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Article
The Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-&#913;) in The Induction of Preterm Labor

Authors: Taiseer Abdul Ilah AL Hussainy --- Mohammad A. K. Al-Sa’adi --- Mohammad Sabri A. Razzak
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2010 Volume: 3 no.1 Issue: 6 Pages: 779-783
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

Abstract
Background: Microbial colonization and inflammation in the maternal genital tract has emerged as one of the major risk factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth.
Objectives: this study aimed to demonstrate the role of tumor necrosis alpha(TNF-α)in the induction of preterm labor.
Materials and methods: This study was conducted in Babylon Teaching Hospital of Gynecology and Pediatrics from November 2007 to May 2008. A total of 60 pregnant women with preterm labor admitted to Labor Room and 20 control women (10 of them were pregnant at term with bacterial infection, 5 were pregnant at term without bacterial infection, and 5 were normal females not pregnants and not infected) were included in this study. The ages of patients and controls ranged from (17-40) years. Blood samples were collected from both patients and controls to estimate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α by EASIA (Enzyme Amplified Sensitivity Immunoassay) method.
Results: The results show there is significantly higher (p<0.05) in the level of TNF- α in patients with preterm labor compared to all control groups.
Conclusion: The results clearly indicate the possible role of TNF-α in the induction of preterm labor.
Keywords: preterm labor, TNF-α

Keywords

preterm labor --- TNF-α


Article
The Effect of Application of the WHO Partogram and Active Management of Labor on the Caesarean Section Rate in Baqouba Maternity Hospital, Diala, Iraq
تأثير تطبيق مخطط الولادة لمنظمة الصحة العالمية وطريقة الولادة الفاعلة على معدل العمليات القيصرية في مستشفى بعقوبة للولادة

Authors: Faris Anwer د. فارس انور رشيد --- Kamil Jamil د. كامل جميل --- Nasir A. Mohammed د. نصير محمد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2006 Volume: 19 Issue: 2 Pages: 158-161
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Abstract:Objective: This study was done to evaluate the effect of application of the world health organization partogram and active management of labor on the caesarean section (CS) rate in Baqouba maternity hospital, Diala, Iraq.Patients & Methods: Retrospective study, hospital records. Conducted at Baqouba maternity hospital, from Oct. 1998 to the end of Sept. 1999.Total number of patients delivered at the hospital six months before (4392 from Oct. 1998 to the end of March 1999, group 1) and six months after the application of the WHO partogram (4173 from April 1999 to the end of Sept. 1999, group 2).Intervention: A partogram was applied by a resident doctor for every patient admitted for delivery and was in the first stage of labor, active management of labor policy was used for the primigravida.Results: The total (CS) rate showed no significant difference, 22.3% in group 1 and 22% in group 2 and also in the multiparus woman 22.5% and 23.9% respectively. Significant difference was observed in CS rate in the primigravida from 21.5% in group 1 to 17.8% in group 2.Conclusion: This study confirmed the value of the application of the WHO partogram and active management of labor in the primigravidae.Key words: Partogram, Labor, Caesarean, Section

الملخص: أجريت الدراسة في مستشفى بعقوبة للولادة ، وأخذت المعلومات من سجلات المرضى ، و قسمت المريضات إلى مجموعتين ، المجموعة الأولى ، عدد الولادات لمدة ستة أشهر قبل تطبيق مخطط الولادة ، والولادة الفاعلة، من بداية تشرين الأول 1998 إلى نهاية آذار 1999 وكانت 4392 ، المجموعة الثانية فهي عدد الولادات لستة أشهر بعد التطبيق من بداية نيسان 1999 إلى نهاية أيلول 1999 وكانت 4173 .والنتيجة كانت انه لا يوجد اختلاف معتد في المعدل الكلي للعمليات القيصرية ، 3 ,22 % للمجموعــة الأولى , و22% للمجموعة الثانية ، وكذلك للولادات المتعددة 5 , 22% و 9 , 23 % بالتتابع 0 لكن انه هنالك اختلاف معتد في معدل العمليات القيصرية للولادة البكرية 5 ,21% من المجموعة الأولى مقـــابل 8, 17% من المجموعة الثانية .كان الاستنتاج بإيجابية تأثير تطبيق مخطط الولادة على جميع الولادات والولادات الفعالة على البكرية معدل العمليات القيصرية للولادة البكرية .

Keywords

Partogram --- Labor --- Caesarean --- Section


Article
6.EFFECT OF PROGESTERONE IN LOWERING MATERNAL PLASMA CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE IN PATIENTS WITH PRETERM LABOR

Authors: Enas M. Yaseen ايناس محمد ياسين --- Athraa Fadhil Abd ايثار فاضل عبد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2019 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 32-42
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Preterm labor is a major obstetrics problem because it associated with high morbidity and mortality to the born baby. Many studies were done to study different aspects of its risk factors, diagnosis and treatment to decrease its incidence, bad sequel to the fetus and recurrence.Objective:To evaluate the role of progesterone in lowering CRH level in plasma of patient with preterm labor.Methods:This study is a case control study. Forty-five pregnant women with preterm labor were included in the study and basal plasma Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) level was done for each patient. All patients were given oral tocolytic drug, with an initial bolus of 20 mg Nifedipine followed by 10 mg three times daily. They received betamethasone injection (12 mg) 24 hours after hospitalization. Then after stabilization of each patient with random selection, 25 patients were included in group (1) and were given progesterone injection. Twenty patients were included in group (2) or control group because no progesterone injection was given to them. After 24 hours of admission to the hospital, plasma CRH level was measured for both groups with evaluation of the outcome of each patient with preterm labor.Results:Progesterone is more effective in lowering CRH level in patients with preterm labor. In study of 45 cases of preterm labor, the mean CRH level of group (1) decreased from 33.41 ng/ml to 22.12 ng/ml, while the mean level of it in group (2) increased from 27.44 ng/ml to 28.54 ng/ml. Conclusion:Progesterone treatment is effective in lowering CRH level in patients with preterm labor. This would have a positive effect in prolonging the pregnancy period in these patients.Keywords:Preterm labor, progesterone, CRHCitation;Yaseen EM, Abd AF. Effect of progesterone in lowering maternal plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone in patients with preterm labor. Iraqi JMS. 2019; 17(1): 32-42. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.17.1.6

Keywords

Preterm labor --- progesterone --- CRH


Article
Assessment of Nurses – Midwives Practices Regarding Prolonged Labor in Babylon Governorate

Author: Saadia Hadi Homadi Al Shkrawe
Journal: nursing national Iraqi specility المجلة العراقية الوطنية للعلوم التمريضية ISSN: 18122388 Year: 2005 Volume: 18 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-10
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Objective : to assess the nurse-midwives practices regarding prolonging labor in Babylon Governorate hospitals .Methodology : Purposive sample of (57) nurse-midwives, which was selected from (6) hospitals included (3) General Hospital, (2) Maternity Hospital and Teaching Hospital .These nurse-midwives represented several nursing educational levels.A questionnaire was constructed for the purpose of the study, which was comprised demographic characteristics, information a bout nurse-midwives related to their ages, marital status, educational level, experience years in nursing and delivery , and attending midwifery courses through out their work .Results :The study findings indicated that , there were a significant relation ship between the nurse-midwives practices regarding prolonged labor and their ages (x2 = 23.434. P <0.05 ) , Marital status (x2=12.088 . P < 0.05) , and the experience years in delivery room (x2=17.8. P < 0.05) , while there was no significant relation between the nurse-midwives practices and their educational level (x2 =11.153. P < 0.05) .The study concluded that these results regarding the nurse-midwives practices certainly unsatisfactory and effects the type of care given to laboring women with low progress labor .Recommendation: The study recommended that an educational program can be designed and constructed for nurse-midwives through the program , an emphasis can be directed and oriented toward the laboring process. The nurse-midwives can be encouraged for being participated in a special training programs designed and constructed to fulfill the nurse-midwives needs concerning defects and limitations in their practices. collaborative work can be issued between ministry of health and higher education to provide such program. Key Wards: Assessment, Midwives practices, Prolonged labor.

الخلاصة :الهدف : تقييم ممارسات الممرضات القابلات فيما يخص الولادة المطوّلة ، في مستشفيات محافظة بابل .المنهجية : اختيرت عينة تمريضية تتكوّن من (57) ممرضة قابلة واللواتي تم اختيارهن من (6) مستشفيات (3) منها عامة و(2) منها ولادة و(1) تعليمية ، وهنًّ يمثلنَ مختلف مستويات التعليمية للتمريض .وصممت استمارة استبيان لغرض الدراسة، تكوّنت من المعلومات الديموغرافية المتعلقة بالمعلومات المتعلقة بالمولّدة والتي تخص العمر ، الحالة الاجتماعية ، المستوى التعليمي ، خبرة في مجال التمريض والقبالة والدورات التي التحقت بها خلال فترة عملها .النتائج :أشارت نتائج الدراسة ، إلى وجود علاقة ذات دلالة إحصائية بين ممارسات الممرضات-القابلات فيما يتعلق بالولادة المطوّلة والعمر X2=23.434.P < 0.05 ) ( ، الحالة الاجتماعية X2=12.088.P < 0.05)) ، وسنوات الخدمة في مجال القبالة X2=17.8.P < 0.05)) ، بينما أشارت النتائج إلى : عدم وجود علاقة بين الممارسات والتحصيل الدراسي للممرضة القابلة X2=11.153.P < 0.05)) .واستنتجت الدراسة بأن النتائج المتعلقة بممارسات القابلات الممرضات بالتأكيد غير مقنعة وتؤثر على نوع العناية المعطاة للمرأة الماخض التي تعاني من عدم تقدم المخاض . التوصيات : أوصت الدراسة بتصميم وبناء برنامج تعليمي للممرضات ، حيث يتم من خلال البرنامج التأكيد على عملية الولادة بتشجيع الممرضات القابلات للمشاركة في برامج تدريبية خاصة لتغطية حاجاتهن المختلفة المتعلقة بالإخفاقات والمعوقات لممارستهن وإقامة علاقة تعاونية ما بين وزارة الصحة والتعليم العالي لتهيئة هذا البرنامج .


Article
Epidural Labor Analgesia during the First Stage of Labor: A Double-Blind Clinical Trial

Author: Ali Hadi Muslih
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 20-23
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: although severe pain is not life-threatening in healthy parturient women, it can have neuropsychological consequences. Postnatal depression may be more common when analgesia is not used, and pain during labor has been correlated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. In addition, one study suggested that the impairment of cognitive function in the postpartum period can be mitigated by the use of any form of intrapartum analgesia.Aims: to compare a combination of epidural fentanyl and bupivacaine with bupivacaine alone for epidural analgesia in labor and to evaluate factors in addition to analgesia that may influence maternal satisfaction.Patients and methods: a double blind controlled clinical trial carried on 218 multiparous parturient. The patients were randomly allocated in 2 groups. Group 1 (n=109) had received bupivacaine 0.1% with fentanyl 50µg and group 2 (n=109) (control group) had received bupivacaine 0.1% only.Results: in the bupivacaine group, 40 cases (37.7%) had required 2 top-ups and 26 cases (23.9%) had asked for 3 top-ups. On the other hand 14 (12.8%) cases from bupivacaine fentanyl group had asked for 2 top-ups and no cases had recorded request for 3 doses, which was statistically significant (P<0.0001).Conclusions: maternal satisfactory rate is high in both groups; the bupivacaine fentanyl group had shown a good response to the effect of analgesia with the minimal medical intervention.


Article
MISOPROSTOL EFFICACY IN LABOR INDUCTION

Authors: Asma Z. Fadhil اسمى زهير فاضل --- Edwar Z. Khosho ادور زيا خوشو
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2014 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 114-118
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:The process of normal human childbirth is categorized in three stages of labor: the shortening and dilation of the cervix, descent and birth of the infant, and delivery of the placenta. Oxytocin is the most commonly used agent for induction, and is used to induce uterine contractions.Objective:To estimate the efficacy of oral misoprostol for labor induction.Methods:This randomized, controlled trial study was comparing intravenous oxytocin to a 25-microgram dose of oral misoprostol every 3-4 hours. A woman who had cervical dilation of 0-2 cm then undergoes labor induction. Our outcome was recorded.Results:we found when we used misoprostol the time duration was significantly less specially in primigravida and when os closed, the side effect approximately same as oxytocin.Conclusion:Oral misoprostol is an effective agent for inductionof labor.Keywords:Induction of labor, misoprostol, oxytocin


Article
Comparison of Oral Misoprostol with Conventional Uterotonics in the Management of Third Stage of Labor

Authors: Hameedah Hadi --- Zahida A. Al- Saadi
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2019 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 4103-4110
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Randomized prospective control study it is objective to compare effect of oral misoprostol with conventional uterotonics in the management of the third stage of labor.Aim of study: The incidence of Hemorrhage and the decrease in hemoglobin concentration is the main out comes of the trial. Secondary outcomes included the occurrences of sever postpartum hemorrhage.Patient and method: This study was done in Department of obstetrics and gynecology at Baghdad Teaching Hospital. In controlled trials a pregnant women total number 280 were randomized into four groups, as followed: Group I: received oral misoprostol 400 Mg, followed by two doses of oral misoprostol 100 Mg 4hours a part. (n=72), group 2: received intravenous infusion of oxytocin10 IU plus oral misoprostol 400 Mg followed by two doses of 100Mg oral misoprostol 4 hours apart group 3: received intravenous infusion of oxytocin 10 IU. (n=69), group 4: received intravenous infusion of 10 IU oxytocin plus intramuscular administration of methylergometrine (methergine) 0.2 mg. (n=77). The data of 40 women were excluded from the study because of loss to follow up, previous cesarean deliveries performed after randomization n=25, pre delivery hemoglobin was unavailable n= 10, postpartum percentage of hematocrit unavailable n=5. Main measures, the incidences of postpartum hemorrhage and the changes in hematocrit concentration from before delivery to 24 hours postpartum, in those women used oral misoprostol in management of third stage of labor with or without the use of other uterotonicsResult: Shows, Mean blood loss in misoprostol group was not significantly higher than blood loss in oxytocin group and oxytocin misoprostol group, but there was statistically significant difference when compared with oxytocin-methylergometrine group.Conclusion: Oral administrated misoprostol is as effective as conventional oxytocic in prevention of postpartum hemorrhage


Article
Evaluation of Labor Market Performance Economic Indicators in Iraq
تقييم المؤشرات الاقتصادية لأداء سوق العمل في العراق

Author: Elham Khazaal Nashour الهام خزعل ناشور
Journal: Gulf Economist الاقتصادي الخليجي ISSN: 18175880 Year: 2017 Volume: 33 Issue: 33 Pages: 132-169
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The subject of labor market is one of the important topics that have received great attention in analysis and economic studies due to its importance for the individual and community as it focuses on the working manpower considering it as a basic production factor. This importance is not limited at the local level, only but extends to the international level to take a broader level associated with the concept of economic development. One example of its significance is the ensuring work for each person who wants it .considering work as a natural right of every citizen and a condition of preserving dignity . but under current Iraqi economy circumstances and what its suffering from distortions and structural imbalances ,such as downturn, economic sectors, particularly agricultural and industrial sector, so as a result of circumstances of war and embargo that Iraq witnessed, this situation has led to end of a number of agriculture and industrial projects, and deterioration of infrastructure needed for these sectors, which weakened of the ability of labor market to find a new jobs: constrained from the demand for labor .With the increasing in population size , the supply of work force recently entering labor market has increased, which means, the labor supply is growing at a even higher rate than labor demand. this imbalances between supply and demand labor caused of growing the phenomenon of unemployment, which from one of the most important problems facing labor market in Iraq.

يُعد موضوع سوق العمل من الموضوعات المهمة التي لاقت اهتماماً كبيراً في التحليل والدراسات الاقتصادية، نظراً لما يمثله من أهمية بالنسبة للفرد والمجتمع، لأنه يركز على القوة البشرية العاملة، بوصفها عنصر إنتاج أساسياً، ولا يقتصر هذا الاهتمام على المستوى المحلي بل يمتد إلى المستوى الدولي بحيث اتخذ مستوى أوسع ارتبط بمفهوم التنمية الاقتصادية، ومن صور هذا الاهتمام هو السعي إلى ضمان توفر فرص العمل لكل شخص يرغب فيه على اعتبار أن العمل حق طبيعي لكل مواطن وشرط من شروط حفظ الكرامة. بيد انه في ظل الظروف الراهنة للاقتصاد العراقي وما يعانيه من تشوهات واختلالات هيكلية ومنها تدهور القطاعات الاقتصادية الإنتاجية لاسيما القطاع الزراعي والقطاع الصناعي نتيجة ظروف الحرب التي مر بها العراق والحصار الاقتصادي، فضلاً عن سوء إدارة الدولة، أدى ذلك الى توقف عدد من المشاريع الصناعية والزراعية وتدهور البنية التحتية اللازمة لهذه القطاعات، مما أضعف من قدرة سوق العمل على إيجاد فرص عمل جديدة للعمالة لاستيعاب الطلب على العمل، ومع تزايد حجم السكان ازداد عرض القوة العاملة الداخلة حديثاً إلى سوق العمل، أي أن عرض العمل ينمو بمعدل اكبر من الطلب على العمل، هذا الاختلال بين عرض العمل والطلب عليه سبب في تنامي ظاهرة البطالة والتي تعد واحدة من أهم الإشكاليات التي تواجه سوق العمل في العراق.


Article
Analgesia in labor: Evaluating clinical trial comparing between Entonox versus parenteral pethidine during the first stage of labor

Author: Ali H. Muslih
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 39-42
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background An adequate analgesia during labor is important to minimize the deleterious effects of sever labor pain on maternal and fetal condition and also on the progress of labor. Aim To compare the clinical effectiveness of inhalational analgesia by using Entonox versus systemic analgesia by using I.V pethidine for pain relief in the first stage of labor. Patients and methods 48 multiparous women were selected in the first stage of labor, were randomly allocated into 2 groups, group A had received I.V pethidine and group B had received Entonox. Total pain score measurement was done by using the parameters of Mc Gill pain questionnaire which include pain rating index (PRI) and present pain intensity (PPI). Results A comparison between group A&B done, the difference in PPI between pethidine & Entonox was showing a statistical significance P<0.001. The difference in PRI between pethidine &Entonox was carrying no statistical significance. Conclusions Inhalational analgesia by using Entonox in a proper intermittent technique is more effective than systemic analgesia by using parenteral pethidine for reducing present pain intensity in the 1st stage of labor.

Keywords

Pethidine --- Entonox --- Labor pain --- PPI --- PRI


Article
بعض المسائل المتعلقة بنظرية عرض العمل

Author: د.راوية عبد الرحيم ياس
Journal: Journal of Baghdad College of Economic sciences University مجلة كلية بغداد للعلوم الاقتصادية الجامعة ISSN: 2072778X Year: 2005 Issue: 10 Pages: 36-49
Publisher: Baghdad College of Economic Sciences كلية بغداد للعلوم الاقتصادية

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Abstract

تؤكد النظرية الاقتصادية العلاقة الطردية بين الاسعار والكمية المعروضة لكون سوق العمل يختلف تماما عن سوق السلع والخدمات حيث لا يتاثر بالعوامل الاقتصادية فحسب بل يتاثر بعوامل اخرى ديموغرافية واجتماعية وسايكولوجية (رغبات وسلوك العاملين) تجاه جميع هذه المتغيرات مما يشكل صعوبة في قياس الكمي للحجم المعرض من اليد العاملة

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