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Article
MINERAL RESOURCES OF KURDISTAN REGION, IRAQ

Author: Khaldoun S. Al-Bassam
Journal: Iraqi Bulletin of Geology and Mining مجلة الجيولوجيا والتعدين العراقية ISSN: 18114539 Year: 2013 Volume: 9 Issue: 3 Pages: 103-127
Publisher: Ministry of Industry and Minerals وزارة الصناعة والمعادن

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Abstract

Kurdistan Region is characterized among the rest of Iraqi territory, by the presence of metallic mineral deposits such as Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr-Ni and Mn, together with some unique non-metallic minerals and industrial rocks such as barite, asbestos and marble. The formation of these mineral deposits is associated with the geological and tectonic development of northern Iraq including the major tectonic events associated with the Tethys development and movement of the Arabian Plate. Most of the metallic mineralizations were developed during the Cretaceous Period. Some Zn-Pb deposits are older and may be related to the Triassic and Jurassic Periods. The actual mineral wealth of the region is not really known, in view of the lack of detailed geological mapping, geochemical survey and air-born geophysical survey. However, based on the available information it is expected that the province is promising for Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, marble and barite deposits. Building raw materials are available to maintain cement industry and other construction materials. It is essential to start a comprehensive exploration program in Kurdistan Region in order to have a better view of its mineral potential.

يتميز إقليم كردستان عن باقي مناطق العراق بوجود رواسب للخامات الفلزية مثل الخارصين والرصاص والنحاس والكروم والنيكل والمنغنيز، فضلاً عن بعض الخامات المعدنية اللافلزية والصخور الصناعية المتميزة مثل البارايت والأسبست والمرمر. يرتبط تكوّن هذه الرواسب المعدنية مع التطور البنيوي والجيولوجي لشمال العراق والأحداث البنيوية التي ارتبطت بتطور محيط التيثيس وحركة الصفيحة العربية. إن معظم الخامات المعدنية الفلزية تكونت خلال العصر الطباشيري، غير أن بعض رواسب الخارصين والرصاص أقدم عمراً ويمكن أن تعود الى العصرين الترياسي والجوراسي.إن الثروة المعدنية الحقيقية للإقليم غير معروفة بشكل دقيق بالنظر لانعدام المسوحات الجيولوجية التفصيلية لأغراض الاستكشافات المعدنية والمسوحات الجيوكيميائية والمسح الجيوفيزيائي الجوي للمنطقة. غير انه بالنظر الى المعلومات المتوفرة يمكن التوقع بأن الإقليم يحتوي على رواسب مشجعة من الخارصين والرصاص والنحاس والكروم فضلاً عن المرمر والبارايت. وتوجد مواد أولية للصناعات الإنشائية بشكل يكفي ويديم صناعة الأسمنت والمواد الإنشائية الأخرى. من الضروري المباشرة بتنفيذ برنامج استكشافي متكامل للحصول على فكرة أفضل عن الإمكانية المعدنية لإقليم كردستان.

Keywords

Minerals --- Kurdistan --- Iraq


Article
Midwives' perspectives regarding episiotomy practice in Kurdistan region/Iraq
وجهات نظر القابلات فيما يتعلق بممارسة بضع الفرج في إقليم كردستان، العراق

Authors: Hamdia Mirkhan Ahmed --- Safiya Sabri Piro
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 1233-1240
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Local professional norms, experiences in tainting, and individual provider preference may lead to wide practice variation in rate and practice of episiotomy by midwives. The aim of this study was to find out the midwives' perspectives regarding practicing of episiotomy in three main cities of Kurdistan region/Iraq. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted on 53 midwives working in delivery room in three maternity teaching hospitals in the three biggest cities of Kurdistan Region of Iraq. A questionnaire was constructed for the purpose of the study and data were collected by interview with midwives. F test and Chi-square test were used for analyzing the data. Results: The majority (88.7%) of midwives thought that the rate of episiotomy were high in their hospitals that were attributed to five factors; maternal (77.35%), fetal (39.62%), midwives (37.73%), obstetricians (30.18%) and hospital policy and health system (20.75%). The opinion of midwives regarding how to decrease the rate of episiotomy included improving midwifery care during delivery (77.35%), reforming health system (60.37%), reforming hospital policy (50.94%) and improving maternal care during pregnancy (26.41%). Conclusion: Taking into consideration the midwives' perspectives and views regarding episiotomy and providing training courses may help in decreasing the rate of episiotomy and its practice in correct way in Kurdistan's maternity hospitals.

Keywords

Episiotomy --- Midwives --- Kurdistan --- Iraq


Article
Post episiotomy care instructions among midwives in Kurdistan region, Iraq
تعليمات الرعاية بعد بضع الفرج بين القابلات في إقليم كردستان ، العراق

Author: Hamdia Mirkhan Ahmed
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2015 Volume: 19 Issue: 2 Pages: 1005-1010
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: One of the main responsibilities of midwives is the provision of post episiotomy care instructions for women who have episiotomy before discharge from the hospital after delivery. This study aimed to assess the post episiotomy care instructions provided by midwives and compare the instructions of midwives of the three main cities of Kurdistan region. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between July 1st, 2013 and July 10th, 2014 in the three governorates of Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Erbil, Dohuk and Suleimanya). All the midwives (n=53) working in the delivery room of the three maternity teaching hospitals were included in the study. A questionnaire was designed for the purpose of the study. Data were collected through interview with midwives. ANOVA and Chi-square test were used for data analysis. Results: The midwives in Erbil didn’t provide post episiotomy care instructions at all. Most of midwives of Duhok and Sulemanyia didn't provide proper instructions to mothers who have episiotomy, and there was highly significant difference between their instructions regarding some topics.Conclusion: Midwives do not properly instruct the mothers who have episiotomy regarding care during postpartum period. The practice of midwives was different in the three cities of Kurdistan region. Hospital policy and the job descriptions of midwives regarding post episiotomy instruction should be reevaluated.

Keywords

Episiotomy --- Education --- Midwifery --- Kurdistan


Article
Adherence to the standards of prescription chart among medical practitioners in Kurdistan region
الالتزام بمعايير مخطط الوصفات الطبية بين الممارسين الطبيين في إقليم كوردستان

Authors: Bootan A. Salih --- Rawaz D. Tawfeeq --- Rojgar H. Ali
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 1356-1360
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Controlling medications safely, effectively and efficiently is essential to the delivery of high-quality care. This study aimed to point up prescription errors such as scientific or brand names, the strength of medications, the age of patients, date of prescriptions, specifying dose, dose interval, dosing frequency and dosage form, through systematic studying a certain number of prescriptions. Methods: This study screened the prescriptions from both of public and private sectors in the governorates of Erbil, Sulaimaniyah and Duhok. Adherence was assessed on the basis of these prescriptions charts. Excel program was utilized to evaluate the data in this study. Results: The study covered a total 283 prescriptions involving 976 medications in Kurdistan region. Only 19% of medications were mentioned as a scientific name and just 2% of prescriptions were written via computer. Direction for use of the medicines was only mentioned for 3% and the duration of treatment was scripted in 11%. Conclusion: Majority of medical practitioners in Kurdistan region are not adhering to the international standards of prescriptions.


Article
TWO NEW RECORDS OF DWARF SNAKES OF THE GENUS EIRENIS JAN, (REPTTILIA, COLUBRIDAE) IN IRAQI KURDISTAN (NORTH AND NORTHEASTERN OF IRAQ) WITH ANNOTATED CHECKLIST, FOR THE GENUS EIRENIS IN IRAQ
تسجيلين جديدين لحيات القزمة لجنس EIRENIS JAN, (REPTTILIA, COLUBRIDAE) في كردستان العراق (شمال وشمال الشرقي في العراق) مع قائمة للجنس (EIRENIS) في العراق

Authors: Sarbaz I. Mohamad سرباز ابراهيم محمد --- Saman R. Afrasiab سامان رستم افراسياب
Journal: Bulletin of the Iraq Natural History Museum مجلة متحف التاريخ الطبيعي العراقي ISSN: Print ISSN: 10178678, Online ISSN: 23119799 Year: 2015 Volume: 13 Issue: 3 Pages: 77-83
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Two dwarf snakes were discovered, Eirenis thospitis Schmidtler & Lanza from Sereen mountain, north east of Arbil and E. rothii Jan from Saffin mountain North of Arbil city North of Iraqi Kurdistan. Supported by description and important notes on variation. In addition summarized list for 9 species of the genus Eirenis Jan in Iraq is also presented.

اكتشقت نوعين من حيات القزمة لاول مرة في العراق Eirenis thospitis Schmidtler & Lanza في جبل سيرين شمال شرق مدينة اربيل و E. rothii Jan في جبل سفين شمال مدينة اربيل في شمال العراق. دعمت بوصف وملاحظات مهمة عن التغيرات مع اضافة قائمة مصنفة لتسهة انواع من جنس Eirenis Jan الموجودة في العراق.

Keywords

Colubridae --- Eirenis --- Kurdistan --- Iraq --- Museum --- Colubridae --- Eirenis --- Kurdistan --- Iraq --- Museum


Article
Episiotomy preventing approaches among midwives in Kurdistan region
اساليب منع بضع العجان القابلات فى اقليم كردستان

Author: Hamdia M Ahmed حمديه احمد
Journal: nursing national Iraqi specility المجلة العراقية الوطنية للعلوم التمريضية ISSN: 18122388 Year: 2015 Volume: 28 Issue: 2 Pages: 93-99
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Objectives: This study aimed to findout approaches which used by midwives for avoiding episiotomy and assess their knowledge regarding complications of episiotomy in three main cities of Kurdistan region. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted between 1st January and 15th April 2014 in the three biggest maternity teaching hospitals. The study population included all the midwives (n=53) working in delivery rooms. Data were collected through interview with midwives. Results: The Midwives stated the followings as complications of episiotomy: tear into the rectum muscle or rectum itself (52.8%), bleeding (60.3%), infection and/or swelling of episiotomy area (62.2%), defect in wound closer (35.8%), local pain (32%). There was significant difference between knowledge of midwives in three cities regarding complications of episiotomy. Midwives used Good position, good vaginal support (35.8%), using Castor oil (32%), performing episiotomy only in indicated case (13.2%), no pushing without contraction (18.8%), giving enough time to mother (26.4%), using gel (15%), as episiotomy avoiding approaches. There was highly significant difference between three cities regarding episiotomy preventing approaches.Recommendations: training courses, developing guideline and establish clear and unified policy regarding episiotomy preventing approaches are necessary to decrease rate of episiotomy.

الأهداف: تهدف هذه الدراسة هو لأيجاد الوسائل المستعملة من قبل القابلات لمنع اجراء عملية بضع العجان و تقييم معلوماتهن حول مضاعفات تلك العملية فى ثلاث مدن من اقليم كردستان.المنهجيه: أجريت دراسة مقطعيه بين 1 كانون الثانى و 15 نيسان 2014 فى أكبر المستشفيات النسائيه التعليميه الثلاثة فى المدن الرئيسيه فى أقليم كردستان. و شملت عينه الدراسة جميع القابلات العاملات فى غرف التوليد و عددهن 53 قابلة. و تم جمع البيانات من خلال مقابله مع القابلات.النتائج: ذكرت القابلات أن مضاعفات بضع العجان هى: تمزق فى عضلة المستقيم او المستقيم نفسه (52.8%)، والنزف (60.3%)، والخمج و لتورم (62.2%)، خلل فى التئام الجرح (35.8%)، الم فى منطقة بضع العجان (32%). كان هناك فرق كبير بين معرفة القابلات فى المدن الثلاث حول مضاعفات بضع العجان. أما طرق تجنب بضع العجان حسب لأى القابلات هي: استخدام القابلات الوضعية الجيدة فى الولادة، و دعم منطقة العجان (35.8%)، و ذلك باستخدام زيت الخروع (32%), و اجراء بضع العجان فقط فى حال الحاجة (13.2%)، عدم الدفع بدون تقلصات رحمية (18.8%)، و اعطاء الوقت الكافى للماخض ( 26.4%)، و ذلك باستخدام الجلى (15%). كان هناك فرق كبير جدا بين ثلاث مدن فى طرق تجنب بضع العجان.التوصيات: لتخفض معدلات بضع العجان فمن الضروري اقامة الدورات التدريبية، و تطوير الادلة و وضع سياسة واضحة و موحدة بشأن منع بضع العجان الا في الحالات الضرورية لخفض معدل بضع العجان.


Article
Morphological Study of the Centaurium pulchelum and C.erythraea (Gentianaceae) in Kurdistan region of Iraq
دراسة مظهرية للنوعين Centaurium pulchelum و C.erythraea من العائلة Gentianaceae في منطقة كردستان العراق

Author: Jawhar Fatah Saeed جوهر فتاح سعيد
Journal: Journal of university of Anbar for Pure science مجلة جامعة الانبار للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: ISSN: 19918941 Year: 2013 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-6
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

In this study a survey for the species of Centaurium Hill (Gentianaceae) in Kurdistan of Iraq was presented along with survey and identification of samples preserved in some Iraqi herbaria Several scientific excursions were made to different regions in Kurdistan, and a comparative study was conducted on the vegetative and reproductive parts. These have been reinforced by graphs and figuers. The present study dealt with the ecology and geographical distribution, and a map was designed for this purpose.The present study specified the real number of the Centaurium Hill species within the studied area by two species as follow: Centaurium erythraea Rafn (which was found as C. erythraea subsp. turcicum (Velen.) Meldris & C. pulchellum (Swartz) Druce .

تناولت الدراسة الحالية مسحا حقليا لانواع الجنس Centaurium Hill. من العائلة Gentianaceae فى كوردستان العراق ، كما تم مسح و تشخيص العينات المحفوظة فى بعض المعاشب العراقية. أجريت العديد من السفرات الحقلية الى مناطق مختلفة من كوردستان العراق ، وذلك لجمع العينات النباتية العائدة للجنس .تمت مقارنة انواع الجنس مظهريا من خلال صفات الأجزاء الخضرية والتكاثرية ،و أعدت الرسومات التوضيحية للاجزاء المختلفة بالتفصيل .وتمت دراسة البيئة والتوزيع الجغرافي , وعملت خريطة لهذا الغرض, حدد البحث انواع الجنس في منطقة الدراسة بنوعين فقط وهما Centaurium erythraea Rafn الذي ينتشر كنويع وهو C. erythraea subsp. turcicum (Velen.) Meldris و C. pulchellum (Swartz) Druce .

Keywords

Survey --- Kurdistan --- Iraq --- Centaurium --- Gentianaceae


Article
Rate and indications of cesarean section in the Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil City, Kurdistan region, Iraq
معدل ومؤشرات العملية القيصرية في مستشفى الولادة التعليمي في مدينة أربيل، إقليم كوردستان، العراق

Authors: Namir AL-Tawil Ghanim --- Hamdia Mirkahn Ahmed
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 Pages: 148-154
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Knowing the rate and indications of the cesarean section will help to have an overview of this common type of obstetrical procedure and to plan for the high level of care management. This study aimed to find out the rate of cesarean section and to identify its indications.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil city of Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Data were collected during the period of 20th of March to 30th of December 2015 by an interview with 722 women who were admitted to the hospital and underwent cesarean section out of 11881 cesarean section done during 2015.Results: Results showed the increasing rate of the cesarean section from 28.5% in 2010 to 35.77% in 2015. The main overall indications for cesarean section were a previous cesarean section (70.49%), cephalopelvic disproportion (35.31%) and mother’s request (14.26%).Conclusion: Rate of cesarean section is much higher than the optimal range recommended by the World Health Organization. Finding the appropriate strategies for decreasing the rate of primary and secondary indications is essential.

Keywords

Cesarean section --- Indication --- Rate --- Kurdistan


Article
Plants used in Iraqi traditional medicine in Erbil - Kurdistan region
النباتات المستخدمة في الطب العراقي التقليدي في أربيل - إقليم كوردستان

Author: Alaadin Naqishbandi
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2014 Volume: 18 Issue: 3 Pages: 811-815
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Hawler Medical University Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences Skip Navigation LinksHomeAvailable IssuesSearchEditorial BoardInformation for AuthorsReview ProcessCopyrightLinks and Contacts Zanco J Med Sci: Dec. 2014; 18 (3): 811-815Plants used in Iraqi traditional medicine in Erbil - Kurdistan regionAlaadin Naqishbandi ) (http://dx.doi.org/10.15218/zjms.2014.0038AbstractBackground and objective: Herbal medicine is a traditional or folk medicine practice based on the use of plants’ seeds, berries, roots, leaves, barks, flowers and plant extracts for medicinal purposes. This survey highlights the traditional phytotherapy practices by traditional healers of Erbil-Kurdistan region in the treatment of various disorders.Methods: An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Erbil-Kurdistan region. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews.Results: The investigation revealed that the traditional healers were not professionally authorized and 32 plants belonging to 23 families were used to treat various diseases in traditional medicine. The plants reported have been identified and presented in a table with the vernacular names, useful parts, dosage preparations and medicinal uses. Conclusion: Many recorded species of plants are used in Erbil- Kurdistan region in traditional medicine but lack phyto-therapeutic evidence. Most indigenous plants remain to be studied which may yield many exciting data for further investigation.

Keywords

Survey --- Medicinal plants --- Erbil --- Kurdistan


Article
A SURVEY OF WEEVILS (COLEOPTERA, CURCULIONOIDEA) FROM SOME LOCALITES OF KURDISTAN REGION- IRAQ, WITH NEW RECORDS TO THE ENTOMOFAUNA OF IRAQ
مسح لأنواع خنافس السوس رتبة غمدية الاجنحة (Curculionoidea) في بعض مناطق اقليم كوردستان العراق، مع تسجيل انواع جديدة للمجموعة الحشرية العراقية

Authors: Talal Tahir Mahmoud طلال طاهر محمود --- Halgurd Rashed Ismael Akrawi هلكورد رشيد اسماعيل عقراوي
Journal: Bulletin of the Iraq Natural History Museum مجلة متحف التاريخ الطبيعي العراقي ISSN: Print ISSN: 10178678, Online ISSN: 23119799 Year: 2019 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 319-333
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This work is the first study of the Curculionoidea fauna from Kurdistan region of Iraq, based on the intensive survey in different localities of Kurdistan from March 2016 to November 2017. In total, 41 species belonging to 28 genera, 21 tribes and 3 families were collected and identified, including 25 species newly recorded for the Iraqi fauna.General distribution, collecting localities and methods, with plant association data for each species are given.

هذا العمل هو أول دراسة شاملة على خنافس السوس في اقليم كوردستان العراق، اعتمادا على مسح مكثف في مناطق مختلفة من اقليم كوردستان العراق، خلال المدة من شهر اذار/ 2016 الى شهر تشرين الثاني/ 2017. تم تسجيل و تشخيص 41نوعا تعود الى 28 أجناس، 21 قبائل, 9 عويلات و3 عوائل، تضمنت تسجيل 25 نوعا لأول مرة للفونا الحشرية في العراق، ذكرت البيانات المتعلقة بتوزيع المناطق وطرق الجمع لكل نوع مع النباتات المتواجدة عليها.

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