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Article
Sero prevalence of hepatitis B infection among dental professionals

Author: Athraa Y. Al – Hijazi عذراء يحيى الحجازي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 38-42
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem, especially to health care personnel including dentist.Materials and methods: Sixty – seven Iraqi dental professionals are participated in this study, filled out questionnaire record of past and present history of infection with HBV, immunization against HBV, blood transfusion, surgical operation. They reported time spent in profession and numbers of patients contract daily with them, and absence or presence of preventive measure.Results: Serological test for detection of (HBs Ag and anti HBs Ag, anti HBc IgM and anti HBc IgG) for each dentist had been alone. The result showed that 78.9% of dentists had get immunization against HBV that was determined by presence of anti HBs marker in their sera. A recovery state from previous infection reported in two dentists with positive anti HBs Ag and anti HBc IgG marker. The results showed no significant correlation between positive presence of HBV markers and the time spent in profession.Conclusion: Four dentists have positive sero HBV markers reported of non – using a protective measure

Keywords

Hepatitis B --- serology


Article
SERUM LEVELS OF 2MICROGLOBULIN AND SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AMONG CHRONIC HEPATITIS B PATIENTS

Author: Maysoon K. Al-Shaikle
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2010 Volume: 13 Issue: 4 Pages: 39-44
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to estimate the level of 2microglobulin (B2M), total serum bilirubin(TSB) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the sera of (30) chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients(patients group) and (30) healthy HBV carriers as (control group). The study showed that levels of2 microglobulin were high among patients group (3.41 1 mg/L), while it was normal amongcontrol group (1.42 0.35 mg/L). Regarding biochemical parameters, it was found that (TSB) and(ALT) were increased among patients group, and their level were (37.66 30.8 mol/L) and(43.6 32.51 U/L) respectively. While it was normal among control group (4 0 mol/L) and(17.4 7.16 U/L) respectively.


Article
Prevalence of HBV among Hemodialysis patients in Mosul city, Iraq
انتشارا لتهاب الكبد الفايروسي نمط ( ب) لمرضى الديلزة الدموية في مدينة الموصل

Author: Raid Michael Amen رائد ميخائيل أمين
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Pure Science مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 18131662 Year: 2013 Volume: 18 Issue: 3 Pages: 10-15
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Hemodialysis patients [HD] seem to be at considerable risk of infection, therefore the aim of this study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Virus among hemodialysis patients living in the Mosul city of Iraq.This study includes (70) patients , (43) Male and (27) Female, the age group ranged between less than 10 years to 60 years, and the mean age was 37.1 years, which was considerable percentage of HBV in patients above 50 years (7.1%), while the average percentage of HBV less than 50 age(2.24%). This study included age, gender, quantitative of blood pints transfusion, and episodes of big time spent on [HD] hemodialysis .This study showed that male [HD] patients had higher HBV prevalence than females (14.2%, 4.2%) respectively.Hemodialysis patients are at high risk for viral hepatitis infections due to the higher number of blood transfusion sessions range about less 5 pints to more 20 pints, in our study the prevalence of HBV was increased significantly with increasing the number of blood units transfused . Duration long term dialysis was less 2 year and more than 10 years in 4.2% of HBV positive patients, ( 2-4 ) years and ( 8-10 ) years in 1.4% of cases, and (4-6) years and (6-8) years in 2.8% of them, the mean time of dialysis ( 5.4 ) years. As well as it was used Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) technique to detect HBsAg and confirm the positive results by used Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to detect HBV-DNA.The result was showed (13) positive with HBV in hemodialysis patients by ELISA technique, but (12) positive with HBV-DNA by used PCR .

مرضى الديلزة الدموية معرضون للإصابات بشكل خطير, ولهذا السبب الهدف من الدراسة هو تحديد انتشار التهاب الكبد الفايروسي نمط ب لمرضى الديلزة الدموية في مدينة الموصل . شملت الدراسة (70) مريضا, (43) ذكور و (27) إناث , حيث تراوحت المجاميع العمرية بين اقل من 10 سنوات والى 60 سنة ,كان معدل العمر هو (37.1) سنة, حيث كانت أعمار أعداد المرضى أكثر من 50 سنة بنسبة (7.1%) أعلى من أعمار أعداد المرضى دون 50 سنة بنسبة (2.24%) . تضمنت الدراسة العمر , الجنس ,أعداد أكياس الدم المنقولة , وكذالك الفترة الزمنية للديلزة الدموية. في دراستنا تبين بان نسبة انتشار التهاب الكبد الفايروسي نمط ب لمرضى الديلزة الدموية عند الذكور هي أعلى مما هو عند الإناث بنسبة % 14.2 ذكور و% 4.2 إناث .مرضى الديلزة الدموية ذات عرضة بشكل خطير للإصابة بالتهابات الكبد الفايروسي اعتمادا على الأعداد الكبيرة من أكياس الدم المنقولة التي تعطى للمرضى , والتي تراوحت اقل من (5) أكياس إلى أكثر من( 20) كيس, ومن خلال بحثنا وجدنا هناك زيادة معنوية في نسبة انتشار التهاب الكبد الفايروسي نمط ب مع زيادة أعداد أكياس الدم المنقولة. ومن خلال الفترة الزمنية للديلزة الدموية التي يتعرض لها المريض عند اقل من 2 سنة والى أكثر من 10 سنوات كانت النسبة % 4.2 لانتشار التهاب الكبد الفايروسي نمط ب,بينما الفترة الزمنية من (2-4) سنوات و (8-10) سنوات. كانت النسبة % 1.4 من الحالات وكذالك الفترة الزمنية من (4-6) سنوات و (6-8 ) سنوات كانت نسبة الإصابة % 2.8 ومعدل الفترة الزمنية للديلزة هو 5.4 سنة .بالإضافة إلى استخدامنا تقنية الاليزا لتحديد الستضد حيث تم تأكيد النتائج الموجبة باستخدام تقنية التفاعل التضاعفي لسلاسل الدنا , وكانت النتيجة هي (13) حالة موجبة لمرضى الديلزة الدموية بطريقة الاليزا بينما (12) حالة موجبة لمرضى الديلزة الدموية بطريقة التفاعل التضاعفي لسلاسل الدنا .


Article
Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C among blood donors in Baghdad, August 2007-December 2008

Author: Mariam K. Ali* VM, MSc د. مريم كريم علي
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 / 24108057 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 4 Pages: 419-422
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:Background: Hepatitis is a disease of the liver caused by the infectious and non-infectious agents. Patients &methods: A total of 600 blood donors attending blood bank at Baghdad city were included in this study , they were screened by Enzyme Immune sorbent Assay for detection of HBs Ag and anti-HCV ,that confirmed by recombinant immunoblot assay .the possible influence of the various factors on the prevalence was analyze too. Results: Form the total donors there were 37(6.2%)and 6(1.7%)positive for HBV &HCV respectively .peak prevalence for HBs Ag was noticed in age groups (20-29)years . Conclusion: Screening blood donors for both HBV and HCV is indispensable for safe blood transfusion. . In general, formulation of safe blood transfusion policy and implementation of standard screening protocols should be practiced.Keywords: Prevalence of hepatitis B, C.


Article
EVALUATION OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS VACCINATION AMONG CHILDREN IN BAGHDAD CITY
تقييم لقاح الكبد البائي عند الاطفال في مدينة بغداد

Author: أمنة نعمة الثويني
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 198-209
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study attempt to determine the protective level of antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen among vaccinated and unvaccinated children in Baghdad city, age ranging 1- 10 year. A total of 250 blood samples have been collected and tested for detection of serological markers of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc). They included 190 children represented the vaccinated group and 60 children represented the unvaccinated group. Prevalence of anti-HBs was higher in vaccinated children (70%) than in unvaccinated children (3.3%.) Anti-HBc was not found in vaccinated children, while 3.3% in unvaccinated children. The distribution of protective level is divided to less than 10; 10-100; and 100-more than 500 m.i.u./ml among studies groups that have anti-HBs 13(6.8%); 21(11%); and 99(52.1%) of vaccinated and (0.0%); (0.0%); and 2(3.3%) of unvaccinated group. Finally, prevalence of protective anti-HBs level according to the doses received by vaccinated group has revealed that 77.2% of those who received the three primary doses.Hepatitis, Hepatitis B virus, vaccinatio

هدفت الدراسة تحديد المستوى الواقي لمضادات التهاب الكبد البائي عند الاطفال في مدينة بغداد الذين تتراوح أعمارهم 1-10 سنة ∙ تم جمع مائتان وخمسون عينة وفحصت لكشف المؤشرات المصلية لفايرس الكبد البائي (مولد مضاد لالتهاب الكبد البائي السطحي ومضاد التهاب الكبد البائي السطحي ومضاد التهاب الكبد اللبي) ٬ تمثل مائة وتسعون من الاطفال لمجموعة الملقحين وستون من الاطفال غير الملقحين. اظهرت النتائج عدم وجود نسبة انتشار لمولد مضاد التهاب الكبد البائي السطحي ضمن الاطفال – كما وجد انتشاراً اعلى لمضاد التهاب الكبد البائي السطحي لمجموعة الملقحين (70٪) ٬ من مجموعة غير الملقحين 3.3 ٪ ∙ لم تسجل نسبة انتشار مضاد التهاب الكبد اللبي في مجموعة الملقحين٬ بينما كانت 3.3 ٪ في مجموعة غير الملقحين∙ أوضحت الدراسة ايضا قياس المستوى الواقي لمضاد التهاب الكبد بمستويات أقل من 10 و 10 –100و 100 – أكثر من 500 ملي وحدة دولية / مليلتر بين المجاميع المدروسة والتي أعطت 13 (6.8٪ ) و 21 (11٪) و 99(52.1٪) عند الملقحين و 0.0 ٪ و 0.0٪ و 2( 3.3 ٪) لدى غير الملقحين ∙ كما سجل مضاد التهاب الكبد البائي السطحي في 77.2٪ للاطفال الملقحين الذين أكملوا التلقيح بثلاث جرعات وهذا يوضح تأثير اكمال السير الاولي للقاح على مستوى مضاد التهاب الكبد البائي السطحي.


Article
PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B AND HEPATITIS C AMONG PREOPERATIVE SURGICAL PATIENTS AT BASRAH GENERAL HOSPITAL

Authors: Mazin H AL-Hawaz --- Mohammed H AL-Hijaj --- Shatha A AL-Mansori
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2014 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 62-65
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Viral hepatitis is a worldwide health problem which requires a thorough knowledge and orientation. Clinical awareness of medical and paramedical staff regarding hepatitis portfolios so important to avoid serious short and long term sequel of hepatitis distribution to other individuals therefore a fundamental strategy has been planned and made in our local surgical field to highlight that issue in different types of surgery. Patients and methods: Retrospective descriptive study was carried out at Basrah General Hospital; Department of Surgery between Sept 2012 and Sept 2013 for patients underwent elective surgery in surgical department. Data was collected on the patients’ clinical history and laboratory findings of hepatitis screen for preoperative patients. The findings were recorded in a structured compilation. Results: A total of one thousand and seven hundred and thirty patients entered the study and those were analyzed in terms of general patient data in respect to age and sex as well as analysis of hepatitis screening findings. There were 1034 (59.7 %) males and 696 (40.3 %) females, with ages ranging from 8 months -70 year. The highest prevalence of Hepatitis B and C occurred in the same age group of 40 to 49 years. The sex related distribution of Hepatitis in general patients revealed more female patients than male ones (45/43).This figure is similar among patients in Hepatitis C (22/19) and both Hepatitis B and C (2/1). Hepatitis B showed a reverse pattern of being male predominance with a male to female distribution (23/21). In conclusion: Clinical awareness is the master of prevention of Hepatitis spread as proper knowledge about transmission and precautions could be of value in reducing disease transmission.


Article
Epidemiology of viral hepatitis B and C in Iraq: a national survey 2005-2006
وبائيات التهاب الكبد الفيروسي B و C في العراق: دراسة استقصائية وطنية 2005-2006

Authors: Ali Rijab Omer --- Ahmed S. Al-Naaimi --- Wijdan A. Akram --- Ataallah M. Tarky
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2013 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 370-380
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Viral Hepatitis Type B&C is serious public health challenge throughout the world.Hepatitis B and C viruses still remain to be the major causes of chronic hepatitis.It is estimated that around 350-400 million people in the world are chronic carriers of HBV, which represents approximately 7% of the total populationwhereas infection with HCV is found in approximately 3% of the world population, which represents 160 million people. Hepatitis B infection has a wide range of seroprevalence in the Mediterranean countries ranging from intermediate (=>2% ) to high prevalence ( =>7%). World Health Organization estimated a prevalence rate for HCV infection of about 4.6% in Eastern Mediterranean in 1999. During the eightieths years of the last century, Iraq was considered to be of intermediate endemicity with hepatitis B as reflected by 3% seroprevalence of HBsAg in normal population. Hepatitis C was found to be of low endemicity among blood donors 0.5%. There were no national wide epidemiological studies regarding the prevalence of hepatitis B&C accordingly we conduct this study to determine the prevalence of both types all over the Iraq. Methods: From the 1st of January 2005 to 31st of December 2006, a community based cross-sectional study was conducted all over Iraqi governorates. A total of 9610 persons, recruited by surveying a nationally representative random sample of households were analyzed. A stratified random sample proportional to size of each of the 18 Iraqi governorates, both urban and rural areas were included. Prevalence estimates were therefore weighted and age-adjusted. Five (5ml) of blood samples were taken from the study subjects, and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, antibody to hepatitis B core antigen antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C antibodies . Results: The national prevalence rate of HBs Ag was 1.6% and correlated positively with age. The prevalence rate of anti-HBs antibodies was 17%. The prevalence of anti-HBc was 9.7%. The prevalence of anti-HCV was low (0.4%). The prevalence rate of anti-HBs antibodies in <10 years children is only 32.2%, which raise the issue of incomplete coverage of hepatitis B vaccine during the years preceding the study years. Conclusion: The findings revealed that Iraq is of low prevalence with HBsAg.On the other hand,hepatitis C was found to be of very low prevalence. As a marker of exposure to hepatitis B, Anti HBcIgG was found to increase with age.

Keywords

hepatitis B --- hepatitis C --- Iraq


Article
Screening of Hepatitis B- and C- Viral Markers in Iraqi Patients with Proteinuria

Author: Abdul Hadi K . Hussain
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 4 Pages: 362-368
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Viral hepatitis may lead to nephropathy as one of its multiple extra hepatic manifestations. Symptomatic proteinuria as detected by dipstick, and qualitative urine collection are simple tests in practice as well as useful cardinal test of underlying renal abnormalities. The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections on the occurrence of symptomatic proteinuria amongst adults and pediatrics.PATIENTS & METHODS :A prospective study included (143) adult and pediatric Iraqi patients presented with symptomatic proteinuria, and 108 (age- and sex-matched) apparently healthy individuals (as control group) who were serologically screened for HBV & HCV markers using third generation Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques, screening for HIV by ELISA and other related immunological and biochemical profile.RESULTS :It was found that the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc-IgM), anti hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) and anti hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV) in the proteinuria group as compared to control group, were (7.0% vs. 0.9%, P<0.05) for HBsAg, (2.8% vs. 0% ,P>0.05) for anti-HBc-IgM, (20.3% vs. 23.1%, P>0.05) for anti-HBs antibody, and (6.3% vs. 0%, P<0.01) for anti-HCV.CONCLUSION :Our study demonstrated a significant association between proteinuria and HCV, and HBV infection in the adult and pediatric population. The interpretation of serological patterns of viral hepatitis markers in patients with newly diagnosed proteinuria are important, it might suggest that detailed urinalysis and qualitative urine protein assessment is mandatory when managing patients with HCV or with HBV infections.


Article
Estimation of GM-CSF in Hepatitis B Virus Infected Patients and Individuals Vaccinated With Recombinant HB Vaccine

Authors: Hiwa Abdul -Rahman Ahmed --- Rukia Muhammad. Al-Barzinji
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 210-213
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem. Successful clearance of the virus depends on a complex interaction between the virus and the host immune response.OBJECTIVE:This study was designed to estimation granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in HBV infected patients and individuals vaccinated with recombinant HB vaccine.METHODS:Study groups were classified into patient group 31(15 acute (AH) and 16 chronic (CH)), 33 vaccinated group (20 responder (RD) and 13 Non-responder (NRD)) and 16 healthy control (HC) during May to November 2007. Blood samples were taken from patients and hospitals staffs to detection hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg), anti-hepatitis B core antibody(IgM)(Anti-HBc Ab(IgM), anti hepatitis B surface antibody) (Anti-HBs Ab), GM-CSF level in serum by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test.RESULTS:A highly significant elevation (p<0.001) of GM-CSF level was reported in AH patients compared to the CH patients and HN controls, according to F-test, while in CH patients the elevation was not significant as compared to HN control (p>0.05) according to LSD- test. The level of GM-CSF also significantly higher (p<0.05) in RD at age ≥30 years than NRD and HN groups by F-test. Also a significant differences was recorded when compared between HN versus RD and RD versus NRD (P<0.027) and (P<0.023) respectively.CONCLUSION:In this study highly significant elevation of GM-CSF levels was observed in AH patients compared with CH patients and healthy control. GM-CSF level also significantly higher in RD at age ≥30 years than NRD and HN group


Article
Evaluation of C-reactive protein titer in patients with acute hepatitis B virus infection
تقييم بروتين ( C ) المنشط في مرضى التهاب الكبد الفيروسي نمط (B ) الحاد

Author: Nazar Shiaa Al-Azawi د.نزار العزاوي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2008 Volume: 21 Issue: 3 Pages: 241-245
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Objective: to evaluate the serum C-reactive protein (CRP) titer as a predictive diagnosis of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.Materials and methods: One hundred and five patients with acute HBV infection and 117 apparently healthy individuals as a control group were enrolled in this study. The patients include 37(35.2%) females and 68 (64.8%) males with mean age (27±16.5) years. The control group includes 57 (48.7%) females and 60 (51.3%) males with mean age (26±5.8) years. Blood samples were collected, sera were separated and stored at -20 0C. The diagnosis of acute HBV infection was based on detection of HBS Ag and anti-HBc IgM and standard liver function tests. Determination of CRP titer was assessed by semi-quantitative tube agglutination test. All data were statistically analyzed.Results: Based on 95% percentile, the baseline CRP titer in healthy individuals was 1:8 (16 mg/l) and for patients 1:512 (1024 mg/l). There was a statistically significant increase in the mean CRP titer in patients with acute HBV infection compared to healthy individuals (P< 0.001). The validy of CRP titer 1:64 as a cut-off value to predict HBV infection provide a sensitivity and specificity 100% and 96% respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 95% and 100% respectively with an accuracy of 98%. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between CRP titer and liver function test values.Conclusion: In conjunction with clinical suspicions, CRP titer may be of value for predictive diagnosis of acute hepatitis B infection. Key words: C-reactive protein, Hepatitis B virus.

أهداف الدراسة : تقييم استخدام عياريه بروتين (C ) المنشط في التشخيص التنبؤي لالتهاب الكبد الفيروسي نمط (B ) الحاد.المواد وطرائق العمل: شملت الدراسة 105 من المرضى المصابون بالتهاب الكبد الفيروسي نمط (B ) الحاد و 117 شخصا من الاصحاء ظاهريا كمجموعة سيطرة. تضمنت مجموعة المرضى 37 (35.2%) إناث و 68 ( 64.8%) ذكور وبمعدل عمـر ( 27 ± 16.5) سنة.مجموعة السيطرة تألفت من 57 (48.7%) إناث و 60 (51.3%) ذكور وبمعدل عمر ( 26 ± 5.8) سنة. جمعت نماذج الدم وتم فصل الأمصال وتجزئتها في أنابيب صغيرة (500 مايكروليتر) وحفظت في درجة حرارة – 20 0م. تشخيص حالات التهاب الكبد الفيروسي نمط (B ) الحاد اعتمد على وجود المستضد السطحي (HBsAg ) والضدات النوعية للب الفيروس نوع IgM (Anti-HBc IgM) وأجراء فحوص وظائف الكبد. تحديد عياريه بروتين المنشط اجري بطريقة التلازن شبه الكمية.جميع البيانات حللت إحصائيا.النتائج: اعتمادا على نسبة 95% فان المستوى الأساسي لعيارية بروتين (C ) المنشط بين الاشخاص الاصحاء كان 8:1 (16 ملغرام/لتر) وبين المرضى 512:1 (1023 ملغرام/لتر). أظهرت النتائج أن الوسيط الحسابي لعيارية بروتين (C ) المنشط كان أعلى بشكل معنوي إحصائيا مقارنة بالأشـخاص الاصحاء (P< 0.001 ). إن صلاحية عيارية بروتين (C ) المنشط عند القيمة الفاصلة 64:1 للتنبؤ بالتهاب الكبد الفيروسي نمط (B ) الحاد أعطت حساسية وخصوصية 100% و 96% على التوالي، وان نسبة الصواب كانت 98%. فضلا عن ذلك فقد أظهرت النتائج وجود ترابط معنوي إحصائيا بين عيارية بروتين (C ) المنشط وبين قيم فحوص وظائف الكبد.الاستنتاج: عيارية بروتين (C ) المنشط يمكن أن يكون ذا قيمة في التشخيص التنبؤي لالتهاب الكبد الفيروسي نمط (B ) الحاد عندما يشكل التشخيص ألسريري 50%.الكلمات المفتاحية: بروتين (C ) المنشط، التهاب الكبد الفيروسي نمط (B ).

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