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Article
The Evaluation of Serum IFN-γ and TGF-β in Some Patients with Type1 Diabetes mellitus in Al-diwanyah Province.

Author: Ghasoun M. Wadai
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Pages: 67-73
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The diabetes mellitus type one (T1DM) is considered as autoimmune disease due to the destruction of Langerhans beta cell, which is the insulin-producing cell as a result of the invasion by cells of the immune system with vital roles. There is evidence that interferone-γ IFN-γ is responsible for the T1DM disease developing, and so the transforming growth factor type beta ( TGF-β) was known as an important regulator of the immune response. Throughout of this study gain more understanding about the two cytokines role in this disease and the correlation between them to provide immunotherapeutic strategies for T1DM. A total of 35 with T1DM (19 female, 16 male), in addition to (15) healthy control subjects undertook the measurement of serum IFN-γ and TGF-β by ELISA technique. The result explains higher mean serum levels of IFN-γ (684.867 ± 246.23 pg/ml) were observed in the investigated patients compared to healthy control (11.75 ± 4.56 pg/ml). Whereas observed decline in the serum TGF-β (302.2± 65.43 pg/ml) as compared to healthy control (1153 ± 186.35 pg/ml) at the level (p<0.01), and so the result explained a significant negative correlation between TGF_β and INF_γ concentration (p<0.05). The conclusion is that T1DM patients were detected with a significantly increase in INF_γ and decrease TGF_β serum level, and they have the antagonistic effect on the T1DM development.

Keywords

IFN-γ --- TGF-β --- T1DM.


Article
Imunocytochemistry Detection of M1CA Gene Receptor in Human Patients with Brucellosis

Authors: Mohammad Sabri A. Razzaq --- , Mohammad A. K. AlSaadi --- Abdul Kareem S. Al-Yassari
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2014 Volume: 22 Issue: 3 Pages: 1156-1146
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Background: The most relevant cytokine involved in the response against the genus Brucella is interferon gamma (IFN-γ) that is mainly produced by NK cells and stimulated by the binding between their receptors NKG2D receptor and its ligand M1CA gene expressed on Brucella – host infected cells.Aim: To evaluate the relationship between host susceptibility for Brucella infection and the expression of MICA gene which demonstrated by imunocytochemitsry staining technique .Methods: Rose Bengal test was applied for 340 patient serum then Brucella blood culture was carried out for Rose Bengal positive samples. Imunocytochemistry technique was used to check the expression of MICA gene receptor on human infected cells. Moreover, the level of IFN-γ was measured in patient sera by using of ELISA technique.Results: Rose Bengal Test (RBT) revealed that 155 patients were positive. Brucella- Blood culture revealed that only eight samples gives positive for blood culture. Five samples expressed MICA gene receptors. The level of IFN-γ revealed a significant increasing(p ≤ 0.05 ) in positive samples for MICA gene receptors as compared to negative samples for MICA gene receptors.Conclusion: There is a good relationship between the expression of MICA gene receptor and immune response against Brucella that represented by an increasing of IFN-γ.

تم أجراء الدراسة في سبعة مستشفيات هي م . الهاشمية العام , م .الحلة الجراحي، م .الولادة والأطفال،م. مرجان ،م. القاسم العام ، مختبر الصحة المركزي ، المختبرات الأهلية / محافظة بابل خلال الفترة من شهر كانون الأول 2010 إلى شهر كانون الثاني 2012 . تم فحص 340 نموذج دم من المرضى وتحت أشراف الطبيب الأختصاصي بعد أجراء الفحص المختبري (RBT) وتم التعامل مع الحالات الموجبة للمرضى المشتبة بأصابتهم بحمى مالطا ، تراوحت اعمار المرضى بين 9 – 70 سنة للذكور والاناث وأظهر هدف الدراسة المناعية الجينية M1CA gene )) وجود ترابط وثيق بين المسقبل ( NKG2D ) و (M1CA ligand ) والذي اظهر مدى حساسية أو مقاومة الأصابة بجرثومة البروسيلا للأنسان وتم التعامل مع نماذج الدم بفصل خلايا اللمفوسايت وتثبيت الشريحة والسلايد بأستخدام طريقة التصبيغ المناعي لمستقبلات خلايا الدم المناعية (, CD8 NK , T cells) وأظهرت الدراسة خمسة نماذج للمرضى موجبة للتصبيغ المناعي وثلاث حالات لم تصبغ من مجموع ثمانية نماذج للمرضى اللذين تم عزل جرثومة البروسيلا منهم واظهر المرضى زيادة معنوية في مستوى افرازكاما - انترفيرون.


Article
IFN-γ VERSUS IL-10 IN SITU EXPRESSION IN RECURRENT SPONTANEOUS ABORTION
التعبير الموضعي للانترفيرون كاما مقابل الانترلوكين-10 في حالات الاجهاض التلقائي المتكرر

Authors: Asmaa’ Baqer Al-Obaidi أسماء باقر العبيدي --- Manal Adnan Habib منال عدنان حبيب
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2009 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 21-29
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: The possible immunological bases of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) are still largely unknown, aberrant type 1 cytokine production; interferon-γ (IFNγ), and a defective type 2 cytokine; Interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been suggested to be related to the incidence of unexplained RSA.Objective: To study the relation between the in situ expression of IFNγ and IL-10 in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion.Materials and Methods: The study included three groups of women; Group A: patients had recurrent abortion (n=24), Group B: patients had spontaneous abortion for the first time (n=10), Group C: women with elective pregnancy termination (n=6). Curate samples obtained from these women were subjected for in situ hybridization technique to detect and determine the in situ expression of IFN-γ and IL-10.Results: The in situ expression of IFN-γ was significantly higher in women with RSA as compared with normal pregnant and first abortion groups (p=0.000 and 0.002 respectively), while IL-10 expression was significantly lower in women with RSA as compared with first abortion group (p=0.005), and the ratio of IFN-γ/IL-10 was 1.97 in women with recurrent abortion, while that of normal pregnant and first abortion groups were 0.67 and 0.73 respectively.Conclusion: The data of this study strengthened the possibility that type-1 immune response may have the upper hand in the pathology of RSA in association with reduction in the type-2 immune response.Key words: RSA, IFN-γ, IL-10

خلفية الدراسة: لا تزال الأسس المناعية الممكنة للإجهاض التلقائي المتكرر غير معروفة بدرجة كبيرة لحد الآن. وقد أُعتبِرت الزيادة في السايتوكينات من النوع الأول (Type 1 cytokines) مثل (IFN-γ), والإنخفاض في السايتوكينات من النوع الثاني (Type 2 cytokines) مثل (IL-10) من الأسباب المحتملة لعدد من حالات الاجهاض المتكرر.هدف الدراسة: دراسة العلاقة بين التعبير الموضعي للانترفيرون كاما والانترلوكين العاشر في حالات الاجهاض التلقائي المتكرر.المرضى وطريقة الدراسة: تضمنت هذه الدراسة ثلاثة مجموعات من النساء، المجموعة A : حالات اجهاض متكرر(n=24)، المجموعة B : حالات اجهاض تلقائي للمرة الأولى (n=10)، المجموعة C : حالات انهاء حمل ارادي (n=6). اجريت تقنية التهجين الموضعي للكشف عن وتحديد كل من IL-10 , IFN-γ في عينات الجرف الرحمي لهذه الحالات.النتائج: اظهرت النتائج زيادة معنوية كبيرة في التعبير الموضعي IFN-γ في حالات الاجهاض المتكرر مقارنة مع حالات الاجهاض لأول مرة و الحمل الطبيعي, مع نقصان معنوي كبير في التعبير الموضعي IL-10 في حالات الاجهاض المتكرر مقارنة مع الحالات الأخرى. أما النسبة بين IFN-γ - IL-10 فقد كانت 1.97 في حالات الاجهاض المتكرر, بينما كانت 0.67 و 0.73 في حالات الحمل الطبيعي و الاجهاض لأول مرة على التوالي. الاستنتاج: لقد قوّت نتائج هذه الدراسة احتمالية الدور المهم للنوع الأول من الاستجابة المناعية في مرضية الاجهاض التلقائي المتكرر مترابطة مع انخفاض واضح في النوع الثاني من الاستجابة المناعية.مفاتيح الكلمات: الاجهاض المتكرر, IFN-γ, IL-10


Article
The Role of IL-6, IL-10 and IFN- γ mRNA in Women with Recurrent Abortion
دراسة معدلات كل من الزنك,الحديد,السيلينوم,والنحاس في مصول سرطان المثانة

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Abstract

Human pregnancy appears to be an immunological paradox, in that the fetus represents a semi-allograft developing in the potentially hostile environment of the maternal immune system. One important mechanism involves the down-regulation of the cellular immune response, which has been shown to be dependent upon the suppression of T-helper (Th)1 and T-cytotoxic (Tc)1 cells,which produce interleukin -2, interferon -γ, and tumor necrosis factor -β, and the up- regulation of Th2 and Tc2 cells, which produce IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13The aim of this study to investigate the possible immunological basis of recurrent abortion by studying the expression of IL-6, IL-10, IFN- γ in trophoblasts by using in situ hybridization (ISH) technique. Methods: using IL-6, IL-10 and IFN as biomarkers of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Paraffin embedded blocks from trophoblasts tissue of each patient for determination available cytokines. Results: IL-6 increased in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and IL-10 was higher in control group than in recurrent spontaneous abortion while RSA showed a high percentage of IFN-γ in comparison with control. The expression of IFN-γ decreases whereas IL-6 and IL-10 increase with increasing gestational age. Conclusions: IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-10 may be biomarkers of Th1/Th2 immune status during pregnancy. Defective IL-10 expression in women with RSA and non-RSA might be the possible defect in Th2 cytokines production in these patients.

ثلاث وسبعون امرأة، تم تقسيمهن إلى ثلاثة مجاميع: مجموعة إجهاض تلقائي متكرّر (RSA) وعددهن 39 امرأة ومجموعة - إجهاض تلقائي غير متكرّر (non-RSA) وعددهن 20 امرأة و المجموعة الثالثة هي مجموعة سيطرة (حمل ناجح) وعددهن 14 امرأة حيث تم جمع نماذج من النسيجِ المغذي للجنين (التروفوبلاست) من كل المرضى وكذلك مجموعه السيطرة. أن مستويات كلا من IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-6 تم التحقق منها باختبار التهجين الموضعي والكشف عن المجسات المهجنة (ISH ). أظهرت النتائج وجود زيادة معنوية في IL-6 في مجموعة الإجهاض المتكرر التلقائي وIL-10 يزداد زيادة معنوية في مجموعة السيطرة مقارنة بمجموعتي RSAو non- RSA وهناك زيادة معنوية في γ IFN- في مجموعة الإجهاض المتكرر التلقائي وغير المتكرر مقارنة بمجموعة السيطرة وهذا يؤكد دوره في حدوث الإجهاض مقارنة ب IL-10 الذي يعتبر الأساس لحمل ناجح. إن ال γ- IFN يقل بزيادة أشهر الحمل بينما ظهور IL-6و IL-10يزداد عند زيادة أشهر الحمل. إن ال γ- IFN و IL-6و IL-10 يعتبرون كمؤشر على Th1/Th2 خلال الحمل. النقص في IL-10 في حالة الإجهاض المتكرر التلقائي والإجهاض الغير متكرر يعني نقص في المناعة وإنتاج السايتوكاين .

Keywords

IL-6 --- IL-10 --- IFN- γ mRNA --- IL-6 --- IL-10 --- IFN- γ mRNA


Article
Genetic susceptibility associated with toxoplasmosis; genetic polymorphism, molecular and immunological study
القابلية الجينية المرتبطة بالإصابة بداء المقوسات ; دراسة التغايرات الجينية والجزيئية والمناعية

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Abstract

In the present study 258 blood samples were gathered from the gynecology wards in Babylon hospital for children and maternity and out private clinic from Babylon and Baghdad province during the period from September 2014 to January 2015 for investigation on toxoplasmosis infections and the study effect of genes modifications on infection susceptibility by parasite. this research was carried out in laboratory of genetic researches in College of Science for girls- Babylon university .Expression of many cytokines like TNF-α and IL- 1β and genes like ALOX12 through infection with Toxoplasma gondii were revealed modifies as a result in this study. Genotypic and allelic frequency of IFN-γ +874 T/A were statistically differences in relation to the occurrence of the A allele in many cases of parasitic infection. Genetic frequency of sag4 gene among patients was higher than control 10.7% and 1.3%, respectively. The genetic profiling of TLRs revealed that TLR11 and TLR12 was 21.1% and 21.7%, respectively, also the genetic profiling of TUB1 and FOL1 revealed that TUB1 and FOL1 was 19.2% and 16.4% respectively, while IL-6 and IL-1β genes was 14.8%, 12.9% in that order.

في الدراسة الحالية تم جمع 258 عينة دم من ردهات النسائية والتوليد في مستشفى بابل للنسائية والاطفال ومن بعض العيادات النسائية الخاصة في محافظة بابل وبغداد خلال الفترة من ايلول 2014 الى كانون الثاني 2015 للتحري عن الاصابة بداء المقوسات ودراسة تأثير التحويرات في بعض الجينات على قابلية الاصابة بالطفيلي وقد اجري البحث في مختبر ابحاث الوراثة في كلية العلوم للبنات- جامعة بابل.ان التعبير الجيني للعديد من السايتوكينات مثل عامل التنخر الورمي TNF-α والانترلوكين- ا بيتا IL- 1β وجين الـ ALOX12 خلال الإصابة بطفيلي المقوسات الكوندية Toxoplasma gondiiقد اظهر تحوراً كنتيجة نهائية خلال الدراسة الحالية. الطراز الجيني والتردد الأليلي الخاص بالـ IFN-γ +874 T/A قد دل على فروقات إحصائية متعلقة بوجود الأليل A في أغلب حالات الإصابة الطفيلية. التردد للجين sag4بين المصابين قد كان أعلى من ما هو عليه في عينات السيطرة 10.7% و 1.3% على التوالي. ان الصورة الجينية لجينات TLRs قد أوضح بأن TLR11 و TLR12 كانا بمقدار 21.1% و 21.7%. وأيضاً هو الحال للصورة الجينية للجينين TUB1 و FOL1 قد أظهر أيضا بأنهما كانا بمقدار 19.2% و 16.4%على التوالي , بينما كان الجينان IL-6 و IL-1β بمقدار 14.8% و 12.9%على هذا التسلسل قيد الدراسة الحالية .


Article
Serum levels of cytokines (TNF-&#945;, IFN-&#947;& IL-10) in Type-2 diabetic patients with HCV infection

Authors: Zena T. Mall-Allah --- Eman M. Saleh --- May Y. Saour
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: PISSN: 00419419 / EISSN: 24108057 Year: 2011 Volume: 53 Issue: 2 Pages: 198-200
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Back ground: Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a common complication of all liver diseases. However clinical and experimental data suggest a direct role of HCV in the perturbation of glucose metabolism. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of HCV infection as a risk factor to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to study the immunopathogenicity of HCV in diabetes mellitus patients, through the assessment of IFN-γ, TNF- α and IL-10 serum levels.
Objectives: Is to investigate the role of HCV infection as a risk factor to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to study the immunopathogenecity of HCV in diabetes mellitus patients, through the assessment of IFN-γ, TNF- α and IL-10 serum levels.
Patients and Methods: Thirty six known T2D patients attending the endocrine and diabetes center in Baghdad for check-up were enrolled in this study. Their age ranged from 15- 70 year. Twenty one patients have T2D only while the other Fifteen were have diabetes with HCV infection. Thirteen healthy individuals without any signs or symptoms of disease were also included in this study as healthy controls. Serum levels of cytokines including IFN- γ, TNF-α and IL-10 were analyzed by ELISA immunoassay.
Results: Higher serum levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α were observed in the investigated HCV patients with diabetes (43.87pg/ml, 68.1pg/ml respectively) compared to T2D patients (19.75 and 55.10 pg/ml respectively) and controls (8.08 and 31.4 pg/ml respectively). The statistical analysis revealed a significant difference between these three groups (P= 0.01). The mean serum levels of IL-10 were significantly elevated in T2D group as compared to HCV patients with T2D and control groups (28.7, 10.32, 15.78 pg/ml respectively, p=0.05).
Conclusion: The over production of proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF- α) and the low IL-10 level could play a crucial role in pathogenesis of HCV that leads to T2D via increasing the insulin resistance.

Keywords

T2D --- HCV --- IFN-γ --- TNF-α --- IL-10


Article
T-Cells Proliferation and Serum Cytokine levels in Type 1 Diabetic Children

Author: Eman Mahdi Saleh ايمان مهدي صالح
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2011 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 16-26
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: There is plenty of evidence suggesting that involvement of several groups of viruses in the development and / or acceleration of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM). Objective: To analyze the T- cell proliferation in the presence of Coxsackie virus B5 (CVB5), Polio and Adenovirus antigens in addition to assessment of Interferon- gamma (IFN-γ), Interleukins (IL-10 and IL-6). Methods: In 60 Iraqi T1DM children with recent onset of T1DM, Lymphocyte proliferation was analyzed using Methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay by culturing Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes (PBLs) with Coxsackie Virus B5 (CVB5), Adenovirus, and Polio vaccine. Serum Interferon-γ, IL-10 and IL-6 were quantified by sandwich ELISA. Results: No significant differences were shown in the PBL proliferative percentage in response to Con-A mitogen and tested viruses (CVB5 and Adenovirus) between T1DM and healthy controls, but it showed a significant decline in patients in response to Polio vaccine. Higher significant serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-10, and Il-6 were observed in the investigated patients compared to controls (p<0.05). Mean PBL proliferative percentage in response to tested viral antigens was correlated with the serum IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-10 levels. Conclusions: In children with new- onset diabetes, mean proliferative percentage of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes was generally decreased. A significant elevation of serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-6 were observed, which is significantly correlated to mean proliferative responses of PBL to viral antigens.


Article
VCAM-1 is Another Ugly Face of IFN-γ in Women with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion

Authors: Asmaa Baqer Al-Obaidi --- Manal Adnan Habib --- Suhad Mohmamad
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 229-236
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:The Th-1 cytokines were well implicated in adversely affecting pregnancy and the mechanism by which they cause pregnancy loss was suggested to be mainly vascular by activation of mediators of inflammation like certain adhesion molecules.OBJECTIVE:To study the pathological effect of IFN-γ and VCAM-1 in recurrent pregnancy loss.PATIENTS AND METHODS:The study included three groups of women; Group A: patients had recurrent abortion (n=24), Group B: patients had spontaneous abortion for the first time (n=10), Group C: women with elective pregnancy termination (n=6). Curate samples obtained from these women were subjected for in situ hybridization technique to determine the in situ expression of IFN-γ, and immunohistochemistry analysis to detect the expression of VCAM-1.RESULTS:The in situ expression of IFN-γ was significantly higher in women with RSA as compared with normal pregnant and first abortion groups (p=0.000 and 0.002) respectively, and the expression of VCAM-1 was also significantly higher (p=0.005) in women with RSA as compared with those who had abortion for the first time, with a positive correlation between the expression of IFN-γ and VCAM-1 (r=0.418; p<0.05) in women with RSA.CONCLUSION:The data of this study strengthen the possibility that type-1 immune response may have the upper hand in the pathology of RSA on multidirectional bases including up regulation of the surface expression of VCAM-1


Article
Cytokines Profile in Newly Diagnosed Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Author: Eman M. Saleh * BSc, PhD د. ايمان مهدي صالح
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: PISSN: 00419419 / EISSN: 24108057 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 3 Pages: 295-299
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Summary :Background: Cytokines have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes in a number of studies, and playing a role in the initiation of β-cell damaging process. The objective of this study is to gain more understanding about the role of cytokines in initiation of T1DM, through assessment of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-6 in diabetic patients.Patients and methods: A total of 60 patients who were newly diagnosed as having T1DM (diagnosed less than five months) were included in the present study. Fifty apparently healthy control subjects were underwent the measurement of serum IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-6 by ELISA. Results: Higher serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-10, and Il-6 were observed in the investigated patients ≤10 years (75.60, 104.92, 147.6 pg/ml respectively) compared to controls (42.66, 57.01, 80.4 pg/ml respectively). The statistical analysis revealed a significant difference between patients and controls (P1= 0.005, 0.003, 0.036 respectively). The mean levels of serum IFN-γ, IL-10, and Il-6 were also significantly elevated in >10 years old patients (70.78, 84.22, 171.8 pg/ml respectively) than controls (40.39, 59.50, 81.6 pg/ml respectively), (P1= 0.006, 0.037, 0.04 respectively). A statistically difference of mean IL-10 concentration appears between patients in both age groups (P2= 0.04). No significant differences appear in the mean serum concentrations of IFN-γ, and IL-6 between the two age groups (P2=0.73, 0.07 respectively).Conclusions: In children with diabetes, a significant elevation of serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-6 were observed.Key Words: T1DM, IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-6

Keywords

: T1DM --- IFN-γ --- IL-10 and IL-6


Article
Brucella melitensis Rev.1 live attenuated Vaccine and its DNA induced IFN-γ and anti-ds DNA antibodies production in rats
اللقاح المضعف لبكترياBrucella melitensis Rev 1 و الدنا المستخلص منها يحفز انتاج الانترفيرون – كاما والاضداد للحمض النووي في الجرذان

Authors: Nawal Utba نوال عتبه --- Raghad Qays رغد قيس
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2015 Volume: 56 Issue: 1A Pages: 75-80
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Brucellosis is one of the five common bacterial zoonoses in the world caused by organisms belonging to the genus Brucella. Immune recognition of bacterial infection may contribute to cytokine, as well as antibody production that are characteristic of innate and adaptive responses. In this study, the presence of attenuated live Brucella melitenses Rev1 bacteria or its DNA induced the immune system to produce IFN-γ and anti-ds DNA antibody. In respect to IFN-γ released, the B. melitensis Rev 1 attenuated live vaccine was able to stimulate the immune system more than the DNA (P≤0.05). Such finding could be attributed to the whole attenuated bacteria that have immunogenic factors other than the DNA like cell wall component and outer membrane. On the other hand, the B. meliensis Rev 1 DNA activated the B cell to secret anti-ds DNA antibodies significantly higher (P≤ 0.05) than live attenuated vaccine, and the level of antibodies was increased to parallel the concentration increases of injected DNA.

تعد الحمى المالطيه واحدة من خمسةامراض بكتيرية شيوعا في العالم وهي ذات منشاحيواني والتي تسببها الكائنات التي تنتمي إلى جنس البروسيلا . ويمكن ان يساهم التعرف المناعي للاصابه البكتيرية في انتاج الحركيات الخلويه والاضداد عن طريق تحفيز الاستجابة المناعيه الفطرية والمكتسبه. وفي هذه الدراسة حقنت البكتريا المضعفهB. melitensesf Rev1 و الحمض النووي لتلك البكتريا في الجرذان وحفز جهازها المناعي لإنتاج الإنترفيرون كاما والاضداد للحمض النووي. فيما يتعلق الإنترفيرون كاما، كان اللقاح المضغف ل Brucella melitensis Rev 1 قادر على تحفيز الجهاز المناعي معنوي لانتاج الانترفيرون كاماأكثر من الحمض النووي (الدنا) للبكتريا ( P ≤ 0.05). ويمكن أن يعزى هذا الاستنتاج لان البكتيرياالكامله المضعفه لديهاعوامل أخرى بالاضافه الى الحمض النووي مثل مكونات جدار الخلية و الغشاء الخارجي وهذه يمكن ان تحفز الاستجابه المناعيه . من ناحية أخرى، فإن الحمض النووي للبكتريا المضعفه Rev 1 B. meliensis نشط الخلايا البائية لانتاج الاضداد للحمض النووي أعلى معنويا ( P ≤ 0.05) بكثير من اللقاح المضعف ، وازداد مستوى الاضداد مع زيادة تركيز الحمض النووي للبكتريا المحقون في الجرذان.

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