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Article
Attitudes and Trends of Kurdish Mothers Towards Breast Feeding in the First Six Months of Age in Duhok

Authors: Akrem M. Atrushi --- Wala'a Yousif Mahmood
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2014 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 259-265
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Background: Breast feeding is the ideal way of providing young infants with nutrients they need for healthy growth and development. One in 3 infants is exclusively breastfed during the first 6 months of life. Unfortunately, compliance with breastfeeding recommendations in developing countries is low.Objective: To assess the trends and attitudes of Kurdish mothers in Duhok towards breastfeeding, the main factors determining them and the reasons for not exclusively breastfeeding in the first 6 months.Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out in Heevi Pediatric Hospital and 2 Health Care centers in Duhok, North of Iraq in the period between November 2012 and August 2013. A pre-coded questionnaire was used that included: Age of the mother, education, employment, Types of feeding in the first 6 months, mode of delivery, parity , gender of the baby and the reason for not exclusively breastfeeding. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18. Chi-square and Fischer’s exact tests, the level of significance is 0.05.Results: The study included 588 mothers. The type of feeding they used in the first 6 months was exclusive breastfeeding in 8% cases only. Most of mothers who are not only breastfeeding (58.93%) fell within the age group between 20-29 years. Most mothers who were only breastfeeding (37.77% for each) were uneducated or had primary school education while 34.43% of those who were not only breastfeeding in the first 6 months were uneducated. Most mothers were unemployed. Multiparity was present in 66.66% of mothers who were only breastfeeding and 78.64% of those who were not only breastfeeding. Normal spontaneous vaginal birth was the most common mode of delivery Females babies predominate in those who are only breastfed (53.34%) while males predominate in the other group (56.16%) The most common reasons for not only breastfeeding in the first 6 months were not enough breast milk (51.56%), illness of the baby(16.57%) and illness of the mother(12.52%).Conclusion: Most Kurdish mothers in Duhok do not exclusively breastfeed their babies in the first 6 months. The main reason is thinking that breast milk is not enough. Most of them were aged 20-29 years, had male babies, were uneducated, unemployed and fed their babies solids but none of these variables was found significant. Spontaneous vaginal delivery was significantly associated with exclusive breastfeeding. Health care providers should be encouraged to educate mothers of young infants on the benefits of breastfeeding and give them motivation to continue with breastfeeding for at least 6 months.

Keywords

Breastfeeding --- Kurdish


Article
The difficulties of teaching the Kurdish alphabetic in teacher training institutes
صعوبات تدريس مادة(ألف - باء) اللغة الكردية في معاهد إعداد المعلمين والمعلمات من وجهة نظر المدرسين و الطلبة

Author: Asst. Instructor Awras Hashim Al-Jubori م .م. أوراس هاشم الجبوري
Journal: Ahl Al-Bait Jurnal مجلة أهل البيت ISSN: 18192033 Year: 2007 Volume: 1 Issue: 5 Pages: 291-326
Publisher: University of Ahl Al-Bait جامعة اهل البيت

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Abstract

ازدادت الحاجة في هذا العصر التي تعلم اللغات والإحاطة بها أكثر من أي وقت مضى وذلك لكثرة الأسفار بين أقطار العالم وللرغبة الشديدة في الإطلاع على الآداب والعلوم عند الشعوب المختلفة , وللغة قيمة جليلة عدا قيمتها الثقافية لارتباطها بالشعور القومي ارتباطاً وثيقاً ولهذا عدت من أقوى عوامل التوحيد والانسجام.ومن الجدير بالذكر إن تعلم أي لغة في العالم تعترضها بعض المشكلات والصعاب التي تنبثق أساسا من داخل العملية التعليمية التي هي المدرس والطالب والظرف التعليمي وطرائق التدريس والمادة التعليمية وغيرها من المشكلات التربوية والتعليمية.


Article
Psychological impact of dental aesthetics for Kurdish young adults seeking orthodontic treatment

Authors: Trefa M. Ali Mahmood طرفة علي محمود --- Fadil A. Kareem فادي كريم
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: special issue 1 Pages: 146-152
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between Kurdish orthodontic patients’ severity ofmalocclusion and their social and psychological impact.Materials and method: The sample consists of 100 patients, 45 males and 55 females, aged 13–22 years. A translatedpre-tested questionnaire [psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire PIDAQ] was used to assess thesubjects’ social and psychological impact by their occlusal irregularities. The actual severity of malocclusion wasdetermined, using the dental aesthetic index (DAI) on 100 stone study models. Statistical analysis was carried out,using chi-square test for assessing the associations, and person correlation coefficient was used for assessingcorrelations. Analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) and multiple regression tests were also carried out to complete thestatistical analysis.Results: results of the multiple regression analysis showed that not only DAI score were significantly associated withhigher score of PIADQ scores, but other factors, like gender was a significant variable in predicting the psychosocialimpact of dental esthetics. However, age was not significantly associated with PIADQ scores. The value of R² is equalto 0 .226. Accordingly, there is a significant weak positive correlation between DAI score and PIADQ scale of thestudy sample at p<0.005


Article
A Semantic Study of Idioms in English and Kurdish

Author: Dr.Abbas Mustafa Abbas
Journal: Journal of Kirkuk University Humanity Studies مجلة جامعة كركوك للدراسات الانسانية ISSN: 19921179 Year: 2012 Volume: 7 Issue: 3عدد خاص بمؤتمر كلية التربية Pages: 13-27
Publisher: Kirkuk University جامعة كركوك

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Abstract

AbstractNowadays, English is widely used in Kurdistan Region. It is also a compulsory subject in all most all schools, colleges and universities. Although idioms in English are studied widely but still there are so many areas that have not been tackled yet. The main part of this study is the idiomatic expressions in English and Kurdish by focusing on the meanings of the English idioms in both languages as well as conducting comparative analysis between them.The present study consists of five sections. The first section introduces the aims, the limitations and the method of the study. And section two investigates the concept of idioms. Section three is about the semantic properties of idiomatic expressions in English. Section four shows idioms in Kurdish. Section five presents the characteristics of idioms in English and Kurdish in addition to the differences between them. Finally, the study ends with some conclusions.


Article
A study of Refusal Strategies in Kurdish language.

Author: Mr. Ahmad Ramadan Khalil
Journal: Journal of Kirkuk University Humanity Studies مجلة جامعة كركوك للدراسات الانسانية ISSN: 19921179 Year: 2014 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 17-39
Publisher: Kirkuk University جامعة كركوك

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Abstract

In the last two decades, many studies have been conducted to investigate speech act performance in general, and the speech act of refusal to suggestion in particular. This genus of research has focused on western languages (Beebe et al, 1990), (Chen, 1996), (Fe´lix-Brasdefer, 2006). However, more recently a number of studies have been carried out in eastern languages (Geyang, 2007), with only a few in Arabic language and its varieties (Nelson, 2002), (Al-Issa, 2003), (Al-Kahtani, 2005). This study is an attempt to investigate the strategies employed by Kurdish students in refusing offers and requesting. This study is also trying to answer two questions related as to whether the participations in question follow the same English strategies classified by Beebe and others (1990) or not, as well as the impact of the gender factor on these strategies. The corpus consists of responses to a Discourse Completion Test (DCT) that consisted of six different situations. The informants were 24 Kurdish native speakers (12 males and 12 females) studying at University of Duhok, Kurdish department 4th stage. The survey was written in Kurdish language to elicit responses that approximate verbal refusals to suggestion that might be given in these situations. The participants are required to provide written data to express their refusals to these situations. The data gathered have been descriptively analyzed according to the content, frequency and order of semantic formulas used by Beebe et al. (ibid). In order to arrive at statistical results, the percentage of the most frequently used strategies was counted.Key words: speech act of refusal, offer, request, semantic formula.


Article
THE IMPACT OF PHONETIC TRAINING COURSE ON PRONUNCIATION PERFORMANCE OF KURDISH EFL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
أثر دورة التدريب اللفظي على تلفظ طلاب الكورد للغة الإنجليزية في المرحلة الجامعية

Author: Dlakhshan Y. Othman / Himdad A. Muhammed دلخشان يوسف عثمان / همداد عبد القهار محمد
Journal: Al-Fatih journal مجلة الفتح ISSN: 87521996 Year: 2018 Volume: 14 Issue: 76 Pages: 1-24
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

The aim of this experimental study is to examine the impact of a phonetic training course on Kurdish EFL student’s pronunciation performance. To accomplish the effectiveness of phonetic training, 100 Kurdish EFL students from the first grade of English department /Salahaddin University (SU) participated in this study. The participants were assigned arbitrarily into two groups, experimental and control. A Key English Test (KET) was administered to them to determine their pronunciation proficiency level. After the pre-test, the experimental group (n=50) received successive phonetic training sessions for sixteen weeks, While the control group (n=50) took their regular class. These phonetic sessions were given three hours a week. Both groups were given a post-test at the end of the course. For analyzing the obtained data, the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used. The quantitative data were analyzed via calculating the weighted mean, its standard deviation, and percentile of weight. The results indicated that using phonetic training improved Kurdish EFL students’ English pronunciation, and the experimental group participants were found to have a better performance than the control group.

الغرض من هذا البحث التجريبي هو تحسين تلفظ الطلاب من خلال دورة تدريبية تلفظية دقيقة. لاجل التحقيق في فعالية التدريب التلفظي تم تعيين 100 طلب وطالبة في قسم اللغة الإنجليزية بكلية التربية الاساسية في جامعة صلاح الدين (SU) ثم توزيعهم الى مجموعتين: التجريبية والضابطة. لضمان تجانس المشاركين من حيث إجادة التلفظ ، تم إجراء اختبار اللغة الإنجليزية التمهيدية (KET) لهم ؛ وقد تبين من النتائج انهم في المستوى المتوسط . تم اخذ اختبارالقبلي والاختبار البعدي. تلقى المشاركون في المجموعة التجريبية دورة تدريبية لفظية متتابعة لمدة ستة عشر أسبوعًا ، ولكن المجموعة الضابطة لم تتلق أية تدريب. وقد تم تحليل البيانات عن طريق الإحصاء الوصفي والانحراف المعياري واختبار ANOVA. وأشارت النتيجائج أن استخدام التدريب اللفظي لتحسين التلفظ طلاب الكورد للغة الإنجليزية في المرحلة الجامعية . وقد كشفت نتائج الاختبارات ان المجموعة التجريبية قد حققت تقدما أكثر من المجموعة الضابطة عن طريق االتدريب اللفظي .


Article
UPPER LABIAL FRENUMATTACHMENT AND MEDIUM DIASTEMA; A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN KURDISH AND ARAB TEENAGERS IN ZAKHO CITY, KURDISTAN, IRAQ.
التصاق المرفق الشفوي العلوي والفراغ بين سني الامامي العلوي. دراسةمقارنة بين المراهقين الأكراد والمراهقين العرب في مدينة زاخو، كردستان، العراق.

Authors: GHADAH N. MOHAMMED غادة محمد --- HUDA JMEEL QASIM هدى جميل قاسم --- SHAKHAWAN K. KADIR شاخوان قادر --- AZHAR G. AHMED أزهار احمد --- et al.
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: ISSN: 20717334 (online)/ ISSN: 20717326 (Print) Year: 2018 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 31-40
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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Abstract

Background: To find out the various types of upper labial frenum attachment in both ethnic groups, to compare the various types of upper labial frenum attachment between both ethnics and sexes in the groups and to estimate the presence and measurement of medium diastema in both ethnics and sexes in the groups.Subject and Methods: A cross sectional study encompassed 307 Arab and Kurdish secondary school students aged 15-19 years in Zakho city. Kurdish group included 176 teenagers (82 males and 94 females). Arab group included 131 teenagers (55 males and 76 females). By using dental mirrors, Williams periodontal probes and gloves each subject was examined in term of evaluation of the frenum attachment level and measurement of the medium diastema then recording the data in a designed questionnaire.Results: The results revealed that frenum classes; I (frenum fibers are attached up to mucogingival junction), II (frenum fibers are inserted within attached gingiva), III (frenum fibers are extending into inter dental papilla), IV (frenum fibers cross the alveolar process and extend up to palatine papilla), were found in (36.6%, 58.8%, 3.1%, 1.5%) respectively of Arab teenagers and in (34%, 57.3%, 6.2%, 2.2%) respectively of Kurdish teenagers. There were no significant differences in frenum classes neither between Arab males and females nor between Kurdish males and females, while the difference was significant in frenum classes between Arab and Kurdish teenagers. The diastemas (0mm, 1mm, 2mm, 2.5mm, 3mm, 4mm) were found in (81.6%, 4.5%, 9.1%, 0.7%, 3%, 0.7%) respectively of Arab teenagers and in (88.6%, 0.5%, 3.4%, 3.4%, 0.5%, 1.7%) respectively of Kurdish teenagers. Conclusions: The study concluded that the majority of both Arab and Kurdish teenagers have no diastema and the majority of them have class II frenum attachment. Arab teenagers have more proportions of class I, II and IV frenum attachment, except class III, and more proportions of having diastema than Kurdish teenagers

الخلفية والأهداف: التعرف على أنواع مختلفة من المرفق العلوي من الجنين الشفوي في كل من المجموعات العرقية، لتقدير وجود وقياس الفراغ بين سني الامامي العلوي في كل من العرق والجنس في المجموعات ومقارنة أنواع مختلفة من التصاق المرفق الشفوي العلوي بين كل من العرق والجنس في المجموعات.طرق البحث: شملت دراسة مقطعية 307 طالبا من طلاب المدارس الثانوية العربية والكردية الذين تتراوح أعمارهم بين15و 19 عاما في مدينة زاخو. وتضمنت المجموعة الكردية 176 مراهقا (82 من الذكور و 94 من الإناث). وتضمنت المجموعة العربية 131 مراهقا (55 ذكور و 76 إناث). باستخدام مرايا الأسنان، تم الفحص باستخدام ادات ويليامز لقياس مؤاشرات اللثة, والقفازات, كل المراهقين تم قحصهم في تقييم مستوى التصاق المرفق الشفوي العلوي وقياس الفراغ بين سني الامامي العلوي . ثم تسجيل البيانات في استبيان المصممة. النتائج: : أظهرت النتائج أن الفراغ بين سني الامامي العلوي (, 0mm 1mm, 2mm, 2.5mm, 3mm, 4mm) وجدت في (81.6٪، 4.5٪، 9.1٪، 0.7٪، 3٪، 0.7٪) على التوالي من المراهقين العرب (88.6٪، 0.5٪، 3.4٪، 3.4٪، 0.5٪، 1.7٪) على التوالي من المراهقين الأكراد. (36.6٪ و 58.8٪ و 3.1٪ و 1.5٪) على التوالي من المراهقين العرب و 34٪ و 57.3٪ و 6.2٪ و 2.2٪ على التوالي منالمراهقين الأكراد (الأول والثاني والثالث والرابع). لم تكن هناك فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية في صفوف الجنسين بين الذكور والإناث العرب، ولابين الذكوروالإناث الكرد، في حين كان الفرق كبيرا في فصول الجنسين بين المراهقين العرب والكرد.الاستنتاجات: خلصت الدراسة إلى أن غالبية المراهقين العرب والكورد ليس لديهم فراغ بين سني الامامي العلوي ، وغالبيتهم من الطبقة الثانية. المراهقين العرب لديهم نسب أكبر من الطبقة الأولى والثانية والرابعة من التصاق المرفق الشفوي العلوي، باستثناء الفئة الثالثة، ونسب أكثر من وجود الفراغ بين سني الامامي العلوي من المراهقين الأكراد.


Article
Distribution of red cell antigens according to ABO, Rh and other rare blood group systems in Kurdish ethnicity

Authors: Hisham A. Getta --- Shaema S.Amin --- Najmaddin Khoshnaw --- Belal A. Muhammad
Journal: Iraq Joural of Hematology المجلة العراقية لامراض الدم ISSN: 20728069/25432702 Year: 2016 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 55-80
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Among more than 30 blood group systems, nine of them namely ABO, Rh, Kell, Kidd,Duffy, MNS, P, Lewis and Lutheran are considered to be clinically significant. The distributions of theseblood groups are different between populations across the world. Studies about the frequency of bloodgroups in Kurdish ethnicity are very limited in the literature.Objectives: to explore the distribution of red cell antigens and phenotypes of various blood groupsamong Kurdish population using different systems.Materials and Methods: five thousand blood donors attending the central blood bank of Sulaymaniyahprovince were randomly selected and tested for ABO and Rh antigens (D, C, c, E, & e) by using tubemethod. 500 donors were randomly selected and further analyzed using other blood group systems.Results: In the ABO system, the most common phenotype was O (37%), followed by A (32.6%), B(22.8%) and AB (7.6%). Among the Rh blood group antigens, e was the most common (95.2%) followedby D (91.3%), C (74.8%), c (69.4%), and E (30.6%) with DCe/DCe(R1R1) and dce/dce(rr) being themost common phenotypes among Rh-D+ve and Rh-D-ve groups, respectively. The most commonphenotypes for other blood systems were as follow; Kell(K-k+,94%), Kidd(jk a+b+,44.5%), Duffy(fya+b+,45%), Lutheran(Lu a-b+,92%), Lewis(Le a-b+,54.5%), P(P1,76%), MNS(M+N+S-s+,40%)Conclusion: the various red cell antigens recorded by different blood grouping systems in this study wasintermediate between the European and Asian countries with some specificity to the Kurds populationreflecting the distinct geographical area and preserved ethnic background of the Kurds in the region.Keywords: ABO, Rhesus (Rh), red cell antigen, Kurdish ethnicity.

Keywords

ABO --- Rhesus --- Rh --- red cell antigen --- Kurdish ethnicity


Article
Turkish Political changes TowardsThe Kurdish problem 1999-2006
المتغيرات السياسية التركية تجاه المشكلة الكردية 1999 – 2006

Author: Nawal A.Sultan نوال عبد الجبار سلطان الطائي
Journal: Regional Studies دراسات اقليمية ISSN: 18134610 Year: 2007 Issue: 7 Pages: 107-139
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The research highlights the Changes of the Kurdish problem in Turkey in the aftermath of Abdulla Ocalan's arrest, the leader of PKK.It deals with the most Significant aspects of the problem from the point of view of Turkish Politicans and its reflections upon the practical reality inside the Turkish Society especially the areas inhabited by Kurdish majority. The Research also talks about the strategic aim of PKK. In getting an independent state and Calling for the democratic rights (Political, Cultural and Economic) to reach possible answers for the Problem. The aim has got a regional Support and it was clear in Turkey's Seeking after the accession of E.U. The Kurdish Problem was one of the most Significant Points facing the Turkish government which needs – radical answers in regards to the Turkish Politics.

يسعى البحث الى تسليط الضوء على المتغيرات التي طرأت على المشكلة الكردية في تركيا بعد اعتقال عبد الله اوجلان زعيم حزب العمال الكردستاني. فهو يتناول ابرز الجوانب الأساسية التي طرأت على المشكلة من وجهة نظر الساسة الاتراك وانعكاسها على الواقع العملي داخل المجتمع التركي وعلى وجه الخصوص في المناطق ذات الغالبية الكردية. كما سلط الضوء على تحول الهدف الستراتيجي لحزب العمال الكردستاني من سعيه الى الحصول على دولة مستقلة، الى المطالبة بحقوق ديمقراطية (سياسية وثقافية واقتصادية) من اجل الوصول الى نقاط التقاء حلول ممكنة لحل المشكلة التي استعصت على الحكومة التركية ولاقت دعماً اقليمياً واوربياً، كان لهُ فاعليته وتأثيره الواضح وذلك في حدود سعي تركيا للانضمام الى الاتحاد الأوربي، فكانت المشكلة الكردية أحد أبرز النقاط الساخنة التي واجهتها الحكومة التركية والتي تتطلب وضع حلولاً جذرية لها وفق المفاهيم السياسية التركية.


Article
الموقف الإقليمي من الحركة الكردية المسلحة في تركيا 1984

Author: خليل علي مراد
Journal: Regional Studies دراسات اقليمية ISSN: 18134610 Year: 2005 Issue: 3 Pages: 32-50
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

لم تكن الحركة الكردية المسلحة التي بدأها حزب العمال الكردستاني في تركيا منذ آب 1984 شأنا داخليا فحسب بل إنها أصبحت بصورة متزايدة قضية سياسة خارجية أيضا من خلال تأثيرها في علاقات تركيا الدولية والإقليمية.يدرس هذا البحث مواقف جيران تركيا الشرق أوسطيين (العراق، سوريا، إيران) إزاء الحركة الكردية المسلحة في تركيا منذ بدايتها في 1984 حتى ألازمة السورية التركية في تشرين الأول 1998، ويحلل البحث هذه المواقف في ضوء المصالح والهواجس الأمنية المشتركة، كما بالنسبة للعراق حتى 1990 ثم الإدارة الكردية في كردستان العراق منذ 1992. أو من خلال المشاكل والخلافات القائمة ( قضية المياه، التعاون التركي الإسرائيلي) كما بالنسبة لسوريا. أو الشكوك المتبادلة والمنافسة من اجل النفوذ الإقليمي كما بالنسبة لإيران..

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