injuries that involve the gall bladder (GB), the common hepatic (CHD) and the common bile ducts (CBD). They are rarely encountered during external abdominal traumas. They are serious and associated with high morbidity and mortality when the ductal system is involved and because of the associated visceral and vascular injuries and thus they need special care to be diagnosed early, and managed properly.Objectives: To study the incidence, clinical presentation, management, and complications of extrahepatic biliary tract injuries. Methods: Retrospective review was done for all the patients who had laparotomy for their abdominal traumas during a year at Al Yarmouk Teaching Hospital with special emphasis on extrahepatic biliary tract injuries.Results: Nearly 700 people had severe abdominal injuries necessitating an explorative laparotomy for their management. Out of this number only 8 definite extrahepatic biliary tract injuries were discovered. 6 of them had cholecystectomy and 2 had biliary ductal injuries for which drainage was the major step in their management. 4 cases were labeled to have missed EBT injuries.Conclusion: Extrahepatic biliary injuries are rare coincidences on exploring traumatized abdomen. They are serious injuries associated with high morbidity and mortality when the ductal system is involved and are usually accompanied by severe other visceral injuries. Their management should be done by the most senior surgeon and if possible in a well equipped center.

Keywords

extra-hepatic --- biliary --- injuries --- Iraq


Article
STUDY OF PATHOLOGIC CHANGES IN COLLIBASILOSIS OF MEDITERRANEAN SEAGULL ( Loras melonocephalus ) AT BASRAH PROVINCE
دراسة التغيرات الامراضيه في النوارس المصابه بالكوليباسلوسسز في مدينة البصرة

Author: -Majeed S. K. صالح كاظم مجيدٍ
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: 18138497 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 239-245
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Hepatic granuloma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a granulomatous reaction. A total of ( 5 ) seagull birds were collected from different locales at Basrah city under this study with clinical signs anroxia and maciatiun.The pathological sections showed many changes; presence of scattered granuloma in the parenchyma mostly midzonal and in periportal regions. Those granulomas consist of macrophages with central necrosis, some of those macrophages were with epithelial appearance or what is called epithelioid cells.In conclusion the hepatic granulomas under this study suspected to be caused by infection with E. coli.


Article
CHOOSING OF SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS AND HEPATIC ENZYMES AS INDICATORS FOR RADIATION EXPOSURE IN EXPERIMENTAL RABBITS
اختيار بعض مقاييس الدموية والانزيمات الكبدية كموشر للتعرض للاشعاع في الارانب المختبرية

Author: Hanaa Salman Kadhim هناء سلمان كاظم
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: 18138497 Year: 2006 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 37-43
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Injection of l mg / kg of uranyle acetate caused an obvious changes in the numbers of white bloodcells with progressing time ofexperiment, specially in the numbers of neutropiiiles and monocytes whichdecreased significantly, while the numbers of eosinophiles has increased significantly after the first weekof injection and then decreased significantly in the 2nd and 3rd week of exposure as compared withcontrol group. Also, the injection caused significant decreasing in Hb and PCV values, while theactivities of hepatic enzymes GPT, and GOT were not affected in comparison with control group.. So, it may be useful to use this variation of WBC percentage as a primary indication to persons who Dexposed to different doses of radioactive compound


Article
Laparoscopic Management of Hepatic Hydatid Cysts in Kerbala

Author: Abdulrazzak Kalaf Hassan
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2015 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 2085-2092
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Hydatid disease is a common problem in Iraq and Surgery is themainstay of treatment. This is a prospective study of those patients with liver Hydatidcyst who were managed surgically at Al-Hussain Medical City in Kerbala for a period of one and half year from January 2013 to June 2014.Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to discuss the clinical presentations, diagnoses, and laparoscopic surgical treatment of liver hydatid cysts in comparison with other studies .Methods: forty patients were enrolled in the study, data collected: preoperative assessment, type of treatment and postoperative follow-up until their discharge from our hospital.The diagnosis was based on clinical examination, plain X-Ray, U/S & CT scan, MRI and MRCP.Results and discussion: hydatid cyst forms the commonest space occupying lesion in the liver. The recurrent form of the disease was found in 12 patients (30% ) and the multiple liver hydatid found in 16 patients (40%). This relatively high incidence of recurrence and multiplicity of the disease indicate high prevalence of such pathology in our areas.24 patients (60%) operated laparoscopically and 16 patients (40%) were operated by traditional opened method.The surgical treatment of hydatid cyst were in form of: Excision and external drainage in 32 patients (80%), excision and omentoplasty in 8 patients (20%).Post-operative complications included: Wound infection in 5 patients (12.5%), respiratory tract infection in 4 patients (10%), urinary tract infection in 3 patients (7.5 %), persistent drainage through the tube drain in 3 patients (7.5%), abscess collection in the residual cavity in 2 patients (5%) and persistent obstruction of the common bile duct in 1 patient (2.5%).Overall morbidity was 45% of our patients. No mortality was recorded.Conclusions: laparoscopic treatment of the hepatic hydatid cyst is a new method with great advantages and minimal disadvantage and we highly recommend to assess any patient for laparoscopic treatment.


Article
New Animal Model of Induced Acute Hepatic Injury by Acetaminophen and Vitamin D3 Protective Effect

Author: Malath Azeez Al‑Saady
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2018 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 28-31
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Background: Drug-induced liver injury is of great interest especially drugs that broadly used like acetaminophen. Objective: To assess newmodel of acetaminophen-induced acute hepatic injury and Vitamin D3 effectiveness. Materials and Methods: Eighteen male rabbits allocatedinto three groups six rabbits for each. Group 1 receives acetaminophen to induce acute hepatic injury and Group 2 receive single injection ofVitamin D3 before induction of hepatic injury, and group 3 was control. After 24 h from three-spaced injection of acetaminophen sample ofblood taken to measure serum level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, and albumin.Results: Successful model of acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury achieved by significant elevation (P ≤ 0.05) of ALT and AST of Group1 and 2 compared with control. No significance variation observed (P ≥ 0.05) between treatment Group 1 and 2 in liver function enzymeslevel. Conclusion: A new easy model of acetaminophen-induced acute hepatic injury effectively obtained. Although no statistical signifi cantVitamin D3 lower the levels of ALT and AST.


Article
ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS OF EXTRAHEPATIC BILIARY SYSTEM

Author: Lutfi G. Awazli لطفي غلام عوازلي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 258-264
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Variations in the anatomy of gallbladder, bile ducts and the arteries that supply them are important to the surgeon during cholecystectomy, because failure to recognize them may lead to inadvertent iatrogenic injuries.Objective:To evaluate the type and frequency of anatomical variations of extra hepatic biliary system encountered during cholecystectomy.Methods:One hundred and fifty patients with gallstones underwent cholecystectomy at Baghdad Teaching Hospital. There comprised 112 females and 38 males with age range between 20-80 years. Open (33 cases) and laparoscopic (117 cases) cholecystectomies were done. Extra hepatic biliary tree was carefully dissected to study the variations in the anatomy of the gallbladder, bile ducts, and the arteries that supply them.Results:There were only three important vascular and four important ductal anomalies while gallbladder anomalies were rare. The total numbers of the extrahepatic biliary anomalies were 81 cases (incidence 54%), and included vascular anomalies (60 cases = 40%); ductal anomalies (18 cases = 12%); gallbladder anomalies (3 cases = 2%); mostly occurred as Phrygian cap (2 cases = 1.3%). The higher incidence of anatomical abnormalities was found in females 80% (65 cases) while in males 20% (16 cases).Conclusion:Anomalies of the vascular and ductal components of the extra hepatic biliary tree are relatively common (the former occurring much more frequently than the latter). Failure to recognize them during biliary surgery leads to iatrogenic injuries and can increase morbidity and mortality.Key Words:Extra hepatic biliary tract; biliary anomalies, cholecystectomy.

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