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Article
Permeability Prediction in One of Iraqi Carbonate Reservoir Using Hydraulic Flow Units and Neural Networks

Author: Dahlia Abdulhadi Alobaidi
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2016 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-11
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Permeability determination in Carbonate reservoir is a complex problem, due to their capability to be tight and heterogeneous, also core samples are usually only available for few wells therefore predicting permeability with low cost and reliable accuracy is an important issue, for this reason permeability predictive models become very desirable. This paper will try to develop the permeability predictive model for one of Iraqi carbonate reservoir from core and well log data using the principle of Hydraulic Flow Units (HFUs). HFU is a function of Flow Zone Indicator (FZI) which is a good parameter to determine (HFUs). Histogram analysis, probability analysis and Log-Log plot of Reservoir Quality Index (RQI) versus normalized porosity (øz) are presented to identify optimal hydraulic flow units. Four HFUs were distinguished in this study area with good correlation coefficient for each HFU (R2=0.99), therefore permeability can be predicted from porosity accurately if rock type is known. Conventional core analysis and well log data were obtained in well 1 and 2 in one of carbonate Iraqi oil field. The relationship between core and well log data was determined by Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in cored wells to develop the predictive model and then was used to develop the flow units prediction to un-cored wells. Finally permeability can be calculated in each HFU using effective porosity and mean FZI in these HFUs. Validation of the models evaluated in a separate cored well (Blind-Test) which exists in the same formation. The results showed that permeability prediction from ANN and HFU matched well with the measured permeability from core data with R2 =0.94 and ARE= 1.04%.


Article
Permeability Estimation by Using the Modified and Conventional FZI Methods
حساب النفاذية باستخدام طريقة FZI التقليدية والمطورة

Authors: Mohammed S. Al-Jawad محمد صالح الجواد --- Israa Jeryan Ahmed اسراء جريان احمد
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2018 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 60-67
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

There many methods for estimation of permeability. In this Paper, permeability has been estimated by two methods. The conventional and modified methods are used to calculate flow zone indicator (FZI). The hydraulic flow unit (HU) was identified by FZI technique. This technique is effective in predicting the permeability in un-cored intervals/wells. HU is related with FZI and rock quality index (RQI). All available cores from 7 wells (Su -4, Su -5, Su -7, Su -8, Su -9, Su -12, and Su -14) were used to be database for HU classification. The plot of probability cumulative of FZI is used. The plot of core-derived probability FZI for both modified and conventional method which indicates 4 Hu (A, B, C and D) for Nahr Umr formation based on the four straight lines. The permeability was calculated by two methods for comparison and choosing the best. The modified FZI method gives better results because the predicted permeability by this method demonstrates a coefficient of correlation (R2) higher than that of the conventional approach, where the value of R2 is 0.9645 of modified FZI method while 0.892 of the conventional approach. When plotting RQI versus ∅_z on a log-log scale, all core samples with similar FZI values will lie on a straight line with a unit slope. Other core samples that have different FZI values will lie on other parallel lines. All lines in (RQI and∅_z) plot of modified FZI method have unit slop and more parallel than these of the conventional approach. The plot of probability cumulative of FZIm is used to determine number of hydraulic flow unit for Nahr Umr formation. The plot of core-derived probability FZI for both modified and conventional method which indicates 4 Hus for Nahr Umr formation based on the four straight lines, these four straight lines of modified FZI method was more distinguished than these of the conventional approach.

هناك العديد من الطرق لحساب النفاذية. في هذا البحث تم حساب النفاذية بطريقتين. تم استخدام الطريقة التقليدية والمطورة لحساب FZI. تم تحديد وحدات الجريان الهيدروليكي بواسطة تقنية FZI. تعد هذه التقنية من الطرق الفعالة في تحديد النفاذية في الابار التي لم تحدد نفاذيتها بواسطة قياسات اللباب. ترتبط وحدات الجريان الهيدروليكي ب FZI ومؤشر نوعية الصخرة .استخدمت قاعدة البيانات المستحصلة من قياسات اللباب من سبعة ابارلتصنيف الوحدات الهايدروليكية. تم استخدام رسم الاحتمالية التراكمية ل FZI. رسم الاحتمالية التراكمية ل FZI من الطريقة التقليدية والمطورة دل على وجود اربعة وحدات هيدرولية(A, B, C and D) في تكوين نهر عمر بالاعتماد على وجود اربع خوط مستقيمة. تم حساب النفاذية بطريقتين لغرض المقارنة وايجاد الافضل. الطريقة المطورة اعطت نتائج افضل لان النفاذية المحسوبة بهذه الطريقة اظهرت معامل مضاهاة اعلى مما هو عليه في الطريقة التقليدية حيث بلغت قيمته (0.9645) بينما بلغت قيمة عامل المضاهاة للنفاذية المحسوبة بالطريقة التقليدية (0.892) وكذلك عند رسم قيم RQI مقابل ∅_z على مقياس لوغارتمي كل نماذج اللباب التي لها نفس قيمة FZI سوف تقع على خط واحد له ميل مقداره واحد وتوازي بقية الخطوط التي لها قيم FZI مختلفة،عند استخدام الطريقة المطورة كل هذه الخطوط كان لها ميل مقدراه واحد ومتوازية مع بعضها اكثر مما هو عليه باستخدام الطريقة التقليدية وعند استخدام رسم الاحتمالية التراكمية ل FZIلغرض تحديد عدد الوحدات الهيدروليكية لتكوين نهر عمر كان عدد الوحدات اكثر تمييزا باستخدام الطريقة المطورة مما هو عليه باستخدام الطريقة التقليدية والمتمثلة في عدد الخطوط المستقيمة.

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