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Article
Leptin and Insulin Resistance in Obese Children

Author: Noor T. Tahir Ph.D*, Hind S. Ahmed Ph.D**, ALmottesembellah A. Gaiz M.Sc ***
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2014 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 36-40
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is the primary metabolic disorder associated with obesity. Obesity is a growing worldwide health problem affecting both adults and children. Objectives: To determine the association between leptin and IR, and to identify the ratio of fasting glucose/leptin (G/L) and insulin/leptin (I/L) as a new simple method for the detection of IR in obese children.Methods: This study was done in the National DiabeticCenter/ AL-Mustansiriya University during the period fromMay 2013 until the end of October 2013. Fasting bloodglucose (FBG), serum insulin, leptin, and lipid profile weremeasured in 52 obese children (24 children with IR and 28without IR); their age range was (5-15) years, they werecompared with 38 healthy children as a control group.Results: Means of FBG, insulin, leptin, total cholesterol(TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), low density lipoproteincholesterol (LDL-C), and non high density lipoproteincholesterol (non HDL-C) were significantly increased inobese children with IR as compared in children without IR,(P<0.05), while there was a significant decrease in serumlevel of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) inobese children with IR when compared with obese childrenwithout IR, (P=0.001). There was a decrease in the ratio ofG/L and an increase in the ratio of I/L in obese children withIR, but it was not significant. A significant positivecorrelation was found between serum leptin verse bodymass index (BMI), FBG, insulin, homeostasis modelassessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), I/L ratio, TC,TAG, LDL-C, and non HDL-C, while a significant negativecorrelation was found between serum leptin and HDL-C inobese children with IR.Conclusions: The present results showed that serum leptinis correlated with BMI, FBG, insulin, HOMA-IR, I/L ratio, TC,TAG, LDL-C, and non HDL-C in obese children with IR. TheG/L ratio can be used in addition to me /L ratio, and HOMAto accurately assess IR in obese children

Keywords

Obesity --- insulin resistance --- Leptin


Article
The relationship between Reactive Oxygen Species and Insulin resistance of Obese individuals in Babylon /Iraq
العلاقة بين أنواع الأكسجين التفاعلية ومقاومة الأنسولين لدى الأفراد البدينين في بابل / العراق

Authors: Amera Kamal Mohammed اميرة كمال --- Alaa Jawad Hassan الاء جواد
Journal: Al-Kufa University Journal for Biology مجلة جامعة الكوفة لعلوم الحياة ISSN: 20738854 23116544 Year: 2017 Volume: عدد خاص Issue: المؤتمر العلمي الدولي الاول للتقنيات الطبية والبيولوجية / للفترة 8-9 آذار 2017 Pages: 251-256
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between Reactive Oxygen Species and Insulin resistance the measured by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA index) at Obese individuals in Babylon /Iraq, who do not suffer from chronic diseases. This study was performed in department of nutrition at the Murjan teaching hospital / in Babylon province/Iraq, in April 2016.

كان الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو تقييم العلاقة بين أنواع الأكسجين التفاعلية ومقاومة الأنسولين التي تم قياسها من خلال تقييم نموذج التوازن في مقاومة الأنسولين (HOMA index) لدى الأفراد البدينين في بابل / العراق ، الذين لا يعانون من أمراض مزمنة. أجريت هذه الدراسة في قسم التغذية في مستشفى المرجان التعليمي / في محافظة بابل / العراق ، في أبريل 2016.


Article
The use of oral thiazoldinediones in correction of hormonalabnormalities among unmarried women with resistant PCO .

Authors: Waffaa N Saieed --- Inas Taha --- Wisam Akram
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2006 Volume: 48 Issue: 4 Pages: 378-382
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background; Polycystic disease of the• ovary is complex of symptoms with virious clinical, hormonal and biochemical abnormalities.
Setting; AL-Elwyia Maternity Teaching Hospital
Aim; to test the ability of pioglitazone in correcting biochemical and hormonal changes among unmarried women with PCO.
Design; Prospective
Methods: 23 women with PCO in whom previous treatment with metformin has failed were recruited to participate in the study. All the women were single with chronic unovulation and menstrual abnormalities and hirsutism. They were put on pioglitazone 30 mg daily for 6 months. FSH, LH, LH/ FSH, fasting insulin level, free testosterone, estradiol, and serum sex binding globulin as well as mid luteal progesterone were assessed prior to treatment and six months later. Results; there was significant reduction in the mean serum fasting insulin level [53.08+12.75 vs. 22.43+4.29: P< 0.001]. In addition there was significant reduction in the mean serum free testosterone, LH and LH/ FSH ratio [3.21+0.36 vs. 1.68+0.43: P<0.001], [15.19+4.43 vs. 10.72+3.08: P<0.001], [2.41+0.23 vs. 1.71+0.12: P<0.001] respectively. In addition mean serum progesterone at mid luteal phase increased significantly [2.44+1.11 vs. 18.61+2.28: P<0.001]. No woman during the treatment course has shown any sign of liver impairment or toxicity.
Conclusion; Pioglitazone is an insulin sensitizing drug which may be useful among women with PCO in whom previous treatment with metformin has failed. Yet, caution should be practiced in prescribing the drug until further studies confirm its safety and efficacy.


Article
Association between preeclampsia and hyperandrogenemia

Author: Wisam Akram
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-6
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background; Insulin resistance and increased serum free testosteroneare well known to be associated with preeclampsiaType of study; case controlAim of the study; to compare serum levels of free testosterone amonghypertensive preeclamptic women versus controlMethods; two groups were constructed from primigravida womentaken from labor ward. Study group (N=30) were preeclamptic versuscontrol (n=30). For all women serum testosterone was assayed andcompared and correlated to mean arterial blood pressure and othervariables in preeclampsiaResult; serum free testosterone was significantly higher among womenwith preeclampsia compared with control 5.00±0.72 versus 1.28±0.97, P< 0.001. No Significant change was found between serum estriol levelsin both groups. Analysis of co-variants has shown that fetal gender(Male) has no effect on maternal serum testosterone levels.Conclusions; preeclamptic women in the third trimester havesignificantly higher free testosterone serum levels than control women.It is not clear yet whether this increase in free testosterone is related toinsulin resistance in the placenta or other factors. Further studies arerequired to explore the significance of increased testosterone levels inthe blood with prediction of preeclampsia and assessment of itsseverity.


Article
Visfatin Level and its Relation with Obesity and Insulin Resistance In Iraqi Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
مستوى الهرمون فيستاتيني وعلاقته بالسمنه ومقاومة الانسولين لدى مرضى السكر

Authors: Tariq M.Ali Rajeb طارق محمد علي --- Abdul Kareem Y. AL-Samarraie عبدالكريم يحيى --- . Noor Thair Tahir ALKhalidy نور ثائر طاهر
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2017 Volume: 30 Issue: 1 Pages: 24-28
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Obesity is highly associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Visfatin is adipocytokines that is highly expressed in visceral fat. Its expression in visceral fat is hyperglycemia in insulin deficient diabetes. Objective: To study the visfatin level in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and its relation with obesity and insulin resistance.Patients and methods: This study was done in national diabetes center(NDC),AL -Mustansria University and AL –Yarmok Hospital Teaching ; on a total (120) individuals age range from (33-60) years. ( 80) patient type 2 diabetes nephropathy, (40) healthy controls . The enrolled patients were divided to three groups according to BMI ,data collection about age, sex ,WHR, BMI and blood samples to estimate serum visfatin levels, fasting plasma glucose(FPG), glycated hemoglobin(HbA1c), lipid profile (TC,TG,HDL-C,and LDL-C), fasting C-Peptide ,and fasting insulin level Furthermore insulin resistance parameters calculated from Homeostasis Model Assessment 2- insulin Resistance were calculated using HOMA2-Calculator software downloaded freely .Results: The mean FPG,HbA1c, C-Peptide level, fasting insulin level ,HOMA2IR and visfatin level show statistically significantly increased in diabetic patients when compared with control subjects. Serum visfatin level was significantly increased with BMI increased groups. Visfatin level was increased in HOMA2-IR =>3 when compared with HOMA2-IR <3 in diabetic patients. Visfatin level show significant positive coorelation with BMI, WHR,FPG, HbA1c, fasting insulin level , HOMA2-IR , TC,TG,and LDL-C in diabetic patients when compared with control subjects ,and negative correlation between serum visfatin level and HDL-C in diabetic patients when compared with control subjects . Conclusion: Obesity and Insulin resistance play an important role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Elevated visfatin level in diabetic patients with obesity features of insulin resistance are believed to result in distance clinical characteristics and complications such as atherosclerosis.

Keywords

T2DM --- Obesity --- Insulin resistance --- visfatin.


Article
Evaluation of metformin treatment in patient with polycystic ovary syndrome in Kirkuk city
تقييم علاج الميتفورمين في مرضى متلازمة تكيس المبايض في مدينة كركوك

Authors: Nazhet Abdul qadir --- Ibaa Gassan --- Emil Nasir Azzo --- Iman Sabah --- et al.
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2012 Volume: 16 Issue: 1 Pages: 52-57
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objectives: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women of fertile age, affecting 5-10% of the female population. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the endocrine and metabolic effects of metformin in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome in Kirkuk city.Methods: Eighty female with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), were classified in to two groups, the first group ,who received Clomifene citrate and Metformin hydrochloride included 45 patients and the second group , who received Clomifene citrate only (control group) included 35 patients. All study patients, were diagnosed as polycystic ovary syndrome and they were on treatment at least two months before blood sample collection. Laboratory assessment that obtained included serum, free testosterone, leptin and insulin glucose and lipid profile.Results: No significant differences in median of, serum insulin, insulin resistance or serum leptin between study groups were observed. The median free serum testosterone was significantly lower (23 pg/ml) in those treated with metformin compared to those on ordinary treatment (50 pg/ml). Fasting serum glucose, HDL – cholesterol and total cholesterol were significantly higher in group without metformin (116.2 , 41.3 , 161.8 mg/dL respectively) compaired to group with metformin (101.5, 34.3 , 138.8 mg/dL respectively). The remaining biomarkers (serum LDL-cholesterol, serum VLDL-cholesterol and triglyceride) showed no statistically significant differences between two groups.We conclude that metformin treatment has beneficial effects on serum, free testosterone cholesterol and glucose in obese women with PCOS.


Article
The Role of Metformin in patients with Primary Hypothyroidism

Authors: ,Anmar Alharganee *** --- ,Marwah Isam Abdulrahman **, --- Khalid Ibrahim Al-Lehibi* ,
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2019 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 79-85
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Insulin resistance is present in 50% or more of patients with primary hypothyroidism. Metformin can decrease TSH levels in these patients by a complex matter, this can be of great help in clinical practice.Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of metformin in reducing TSH levels in patients with primary hypothyroidism.Methods: Hundred patients with primary hypothyroidism, 82 females, 18 males were included in this study, everyone was followed up for two months after adding metformin 850 mg twice daily in addition to thyroxin.Results: 36 patients (36%) have a normal baseline TSH and no change after 2 months, 64 patients (64%)have a change in TSH either a decrease(49 patients ,79.56%) or an increase (15 patients , 23.44 % ).Conclusion: Metformin therapy is highly effective in reducing TSH levels in patients with primary hypothyroidism


Article
Resistin , Insulin resistance and BMI in type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthysubjects.

Authors: Hashim M. Hashim --- Hedef D. Al-Yassin --- Zainab A. Al-Shamma
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 3 Pages: 377-382
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background : Obesity and insulin resistance have been quite well recognized as fundamental
and leading causes of major health issues such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and
cardiovascular diseases. Abdominal obesity, particularly visceral adiposity is considered to
play a major role in causing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus , T2DM
The resistin is considered one of the causes of insulin resistance which lead to
hyperinsulinemia and a decrease in the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (Quicki)
which has been recently reported to be a useful marker of insulin resistance in patients with
T2DM.
Objective : The aim of the present study is to find the relationship between resistin and
obesity as modulated by T2DM.
Subjects and methods : The study involved 50 patients with T2DM with age range of 30 -70
years , and 30 healthy subjects ( control group ) of matching age and sex.
Ten mLs of blood were collected from each patient and normal control subject after an
overnight fast . One mL. was kept in an EDTA tube for mesureement of glycated Hb ( HbA1c)
and the rest was allowed to clot , centrifuged and serum was divided into aliquots . Some
was kept at (- 20
o
C ) for measurement of resistin and insulin ( by enzyme linked
immunosorbant assay , ELISA) and the rest for measurement of glucose , urea and creatinine (
by the available routine laboratory tests ) at the same day of collection.
Results showed a significant rise in serum resistin in the obese diabetic patients as compared
to the non obese patients. There are significant correlations between resistin and each of insulin
resistance ( Quicki ) and degree of obesity (BMI) .
Conclusion : Resistin & insulin resistance are significantly affected by BMI in diabetic
patients only and not in the control group which implies that the obese control subjects didn’t
have insulin resistances enough to show any change in resistin level. This confirms the
synergistic effect of the obesity and diabetes on resistin level, while no effect of the disease per se could be detected from the present study.


Article
Insulin Resistance and Risk of Chronic Renal Impairment in Non and Diabetic Iraqi Adults

Authors: Rana Ali Hamdi --- Manal kamal Rasheed --- Mohammed Kamal Rasheed
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2013 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 1514-1524
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Patients with chronic renal impairment (CRI) present a high prevalenceof insulin resistance (IR). Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) is a syndrome of persistentrenal impairment involving loss of glomeruli, tubular and nephron function. Dialysismay be used as a lineal treated to patients who have suddenly but temporarily, lost theirkidney function (acute renal failure) or as a regular region for quite stable patients who havepermanently lost their kidney function.Central obesity, particularly visceral adiposity is considered to play a major role in causinginsulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is characterized by adecrease in the insulin effect on glucose transport in muscle, adipose tissue and liver.Aim of the study: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between thelevel of serum Insulin and Homeostasis model Assessment (HOMA)-Insulin resistance levelsto risk of chronic renal impairment (CRI)Materials and methods:This study include 50 patients (32 males and 18 females) who have chronic renalimpairment disease with and without T2DM aged between (30-70) years, the mean age as(mean± SD) is (56.4± 10.7),(52.8±18.5) years who attended the hemodialysis (HD) at theartificial kidney in AL- Karama Hospital and 30 normal volunteers aged mach with (30-70years)act as control. The mean age is (57±6) years .This study examined the relationshipbetween fasting serum glucose ,insulin ,Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) –Insulinresistance in CRI patients . Insulin was measured by (enzyme immunosorbant assay) .Results: Mean systolic BP and body max index BMI values were significantly higher amongpersons with diabetes compared with their counters without diabetes and control. Diabeticparticipants had higher mean levels of serum glucose, serum insulin, HbA1c and HOMAinsulinresistance compared with non diabetic participants and control. Diabetic participantsalso had a higher prevalence of elevated serum creatinine, urea and cholesterol level withCRI compared with their counterparts without diabetes and control .Conclusion: This study documents the presence of a strong, positive correlation betweeninsulin resistance and chronic renal impairment among non diabetic patients .These datademonstrate that patients with chronic renal impairment have a high prevalence of IR, insulinlevels .


Article
Determination of Testosterone level as predictor for insulin resistance in young men with family history of type2 diabetes and hypertension.
هرمون التيستوستيرون يتنبا بمقاومه الانسولين لدى الرجال الذين لديهم تاريخ عائلي لمرض السكري وارتفاع ضغط الدم

Authors: Najlaa Abd Jassim نجلاء عبد جاسم --- Isam N. Al- karawi عصام نوري الكروي --- Bushra F . Hasan* بشرى فارس حسن
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2013 Volume: 10 Issue: 3عدد خاص بموتمر الكيمياء Pages: 945-953
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Insulin resistance is associated with metabolic syndrome , type 2 diabetes and representing a risk factor for cardiovascular disease . This relationship may be modulated to some extent by age related changes in sex hormone status.. In particular, reduced total testosterone (TT) levels have been associated with insulin resistance and subsequent risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Aim of study: we examined whether low total testosterone level were associated with insulin resistance in young adult men. Methods: a total of 83 men (young adult men) divided into 2 group : (group1 ) 49 men with a risk factor for insulin resistance(with a family history of type2 diabetes and hypertension) and (group2) 34 men without any risk factor aged (20-40) years. Age, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were measured. Early morning, they were assayed for total testosterone, and insulin levels. Insulin resistance was assessed using a homeostatic model (HOMA-IR). Results: Total testosterone, declined progressively across increasing quintiles of HOMA-IR as a mean of(4.49±1.87) ng/ml in group1 compared mean (7.82±2.21) ng/ml in group 2 and correlated inversely with HOMA-IR( r = -0.424 , p = 002) also with insulin (r= -0.541) (p< 0.0001) in group1 . Total testosterone correlated inversely with BMI (r=-0.471 , p=0.001) in group1. There is a significant positive correlation between HOMA- IR of group1 and BMI (r= 0.472) (p<0.001), insulin levels (r=0.698) (p<0.0001) . Conclusions: In young adult men, lower total testosterone is associated with insulin resistance.

ترتبط مقاومه الانسولين بالمتلازمه الايضيه وبمرض السكري وتمثل عامل خطوره للاصابه بامراض الاوعيه القلبيه. هذه العلاقه قد ترتبط الى حد ما بالعمر وبالتالي حدوث تغييرلهرمون الجنس خصوصا ان انخفاض مستوى هرمون التيستوستيرون ارتبط بمقاومه الانسولين وخطر الاصابه بالنوع الثاني لمرض السكري .ان الهدف من الدراسه هو ايجاد فيما لو كان انخفاض مستوى هرمون التيستوستيرون يرتبط بزياده مقاومه الانسولين لدى الرجال الشباب . تمت دراسه 83 عينه للرجال الشباب انقسموا الى مجموعتين المجموعه الاولى 49 رجل لديهم عوامل خطوره للاصابه بمقاومه الانسولين(لديهم تاريخ عائلي لمرض السكري, لديهم ارتفاع بضغط الدم ) والمجموعه الثانيه 34 عينه للرجال الذين ليس لديهم عوامل الخطوره للاصابه بمقاومه الانسولين للاعمار من 20-40 سنه . وتم قياس هرمون التيستوستيرون ,هرمون الانسولين , lelipidprofi و تم حساب العمر, كتله الجسم( BMI) , WHR , مقاومه الانسولين تم حسابها بطريقه HOMA-IR ( homeostatic model ) . لقد اعطت المجموعه الاولى اعلى متوسط لمقاومه الانسولين (8.08±1.94) مقارنه بالمجموعه الثانيه (3.10±0.65) بينما اعطى هرمون التيستوستيرون اقل متوسط للمجموعه الاولى (4.49±1.87 ng/ml) مقارنه بالمجموعه الثانيه(7.82±2.21 ng/ml) وبالتالي اعطى التيستوستيرون هرمون علاقه عكسيه مع مقاومه الانسولين في المجموعه الاولى (r =-0.424 , p= 002) وعلاقه عكسيه مع هرمون الانسولين (r= -0.541, p< 0.0001) وعلاقه عكسيه مع معدل كتله الجسم ( BMI) (r=-0.471 ,p=0.001) بينما اعطت مقاومه الانسولين علاقه طرديه مع ( BMI) (r= 0.472) (p<0.001) والانسولين هرمون (r=0.698) (p<0.0001) . ارتبط انحفاض مستوى هرمون التيستوستيرون بزياده مقاومه الانسولين لدى الرجال الشباب .

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