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Article
Study of Catalysts Deactivation in Isomerization Process to Produce High Octane Gasoline

Authors: Jabir Sh. Jumaly --- Amel Th. Juber --- Hayam M. Abdul-Raheem --- Khalid A. Sukkar
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2007 Volume: 8 Issue: 3 Pages: 43-48
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In this study the isomerization of desulfuerized light iraqi petroleum naphtha (Al-Dura Refinery) with boiling point range of 37 to 124 °C , 80.5 API specific gravity and 68.2 octane number has been investigated. Two types of catalysts were prepared (Pt/HX and Pt/SrX) by impregnation of 0.8 wt% Pt on 13X-zeolite. The catalyst activity and selectivity toward isomerization, and catalyst deactivation were investigated.The isomerization unit consisted of a vertical tubular stainless steel reactor of 2 cm internal diameter, 3 cm external diameter and 6 height The operating pressure was atmospheric for all experimental runs. The l(quidflow of light naphtha was 0.4 Lih, and the catalyst weight was 50 gm, H2/H.C ratio used was 4 for all experimental runs. The isomerization process was studied at different temperatures of 250, 270, 275, 300, 325, and 350°C. It was found that, the optimum isomerization temperature is 270°C.The isomerization activities and selectivities as afunction of time showed high activity at the beginning of the reaction and were deactivated rapidly. This indicates that the deactivation of Pt/HX and Pt/SrX results from the blocking of pore mouth by the deposited carbon. The following deactivation decreasing order, Pt/HX> Pt/SrX was found. On the other hand, Pt/FIX catalyst shows higher activity and selectivity than that of Pt/SrX.it was concluded that, only an average of 90 wt% of the carbon atoms fled into the reactor (light naphtha) is detected in the product strewn due to formation of coke deposits which leads to catalyst deactivation. The results clearly showed that hydrogen is necessary for the hydrogenation of olefins in order to prevent oligomerization reaction that leads to coke formation and catalyst deactivation.


Article
Catalytic Cracking of Iraqi Vacuum Gasoil Using Large and Medium Pore Size of Zeolite Catalysts
التكسير الحفاز لزيت الوقود العراقي باستعمال الزيولايت ذي الحجم المسامي الكبير والمتوسط

Authors: Ameel Mohammed Rahman اميل محمد رحمن --- Mohanned H. Salman مهند حسيب سلمان --- Khalid Waleed Hammed خالد وليد حميد
Journal: Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal مجلة الخوارزمي الهندسية ISSN: 18181171 23120789 Year: 2015 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 73-83
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The catalytic cracking conversion of Iraqi vacuum gas oil was studied on large and medium pore size (HY, HX, ZSM-22 and ZSM-11) of zeolite catalysts. These catalysts were prepared locally and used in the present work. The catalytic conversion performed on a continuous fixed-bed laboratory reaction unit. Experiments were performed in the temperature range of 673 to 823K, pressure range of 3 to 15bar, and LHSV range of 0.5-3h-1. The results show that the catalytic conversion of vacuum gas oil increases with increase in reaction temperature and decreases with increase in LHSV. The catalytic activity for the proposed catalysts arranged in the following order:HY>HX>ZSM-11>ZSM-22The product distribution depends greatly on the temperature and on the catalyst type. A higher hydrocarbon yields was obtained for HY zeolite catalyst. The selectivity towards high octane number compounds for the proposed catalysts are arranged in the following order:HY>HX>ZSM-11>ZSM-22The cracking conversion is improved by increasing reaction pressure up to 15 bar. The simulated experiments of the catalytic cracking process show that the higher conversion and more desired products can be achieved to conventional feeds.

تمت دراسة تحويل التكسير الحفاز لزيت الغاز العراقي الناتج من الوحدات الفراغية باستعمال عدة أنواع من الزيولايت ذات الحجم المسامي الكبيرة والمتوسط (HY، HX، ZSM-22 و ZSM-11). تم تحضير هذه العوامل مختبريا واستعملت في العمل الحالي. جرت تفاعلات التحول الحفاز في وحدة تفاعل مختبرية ومستمرة ومن نوع الحشوة الثابتة. أجريت التجارب بدرجات الحرارة تراوحت من 673 إلى 823 كلفن، وضغط تراوح من 3 إلى 15 بار، وبسرع فراغية تراوحت 0.5 الى 3 ساعة-1. بينت النتائج أن التحول الحفاز لزيت الغاز يزداد مع زيادة درجة حرارة التفاعل ويتناقص مع زيادة السرعة الفراغية. ان ترتيب الفعالية التحفيزية للعوامل المساعدة المستخدمة يمكن ترتيبها بالشكل الآتي: HY> HX> ZSM-11> ZSM-22ان توزيع نواتج التفاعل يعتمد الى حد كبيرة على درجة الحرارة وعلى نوع العامل المساعد. تم الحصول على أعلى معدلات لنسبة النواتج للعامل المساعد HY. ان انتقائية التفاعل باتجاه تكوين مركبات ذات رقم اوكتاني عالٍ بالنسبة للعوامل المساعدة المستخدمة يمكن ترتيبها بالشكل الآتي: HY> HX> ZSM-11> ZSM-22يمكن تحسين تحول التكسير الحفاز بزيادة الضغط. ان تجارب المحاكاة لعملية التكسير الحفاز أظهرت بأنه بالإمكان الحصول على تحول عالٍ وتحسين معدلات إنتاج المنتجات المطلوبة من المواد الأولية التقليدية.

Keywords

catalytic cracking --- vacuum gas oil --- Zeolite --- HY --- HX --- ZSM-11 --- ZSM-22.

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