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Article
Hardware Implementation of Wireless Sensor Network Using Arduino and Zigbee Protocol

Authors: Mahmood F. Mosleh --- Duaa SH. Talib
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2016 Volume: 34 Issue: 5 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 816-829
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

This paper presents a designed and implemented Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) based on Arduino and IEEE 802.15.4/Zigbee standards. This network consists offour end nodes; each one is connected to an individual type of sensors (lighting, temperature, motion, and distance) to form a safety network for building offices, factories, homes…etc. Also there is a fifth node in this network to collect the information from each node and send it to the base station which is a computer to be process the data and take the appropriate decision according to the program established by the user. Results confirmed that the network performs its functions with high efficiency and gave accurate readings of the surrounding circumstances. Stable reading of temperature and lighting had been achieved in the implemented network. Also, the motion and distance sensors gave good results depending onthe presence ofobjectsclose tothemore peoplemovingnear. In addition, the network is characterized by high flexibility and ease of programing that can be used to give various applications such aswarning of fire by setting a threshold level of temperature to enable an alarm when exceeding such level. It can also be used to preventtheftsbydetectingmovements ofthe humanbody with distance sensor. Inaddition, other uses can be implemented such as controlling heating and lightingdevicesin homes andotherbuildings.

Keywords

WSN --- Arduino --- IEEE 802.15.4/Zigbee


Article
A Study of ZigBee Network Topologies for Wireless Sensor Network with One Coordinator and Multiple Coordinators
دراسة توبولوجيات شبكة الزيجبي لشبكات الاستشعار اللاسلكية مع المنسق الواحد ومتعدد المنسق

Author: Shayma Wail Nourildean
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2012 Volume: 19 Issue: 4 Pages: 64-80
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Wireless Sensor Networks have become a cheap and viable solution for a variety of applications, including monitoring of critical infrastructure (water supplies, power grids, traffic networks, agriculture, telecommunications systems etc.), wildlife habitat monitoring, industrial quality control, disaster recovery situations, military applications and much more. The ZigBee network model is more suitable for battery capacity, bandwidth and computing power’s limitations of WSN. In the present investigation, the modeled system was simulated using OPNET Modeler v14 to obtain the results in order to study the performance of the system in terms of tree routing, mesh routing, multiple coordinator system and if one of the coordinators was failed. The results showed that tree routing was more suitable for WSN than the mesh routing and mobility of end device was better in multiple coordinator system.

لقد أصبحت شبكات الاستشعار اللاسلكية حل رخيص وقابل للتطبيق لمجموعة متنوعة من التطبيقات ، بما في ذلك مراقبة البنية التحتية الحيوية (مجهزات المياه ، وشبكات الكهرباء وشبكات النقل، والزراعة، ونظم الاتصالات ، الخ)، ورصد موائل الحياة البرية والسيطرة على الجودة الصناعية، وحالات التعافي من الكوارث والتطبيقات العسكرية وأكثر من ذلك. نموذج شبكة زيجبي هو أكثر ملاءمة لمحدودية الـ WSN من حيث سعة البطارية وعرض الحزمة والقدرة. وتمت محاكاة النظام باستخدام برنامج الاوبنيتOPNET للحصول على النتائج من أجل دراسة أداء النظام من حيث شجرة التوجيه، شبكة التوجيه ، متعددة نظام المنسق، وفي حالة فشل واحد من المنسقين. وأظهرت النتائج ان التوجيه في حالة الشجرة أكثر ملاءمة لWSN من التوجيه في حالة الشبكة والحركة من الجهاز كان أفضل في نظام النتعدد المنسق.

Keywords

WSN --- OPNET --- ZigBee --- IEEE 802.15.4 --- MAC --- PAN


Article
Fuzzy Duty Cycle Adaption Algorithm for IEEE 802.15.4 Star Topology Networks

Author: Hayder Ahmed Abdulmohsin
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS,COMMUNICATION AND CONTROL & SYSTEMS ENGINEERING المجلة العراقية لهندسة الحاسبات والاتصالات والسيطرة والنظم ISSN: 18119212 Year: 2013 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 41-48
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Abstract – IEEE 802.15.4 is a standard designed for low data rate, low powerwireless personal area networks (WPANs) intended to provide interconnection of nodesvia radio communication. Such nodes have very limited computation, energy, andcommunication capabilities. In order to extend the lifetime of the nodes, we propose afuzzy logic controller to adapt a duty cycle of each node by changing superframe order(SO) based upon the network traffic and node's buffer occupation. Simulating theproposed algorithm in Castalia simulator and comparing it with constant duty cycleschemes are carried out in this paper. Simulation results show that the proposedalgorithm decreases drop packets in node's buffer, decreases packet latency andincreases energy efficiency.


Article
Implementation of Transmitter Zigbee System based on Wireless Sensor Network of IEEE 802.15.4 Standard
تمثيل نظام إرسال Zigbee بالأعتماد على معيار IEEE 802.5.4 الخاص بشبكات المستشعر اللاسلكي

Authors: Russul H. Hadi رسل هيثم هادي --- Ekhlas K. Hamza اخلاص كاظم حمزة
Journal: Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal مجلة الخوارزمي الهندسية ISSN: 18181171 23120789 Year: 2017 Volume: 13 Issue: 3 Pages: 38-45
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Zigbee is considered to be one of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) designed for short-range communications applications. It follows IEEE 802.15.4 specifications that aim to design networks with lowest cost and power consuming in addition to the minimum possible data rate. In this paper, a transmitter Zigbee system is designed based on PHY layer specifications of this standard. The modulation technique applied in this design is the offset quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK) with half sine pulse-shaping for achieving a minimum possible amount of phase transitions. In addition, the applied spreading technique is direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) technique, which has the effect in getting better performance for the transmitter system in multipath environments. The system is developed through the use of MATLAB/Simulink to show the performance of the proposed system in response to the appliy modulation technique.

يعد Zigbee احد شبكات المستشعر اللاسلكي والذي صُمِمَ لملائمة التطبيقات ذات المدى القصير. يعتمد Zigbee في مواصفات تصميمه على معيار IEEE 802.15.4 والذي يهدف الى تصميم شبكات بتكلفة وقدرة استهلاك واطئتين بالأضافة الى اقل معدل ممكن لأرسال البينات. في هذا البحث، تم تصميم نظام إرسال لمتحسس Zigbee بالإعتماد على خصائص الـ (PHY layer) الخاصة بالمعيار المذكور حيث تم استخدام ((OQPSK مع تشكيل نبضات نصف جيبية كتقنية تضمين كونها تضمن حدوث تَغيُر طفيف في إنتقال الطور للموجة المرسلة فضلاً عن تقنية ( (DSSSلغرض تحسين مستوى اداء النظام في البيئات متعددة القنوات. تم تمثيل التصميم المقترح للنظام باستخدام برنامج MATLAB/Simulink لبيان الأداء بالنسبة لتقنية التضمين المطبقة.

Keywords

DSSS technique --- IEEE 802.15.4 --- MSK --- OQPSK --- Zigbee.


Article
Image Security Over Wireless Sensor Network
تشفیر الصورة في شبكات الاستشعار اللاسلكیة

Authors: Wa'il A. H. Hadi وائل عبد الحسن ھادي --- Haydar F. Y. Hussein حیدر فاضل یاسین
Journal: AL-MANSOUR JOURNAL مجلة المنصور ISSN: 18196489 Year: 2017 Issue: 28 Pages: 63-72
Publisher: Private Mansour college كلية المنصور الاهلية

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Abstract

To secure the multimedia informations, cryptography is an active methodsfor information sSecurity has been utilized in some practical stechniques.Most of these stechniques have become swidely challenging, due to anumbers of weaknesses such as,the limitations of storages in memory,bandwidth, and the unreliability of the timing requirements. Besides, thesedata usually needss to encryption and compression for efficient ssecurity,storages and transmissions.Ones of the major sweaknesses for wireless sensor network is the energysconsumption, because of the batterys replacements or the difficultrecharging. The energy consomption can be controlled by more than oneslayer in WSNs. This paper, focused on the image security with majorenhancement on the energy consumption sover physical layer, becausemost of the energy consumption soccur in this layer. The reduction will beaccomplished by using the Zigbee transceivers standard at the physicallayer with the minimum complexity and lower power consumption sthanother systems used in wireless sensor networks. Additionally, such use willalso improve energy efficiency and bits error rate of the wireless sensornetworks. Also the chaos systems was applied to the pixels, bits and chips.The enhancement simulation for bit error rate and peak signal to noiseratio by transceiver image cameraman through an AWGN and Rayleighfading channels are displayed. The enhanced transmitting image by 5 dBsignal to noise ratio on the Rayleigh fading channel, an improvement onthe peak signal to noise ratio of the received image from 23.5 dB to 37 dBcan be observed.

یعد استھلاك الطاقة في شبكات الاستشعار اللاسلكي ھي النقطة الاضعف وذلك لان شبكاتالاستشعار اللاسلكیة محدودة الطاقة من خلال استعمالھا لمصدر التیار المستمر (البطاریة) والذيیكون في بعض الاحالات من الصعب اذ لم یكن من المستحیل شحن البطاریة او استبدالھا بسبب مواقعتوزیع ھذه المتحسسات . ان استھلاك الطاقة في منظومات الاستشعار اللاسلكي یمكن السیطرة علیھ فيعدد من الطبقات . في ھذه الورقة عن طریق تشفیر الصورة نعمل على تقلیل استھلاك الطاقة في الطبقةلأنھا الطبقة الاكثر استھلاك للطاقة من الطبقات الاخرى. وذألك من خلال (physical layer) المادیةمع بعض التقنیات للحصول على نظام أعلى كفاءة للطاقة ,وأقل نسبة خطأ. (zigbee device) استخداماستخدمت العدید من التطبیقات العملیة في تشفیر محتویات الوسائط المتعددة و التشفیر ھي الوسیلة الفعالةفي أمن المعلومات المستخدمة. أصبحت معظم ھذه التطبیقات صعبة على نحو متزاید، ویرجع ذلك إلىوعرض النطاق الترددي ، ( memory) عدد من المعوقات مثل: الحد من التخزین في الذاكرةوقد تم التحقیق نظریة الفوضى على نطاق .(delay) والتأخیر في عملیات التشفیر ،( bandwidth)واسع وخاصة لتطویر خوارزمیات تشفیر الصور. في ھذه الورقة سوف یتم تطبیق نظام الفوضى على. (BER) الصور في بعض الطرق المختلفة للحصول على اعلى تشفیر للصورة واقل خسائر في


Article
BER, Throughput, Energy Efficiency Performance Analysis of Proposed Different Systems in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Wa'il A. H. Hadi --- Safa A. A. Abass
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2016 Volume: 34 Issue: 11 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1970-1978
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

One of the major weakness of Wireless Sensor Networks is the energy consumption because of limited battery resource and battery replacement or recharging difficulty. The research presented in this paper aims to reduce the energy consumption in the physical layer because most the energy consumption occurred in this layer. This reduction will be achieved via the use of ZigBee transceiver standard at the physical layer under 2.4GHz frequency band with the reduced complexity and lower power consumption than other techniques used in Wireless Sensor Network. Furthermore, such use will also enhance energy efficiency, bit error rate, and throughput of the wireless sensor network. In this paper, three different systems have been proposed according to the type of transceiver technique used in wireless sensor network. System1 uses ZigBee transceiver standard over the wireless sensor network without any additional technique whereas system2 uses ZigBee transceiver with Convolutional Coding over the WSNs model. On the other hand, system3 uses the ZigBee transceiver with both diversity techniquesVirtual Multi-Input Multi-Output and with Convolutional Coding over the wireless sensor network model. The simulation of matlab results show that system3 achieves the best energy efficiency performance compared with the other two systems at lower quality of channel. System2 achieves the best energy efficiency performance at medium quality of channel, and system1 achieves better energy efficiency at high quality of channel.

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