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Article
Study the Effect of Using Microwave Radiation and H-Donors on Improving Heavy Oil

Authors: Hussein Qasim Hussein --- Zeina Abbas Khedheer
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2017 Volume: 18 Issue: 4 Pages: 1-13
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present research has investigated the effect of microwave energy on improving the flow properties of heavy crude oil. The fragmentation of crude oil molecules was carried out with and without using 1 and 10 wt. % concentration of various types of H-donors like tetralin, cyclohexane, and naphtha. Microwave power of 320, 385, and 540 W and radiation time 1-9 min, and temperature were studied. The kinematic viscosity and asphaltene content were measured for evaluation the improving of heavy crude oil. Results show that viscosity of crude oil decreased with increase H-donor concentration, a maximum percentage of viscosity reduction was10.63 % for tetralin at 6 min radiation time, while 8.67%, and 7.34% for cyclohexane and naphtha at 4 min respectively. The high H-donor polarity is the high viscosity reduction. The asphaltenes content of crude oil was decreased during microwave treatment process, a maximum percentage of reduction was 39.73% for tetralin at 6 min radiation time, while 34.40% and 46.29 % for cyclohexane and naphtha at 4 min respectively. The viscosity of crude oil was decreased with asphaltenes content decrease. The temperature of a crude oil was varied during the microwave treatment and it was depended on radiation time and radiation power and H-donor type. The best reduction of crude oil viscosity and asphaltenes content was achieved at a moderate radiation power385 W.


Article
Viscosity Reduction of Sharqi Baghdad Heavy Crude Oil Using Different Polar Hydrocarbons, Oxygenated Solvents

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Abstract

This work studied the facilitation of the transportation of Sharqi Baghdad heavy crude oil characterized with high viscosity 51.6 cSt at 40 °C, low API 18.8, and high asphaltenes content 7.1 wt.%, by reducing its viscosity from break down asphaltene agglomerates using different types of hydrocarbon and oxygenated polar solvents such as toluene, methanol, mix xylenes, and reformate. The best results are obtained by using methanol because it owns a high efficiency to reduce viscosity of crude oil to 21.1 cSt at 40 °C. Toluene, xylenes and reformate decreased viscosity to 25.3, 27.5 and 28,4 cSt at 40 °C, respectively. Asphaltenes content decreased to 4.2 wt. % by using toluene at 110 °C. And best improvement in API of the heavy crude oil is 26.1 at 40 °C by using xylenes.


Article
Bioremediation of Polluted Water with Crude Oil in South Baghdad Power Plant
المعالجة الحيوية للمياه الملوثة بالنفط الخام في محطة جنوب بغداد لإنتاج الطاقة الكهربائية

Authors: Akram R. Yasin أكرم رشيد ياسين --- Shihab Ahmed Salman شهاب أحمد سلمان --- Ithar kamil Al-Mayaly إيثار كامل الميالي
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2014 Volume: 55 Issue: 1 Pages: 113-122
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae appears good growth when replicate to culture with heavy crude oil. K. pneumoniae was less ability to biodegrade the heavy crude oil (66.22 wt.%) compare with P. aeruginosa 74 wt.%). Also the emulsion percent were about 64.8 % and 62.5 % for K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa, respectively. The results showed that the emulsions produced from both the strains decrease the surface tension of the media from 68.43 Mn/m (for control sample) to 44.50 and 43.30 Mn/m for P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae, respectively. The optimum temperature and pH for the hydrocarbons biodegradation were 28 ºC and 7, respectively. The incubation period of 28 days of the isolated increased hydrocarbons biodegradation, which were (78 %) for P. aeruginosa, and (83 %) for K. pneumoniae. While, P. aeruginosa recorded heavy oil biodegradation percents were 76.94 and 71.73 % for oil concentrations 1000 and 2000 mg/l, respectively. While the percentage of biodegradation by K. pneumoniae to heavy oil were 74.87 and 69.92 % for 1000 and 2000 mg/l, respectively.

أظهرت العزلتان Pseudomonas aeruginosa و Klebsiella pneumoniae نموا" جيدا" بوجود النفط الخام الثقيل عند تكرار زرعها على نفس الوسط وكانت بكتريا K. pneomoniae الاقل في تفكيك النفط الخام الثقيل مقارنة ببكتريا P. aeruginosa والتي سجلت نسبة تفكيك 66.22 % كما سجلت البكتريا K. pneumoniae نسبة استحلاب بلغت 64.8 % بينما كانت النسبة 62.5 % لبكتريا P. aeruginosa . أظهرت النتائج ان المستحلبات المنتجة من قبل العزلتين قامت بتخفيض قيمة الشد السطحي للوسط من (Mn/m 68.43) بالنسبة لعينة الكونترول (من غير لقاح بكتيري) الى (44.50 Mn/m) و (43.30 Mn/m) لكل من P. aeruginosa و K. pneumoniae على التـوالي. وكانت درجة الحرارة المثلى 28º م والرقم الهيدروجيني (pH) الأمثل هو 7 لنمو البكتريا واستهلاك الهيدروكاربونات, و تبين ان فترة الحضن 28 يوم للعزلات البكتيرية قد أعطت زيادة في نسبة استهلاك الهيدروكاربونات حيث سجلت بكتريا P. aeruginosa نسبة استهلاك بلغت 78 % بينما كانت النسبة 83% لبكتريا K. pneumoniae. سجلت بكتريا P. aeruginosa نسبة استهلاك للنفط الخام الثقيل بلغت 76.94 % و71.73 % للتراكيز 1000 mg/l و 2000 mg/l على التوالي. بينما سجلت بكتريا K. pneumoniae نسبة استهلاك بلغت 74.87 % و 69.92 % للتراكيز 1000 mg/l و 2000 mg/l على التوالي.

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