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Article
A Comparative Study between Inverting and Appositional Suture Patterns for Cystotomy Closure in Dog
دراسة مقارنة بين خياطتي قلب الحافات للداخل والتقابل لغلق المثانة في الكلاب

Authors: Natheria B. Khwaf نذيره برهان خواف --- Rahi N. Al-Asadi راهي ناهي الاسدي
Journal: The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine المجلة الطبية البيطرية العراقية ISSN: 16095693 Year: 2014 Volume: 38 Issue: 1 Pages: 40-47
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present study is designed to evaluate two sutures pattern techniques (inverting andappositional) for urinary bladder closure following experimental cystotomy in dogs. Thirty two adultlocal breed males’ dogs were enrolled for this study, aged 1-3 years and weighing 18-23 kg. Dogswere randomly allocated into two equal groups. In the first group, cystotomies were closed viadouble-layers of continuous inverting suture pattern (Lambert and Cushing); while, in the secondgroup, bladders incisions were closed by single-layer appositional suture pattern (simple interrupted)which did not involve the mucosa (extra-mucosal). Synthetic absorbable suture material polydiaxnonePDS 3/0 was used to close the bladder in all experimental animal groups. Surgery was doneunder the effect of general anesthesia using a combination of ketamine at a dose rate of 15mg/kg andxylazine at a dose 5mg/kg B.W. Dogs were premedicated by atropine sluphate at a dose 0.03mg/kg.All drugs administered intramuscularly. There were highly significant (P <0.05) differences inoperative times between the two groups. In inverting group, the time was 40 ± 4.50 minutes whichwas higher than that recorded for appositional group 25±2.50 minutes. The animals were followedupclinically during the studied period to record the secondary complications. Results reflectedhematuria n=4, swelling of the operative site n=3 and urinary incontinence n=2. These complicationswere transient and disappeared in a short time. Also macroscopical and microscopical examinationswere performed at 3,7,14 and 21 days post-surgery. Four dogs were used for each period. The mainmacroscopical finding was slight to moderate adhesions n = 3 between omentum and the wall ofurinary bladder in both group. Microscopical examination of urinary bladder reflected earlierurolithium formation in appositional pattern (14 days) while inverted group (21 days). In conclusion,appositional pattern is technically easier and economic. Bladder regeneration was accomplishedwithin 14 days in comparison with inverting pattern which reflected bladder regeneration at 21 dayspost-surgery.

صممت الدراسة الحالية لتقييم نوعين من نماذج الخياطة )خياطة قلب الحافات للداخل وخياطة التقابل( لغلق المثانة بعد فتحهاتجريبيا في الكلاب . )2- استخدم للدراسة ) 23 ( من ذكور الكلاب المحلية البالغة, تراوحت اعمارها بين ) 1 )32- سنة وباوزان ) 11كغم قسمت الكلاب عشوائيا الى مجموعتين متساوية . في المجموعة الاولى اغلقت المثانة بخياطة قلب الحافات للداخل )لمبرتوكشن (. المجموعة الثانية فقد اغلقت بخياطة البسيط المتقطع غير المخترق للطبقة المخاطية. استعمل خيط البولي داي اكسنون قياس2 لغلق المثانة في كلا المجموعتين. تمت العمليات الجراحية بأستخدام التخدير العام بحقن مادة الكيتامين بجرعة 11 ملغمكلغم �والزايلازين بجرعة 1 ملغم كلغم من وزن الجسم مسبوقا بكبريتات الاتروبين بجرعة 0.02 ملغمكغم حقنت كافة الادوية بالعظلة.اظهرت النتائج فرق معنوي P<0.05 0.10 ( دقيقة في ± في اوقات العمليات الجراحية بين المجموعتين حيث كان الوقت ) 00)3.10± مجموعة قلب الحافات للداخل بينما كان الوقت ) 31 دقيقة في مجموعة تقابل الحافات. تمت متابعة الحيوانات سريريا طيلةفترة الدراسة لتسجيل المضاعفات الثانوية التي شملت على البول الدموي ) n=4 ( تورم منطقة العملية ) n=3 = ( وسلس البول ) 3 n ) .) كانت المضاعفات وقتية واختفت في وقت قصير. اوضح الفحص العياني الذي اجرى خلال ) 2و 7و 10 و 31 يوم ظهور التصاقات( n=3 ) متوسطة الى خفيفة الشدة في كلا المجموعتين .كان الالتصاق بين الثرب وجدار المثانة. بين الفحص النسجي المرضي- شفاءالمثانة خلال ) 10 ( يوم ) في مجموعة التقابل وفي يوم ) 31 في مجموعة قلب الحافات للداخل. تستنتج من الدراسة بأن تقنية تقابلالحافات سهلة واقتصادية واحدثت شفاء المثانة في وقت مبكرعند مقارنتها بتقنية قلب الحافات للداخل.


Article
Realization of Direct Linear Relation Between Control Voltage and Resonance Frequency of the LC Voltage Controlled Oscillator

Author: Azzad B. Saeed
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 9 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 966-971
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The main problem of traditional LC ( L represents the inductance, and C represents the Capacitance) Voltage Controlled Oscillators VCOs, is the non-linearity relation between the tuning control voltage and output resonance frequency, which is caused by two following reasons: the first one is the inverse and non-linear relation between the tuning control voltage and produced capacitance of the used varactor diode in the VCO circuit, and the second is the inverse and non-linear relation between the capacitance value of the used varactor diode and the output resonance frequency. In this paper, a proposed circuit has been designed and implemented to solve this problem and realize a direct-linear relation between the tuning control voltage and output resonance frequency for the LC Voltage Controlled Oscillator that utilize the varactor diode as a voltage controlled capacitance. The proposed circuit has been realized using Logarithmic, Inverting, Ant-Logarithmic, and Difference Amplifiers, which they are characterized by their simplicity and low cost. The theoretical and practical results of testing the proposed circuit had been presented using MATLAB software package. The proposed work has been practically tested by 21 measurement points, whereas, it has exhibited stimulant results that supports the successfulness of its design and performance.


Article
New Accurate Wattmeter Based on Logarithmic Amplifiers

Author: Azzad B. Saeed
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 11 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1165-1170
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Analog Computers can realize most of mathematical equations; theseequations can be solved using difference, adder, logarithmic, anti-logarithmic,integrator, and differentiator amplifiers. The logarithmic and anti-logarithmicamplifiers are the main components of the analog computers, whereas, they canconvert the multiplication and division operations to addition and subtractionones, and they can convert the exponential functions to multiplicationrelationships. These amplifiers depend on the non-linearity of the relationbetween forward current and applied voltage of the diode. All of previous types ofwattmeters, measure the consumed power of a specific load or resistor bymultiplying the difference voltage of that load by the current passes through it(i.e. P=V.I). In this paper, a proposed accurate wattmeter circuit has beendesigned and implemented using logarithmic, anti-logarithmic, non-inverting,and difference amplifiers. The proposed circuit has been utilized for measuringthe consumed power of a resistor that have any resistance value. It differs fromprevious conventional (analog, and digital) wattmeters due to its calculation ofthe consumed power for a given resistor by multiplying the voltage difference(V) across that resistor by itself once time, then the resultant value is divided bythe resistance (R) value of that resistor (i.e. P=V2/R).

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