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Article
The Role of Lubrication Mechanisms in the Knee Synovial Joints
دور ميكانيكيات التزييت في مفصل الركبة ألزليلي

Authors: . Aseel Mohammed Ali اسيل محمد علي --- Albert E. Yousif البير ايليا يوسف
Journal: AL-NAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة النهرين للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 25219154 / eISSN 25219162 Year: 2008 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 522-535
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Synovial joints form the most important feature of the human body as they represent the centers of the most essential and basic activity in the human beings, which is motion. Starting from the role that are played by the lubrication regimes in effectiveness and maintenance of the joint this study was initiated. It investigates the lubrication systems that are operative in synovial joint. Depending on the loading conditions and sliding velocity during one gate of the walking cycle the profile of the synovial film thickness and the pressure developed in the knee joint when the hydrodynamic and elastohydrodynamic lubrication regimes are operative was determined.For the hydrodynamic and elastohydrodynamic lubrication analysis a mathematical model obtained by solving the governing equation using numerical methods. Results showed that for the hydrodynamic action the minimum film thickness determined was between (0.365-1.8) µm and the pressure developed ranged between (20.6-860.449) kN/m2. While for elastohydrodynamic action the minimum film thickness ranged from (2.5-3.57) µm and the developed pressure ranged between (97.68-146.5) kN/m2. Finally, it was shown that in specific conditions hydrodynamic and elastohydrodynamic lubrication mechanisms gave a good explanation to how the joint functions

المفاصل الزليلية تمثل الميزة الأساسية و الأكثر أهمية في جسم الإنسان وذلك بفعل الدور الذي تلعبه في حركته فهي مخصصة لنقل أحمال كبيرة وفي نفس الوقت تسمح بحركة نسبية للعظمين المتمفصلين. بالرغم من هذه الظروف المعقدة فأن المفصل ألزليلي يبقى كفؤ لفترة طويلة, مما يؤكد وجود نظام تزييت فعال يمنح المفصل حرية الحركة و بدون ألم.انطلاقا من الدور الذي يلعبه نظام التزييت في كفاءة المفصل وديمومته انشأ هذا البحث, والذي اهتم بدراسة أنظمة التزييت التي تعمل في المفصل الزليلي. بصورة أساسية, فان الهدف من هذا البحث هو تقديم تحليل هندسي شامل لشكل طبقة المزيت الزلالي وتوزيع الضغط المتولد في المفصل نتيجة عمل نظريتي التزييت الهايدرودايناميكية و الهايدرودايناميكية المرنة. النتائج أظهرت انه في تأثير النظرية الهايدرودايناميكية يتراوح اقل سمك للسائل الزليلي بين(0.34 و1.67) مايكرومتر و الضغط المتولد في المفصل نتيجة عمل هذه النظرية يتراوح بين(20,6151و 782,876) كيلونيوتن/متر2. بينما تأثير النظرية الهايدرودايناميكية المرنة يتراوح اقل سمك للسائل الزليلي بين( 2.5 و3.57 ) مايكرومتر و الضغط المتولد في المفصل نتيجة عمل هذه النظرية يتراوح بين (97,6801 و146,504) كيلونيوتن/متر2.أخيرا, وجد انه تحت ظروف معينة فان نظريتي الهايدرودايناميكية والهايدرودايناميكية


Article
Significance of crystals in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee joint

Authors: Mohammed-Taher Rasool محمد طاهر رسول --- Saad M Al-Hasani سعد الحسني
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2005 Volume: 31 Issue: 2 Pages: 66-69
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

To identify the relation between the presence of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals (CPPD) and clinical, laboratory, and radiographic findings in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee joint, an analytical study was done in 2001, which included 100 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee joint. Synovial fluid analysis with the examination of a wet preparation under polarized microscopy was conducted for each patient. The study included a comparison between CPPD positive patients and those who are negative for these crystals. CPPD crystals were identified in 48% of the patients. The study shows a significant association of CPPD crystals with genu-valgum deformity, limited flexion and extension, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and cloudy inflammatory synovial fluid with poor viscosity. We concluded that CPPD deposition is associated with more disabling and deforming arthritis of the knee joint. Clinical criteria are needed to identify patients with occult CPPD deposition disease.


Article
Prevalence of Fibromyalgia in Iraqi People with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome

Author: Khudhir Zghayer Mayouf Al-Bidri
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 18-21
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Joint hypermobility occur when large or small joints in the body are able to extend beyond theirnormal physiological limits. Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic diffuse pain. Both conditionsare shared with various soft tissue problems and this draw the attention of a lot of researchers andclinicians to look for possible relations between them.OBJECTIVE:To detect the correlation between firbomyalgia in Iraqi people with joint mobility.METHODS:One hundred Iraqi individuals with joint hypermobility syndrome according to the Beighton Scorewere studied and compared with another hundred normal mobile individuals matched for age and sexserving as control group. Full history was taken and complete clinical examination was done for allindividuals in both groups. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 Criteria for fibromyalgiawere applied for all individuals in both groups. They were quationed about presence of chronicwidespread pain, sleep disturbance, mood change and fatigue. Detection of at least 11 of 18 tenderpoints by digital palpation at specific soft tissue sites was needed for diagnosis of FMS.RESULTS:There was statistically significant increase frequency of fibromyalgia among individuals withhypermobile joints compared to normal mobile people. The frequency was 22% in the individualswith hypermobile joints versus 11% in the individuals with normal mobile joints, which was reportedmainly in females between the age 30-59 years.CONCLUSION:The results showed significant relationship between fibromyalgia and joint mobility.


Article
The Relationship Among Otic Clinical Findings and Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Population

Authors: Marwan F.Buraa --- Hadeel S. Alazzawi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 4 Pages: 546-550
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The otologic symptoms are frequents in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder due to the proximity of the ear to the temporomandibular joint, TMJ pain can often be confused with ear pain. OBJECTIVE:To verify the frequency of otic signs and symptoms with TMJ disorder. Study design: descriptive and transversal.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty five patients, with pain complaint in tragus and peritragus area from otorhinolaringology department in Aljamhori Teaching Hospital in Mosul-Iraq. Patients with ear infection, even with TMJ disorder were selected and the ones with TMJ disorder with otalgia. Then sent to maxillofacial department to examine the TMJ. The data obtained were subdivided into two groups: TMJ disorder patients with otological exam in normal condition and TMJ disorder patients with abnormal otological condition.RESULTS: Thirty five patients, 14 men and 21 women aging from 18 to 75 years .There were 19 patients had TMJ disorder with otological examination in normal condition. Otalgia and TMJ tenderness were (89.74%) masticatory muscle tenderness (78.68%) and TMJ sound (63.15%), followed by itching and tinnitus (42.1% both). In second group all 16 patients with ear problems had TMJ tenderness (100%), were otalgia and itching (81.25%, 68.75%) respectively. CONCLUSION: The signs and symptoms most frequently associated with ear and TMJ disorder were TMJ tenderness, masticatory muscle tenderness- especially lateral pterygoid and temporalis -and click associated with otalgia; itching and tinnitus respectively. The results provide additional support for the notion that a relationship between temporomandibular disorder and otologic signs and symptoms does exit


Article
Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation Clinical , Radiological and Therapeutic Study

Author: Basim Sabah Abdullah
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 288-295
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The ACJ is the most peripheral joint component of the upper extremity appendicular linkage . All significant mechanical forces applied directly to or through the upper extremity are ultimately transmitted across that linkage . OBJECTIVE:We try to see the outcome of both conservative and operative treatment on dislocated acromioclavicular joint {ACJ}METHODS:From September 2005 – June 2008, 14 patients with ACJ dislocation were seen at AL-Hay hospital wasset , the patient age, sex , occupation, injured side and manner of injury were recorded. The patients were chosen randomly to operative or conservative treatment according to type of injury and will of patients and studied in form of indication tactile approaches to treatment and results were described and discussed in some details. RESULTS: Conservatively treated patient regained movement significantly more quickly and fully returned to work earlier and had fewer unsatisfactory results than having early operation. however for severe dislocation with coracolavicullar displacement of 2cm and more, early surgery produced better results.CONCLUSION:Conservative management is best for most acute dislocation but younger patients with severe displacement may benefit from early reduction and stabilization..


Article
Wavelet Identical Learning Neural Network–Based Image (JPG-JPEG) compression
التدريب الأمثل للشبكة العصبية بأستخدام المويجة في ضغط مجموعة حزم الصور الفوتوغرافية والفديوية

Author: ALA’A Kh. Khudhier Al- Azzawi
Journal: AL-TAQANI مجلة التقني ISSN: 1818653X Year: 2010 Volume: 23 Issue: 4 Pages: 1-11
Publisher: Foundation of technical education هيئة التعليم التقني

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Abstract

The best image quality at a given bit-rate (or compression rate) is the main goal of image compression to create much smaller files that use less space to store and less time to send. This demand is to increase the bandwidth to all users. The quality reduction achieved by manipulation of the bit stream or file without decompression and re-compression refers to scalability. In this paper the names for scalability are progressive coding or embedded bit streams, especially with a lossless compression found in a form of coarse-to-fine pixel scans. A fast scheme with a wavelet neural network fast forward multi- layer perceptron is used to recognize the quality or layer and resolution component progressive, (the highest possible compression rate without visual loss of image quality). Hence, the bit stream successively refines the reconstructed image by encoding the lower image resolution, then encoding the difference to high resolution. By encoding both grey and color pixels. With lossy compression of the image the quality of the compression procedure is measured by the Peak signal-to-noise ratio. In this paper a high resolution digital camera (DSC-W-100, 8.1 Mega Pixels) with a (2448x3264x3) or the total grand is (23970816) elements using (23970816) bytes for my baby photo. The language used is (Mat-Lab languages).

الهدف الرئيس لضغط الصور هو مقياس التحديد لمعامل الجودة عن طريق الوصول الى ادق التفاصيل لمعلومات الصورة بعد تقطيعها.يعتبر ضغط الصورةهو الوصول الى ملف بأقل مساحة ممكنة للخزن وبفترة ارسال قليلة, عليه يتطلب زيادة عرض النطاق الترددي لضمان تحقيق الأرسال لكل المستخدمين . فجودة الصور تنخفض بأستمرارية التعامل مع التحليل للمستويات الأقل للأجزاء المقطوعة, أي مع الفايلات غير المضغوطة. في هذا البحث تم اعتماد التسلق بأستمرارية تشفير أو اخفاء السيل المستمر لأدق التفاصيل ولأقل مستوى من التحليل لتقطيع الصورة, وبالأخص مع المسح الغليظ (الخشن) , أي الضغط المسبوق بفقد. أعتمد برنامج سريع بأستخدام المويجة مع الشبكة العصبية متعددة الطبقات ومن نوع المتجه الأمامي للتدريب للوصول الى دقة في تفاصيل التقطيع , أي اعلى مستوى للضغط وبدون فقد يذكر . عليه فأن تكرار تدفق الأجزاء المتواصل يسهل من اعادة استخلاص الصور عن طريق تشفير ادنى مستوى لتفاصيل الصورة ومن ثم التدرج بأعلى المستويات من التحليل ابتداءا" بتشفير التدرج بمستوى الأبيض والأسود ومن ثم التدرج بالألوان.مقياس جودة الصورة المضغوطة والمسبقة بفقد يتم عن طريق اعتمادة نسبة الأشارة الى الضوضاء . في هذا البحث اسخدمت كاميرا رقمية عالية الدقة(8,1 ميكا بيكسل) بمعدل تفاصيل للصورة يصل الى (23970816 عنصر) لصورة طفلتي (صفا) بأعتماد برنامج المات لاب.


Article
The etiology of temporomandibular joint problem in Iraqi patients

Author: Wajnaa F. Qassim وجناء قاسم
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 66-69
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: In the last decade, dramatic advances have been made in understanding the causes of facial pain related to temporomandibular disorders. The aim of this study was to identify the most possible causes that provoke temporomandibular disorders in Iraqi patients.Materials and Method: This study was conducted with 289 patients (110 males & 188 females), the mean age was 35.5 years range from (1-70) years, were seeking treatment for their Temporomandibular joint problems.Results: Stress was the most frequent etiological factor (43.3%) followed in descending manner by occlusal disharmony (30.5%), altered chewing pattern (16.5%), dental irritation (5.7%), dislocation (2%) degenerative arthritis (1%), trauma (0.7%) and rheumatoid arthritis (0.3%).Females were more frequently affected, with the total male to female ratio equal to 3:5 and predominant age for both sexes was (21-30) years.Conclusion: all the above contributory factors resulted in muscular dysfunction which in turn forms the primary factor responsible for signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint problem


Article
The joint venture
المشروع المشترك

Author: dr.ali fawzi د. علي فوزي الموسوي
Journal: journal of legal sciences مجلة العلوم القانونية ISSN: 2070027X , 2663581X Year: 2013 Volume: 29 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-200
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The joint venture is a form of cooperation formed by the international dealing business , which is associated whereby the parties to achieve a common purpose among them is what he was doing the project activity uniform, and the idea of this project on the basis of direct participation, shared by a number of parties with a view to the implementation of economic activity for the benefit partners and the joint venture takes two formulas: the first joint venture contract : which is a contract between two or more parties for the implementation of a specific project, within a specified period , and has no financial independence or administrative will of his limbs, while the second version is a joint venture organization: is the kind of project which takes the form of a company with financial and administrative independence and enjoy a continuing basis . And because the lack of national legislation for states to special legislation regulating this subject, and to find out the legal rules that govern it. as well as a lack of law libraries in Iraq for specialized study in which despite the fact that Iraq was not far from the application of such a kind of projects, so we chose research in this topic is marked " joint venture".

المشروع المشترك صورة من صور التعاون التي ألفها التعامل التجاري الدولي، الذي يرتبط بموجبهِ الأطراف لتحقيق غرض مشترك بينهم يتمثل بما يقوم بهِ المشروع من نشاط موحد، وتقوم فكرة هذا المشروع على أساس المشاركة المباشرة، التي يشترك بها عدد من الأطراف بقصد تنفيذ نشاط اقتصادي يعود بالنفع على الشركاء، ويأخذ المشروع المشترك أحد الصيغتين: الأولى المشروع المشترك التعاقدي: الذي هو عبارة عن عقد يُبرم بين طرفين أو أكثر لتنفيذ مشروع محدد، خلال مدة محددة، وليس له استقلال مالي أو إداري عن إرادة أطرافهِ، أما الصيغة الثانية فهي المشروع المشترك التنظيمي: هو ذلك النوع من المشاريع الذي يأخذ شكل شركة تتمتع باستقلال مالي وأداري ويتمتع بصفة الاستمرار. وبالنظر لافتقار التشريعات الوطنية للدول لتشريع خاص يُنظم هذا الموضوع، ولمعرفة القواعد القانونية التي تحكمه، فضلاً عن افتقار المكتبات القانونية في العراق لدراسة متخصصة فيهِ على الرغم من أن العراق لم يكن بعيد عن تطبيق مثل هكذا نوع من المشاريع، لذا آثرنا البحث في هذا الموضوع الموسوم "بالمشروع المشترك".


Article
Evaluation of Impact and Transverse Strength of Denture Bases Repaired with Nano Reinforced Resin

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Abstract

Background: Failure of resin bases were a major disadvantage recorded in the constructed dentures. Reinforcements of the repair joint with nano fillers represent an attempt to enhance the strength and durability. The purpose of the research was to estimate the influence of nano fillers reinforcement with (ZrO2 and Al2O3) on impact and transverse strength of denture bases repaired with either cold or hot processing acrylic resin.Materials and methods: A hundred and forty (140) samples were processed with hot cured resin and organized in subgroups depending on the repair materials and condition (without repair (control), repair with hot cure, cold cure, hot and cold cure reinforced with either (5% Zr2O or 0.5% Al2O3). The samples in these subgroups were processed depending on the test applied (impact and transverse strength). The samples were immersed in distalled water for about four weeks at 37°C before testing, after that, the samples prepared for each test were subdivided depending on the selected subgroups of the study. Repairing the samples with cold cure resin was done with the aid of Ivomet; after that the samples incubated for 48 hours in 37°C distilled water. Transverse strength test was done by using INSTRON universal testing machine while the impact test was done by using CHARPY impact testing machine.Results: The reinforcement of the repair joint with nano-fillers improves both impact and transverse strengths.Conclusion: Repair strength is directly proportional to the mode of resin processing, reinforcement with nano-fillers improve the strength of the repaired joint significantly


Article
The Stress Distribution on the Zygapophyseal Joint of Lumbar Vertebra by ANSYS Program
توزيع الأجهاد على مفصل النامية المقرنية للفقرة القطنية من قبل برنامج ANSYS

Authors: Summer S. M. Mukhtar سمر سرمد محمود مختار --- Sadiq J. Abass صادق جعفر عباس --- Akram A. Jaffar اكرم عبود جعفر
Journal: Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal مجلة الخوارزمي الهندسية ISSN: 18181171 23120789 Year: 2010 Volume: 6 Issue: 3 Pages: 85-91
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Zygapophyseal joints (or facet joints), are a plane synovial joint which located between the articular facet processes of the vertebral arch which is freely guided movable joints. Ten dried vertebrae were used for the lumbar region and taking (L4) as a sample to reveal stress pathways across the joints by using ANSYS program under different loading conditions which used Finite Elements Analysis model. Results obtained from the ANSYS program are important in understanding the boundary conditions for load analysis and the points of stress concentration which explained from the anatomical point of view and linked to muscle and ligament attachments. This model used as a computational tool to joint biomechanics and to prosthetic implant analysis.

مفاصل النامية المقرنية او (مفاصل الظهر) هو مفصل زلالي مستوي يحدد مكانه بين نتوءات المظهر المفصلية للتقوس الفقري وهي عبارة عن مفاصل متحركة بحرية. استعملت عشر فقرات مجففة للمنطقة القطنية واخذت (الفقرة القطنية الرابعة) كعينة لكشف ممرات الأجهاد عبر المفاصل بأستعمال برنامج ANSYS تحت شروط التحميل المختلفة والتي استعملت لها نموذج تحليل العناصر المحدود. النتائج التي حصلت من برنامج ANSYS مهم في فهم الشروط الحدية لتحليل الحمل ونقاط تركيز الأجهاد الذي وضحا من وجهة النظر التشريحية والاتباط العضلات والأربطة المتصلة. هذا النموذج استعمل كاداة حسابية لربط علم الميكانيك الحيوي مع تحليل الزرع البديلي.

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