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Article
Separation of Hexane-Benzene Mixtures by Emulsion Liquid Membrane.

Authors: Muhammad D. Al Zaidi --- Adil A. Al Hemiri عادل احمد عوض
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2008 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 1-6
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The effect of operating parameters on the batch scale separation of hydrocarbon mixture (benzene and hexane) usingemulsion liquid membrane technique is reported. Sparkleen detergent was used as surfactant and heavy mineral oil assolvent to receive the permeates.From the experimental results, the parameters that influenced the permeation are, composition of feed, contact timewith solvent, ratio of volume of solvent to volume of hydrocarbon feed, ratio of volume of surfactant solution to volumeof hydrocarbon feed, surfactant concentration, mixing intensity and glycerol as polar additive in the surfactant solutionto eliminate drop breakup.The best conditions for the separation in this study were found to be: composition of feed (mole fraction ofbenzene=0.5245), contact time of 10min. , ratio of volumes of solvent to feed equal 3.5 , ratio of volumes of surfactantsolution to feed of 0.4, surfactant concentration of 1wt%, mixing intensity equal 1000rpm and 70% by weight of polaradditive. These conditions gave a separation factor of (8.0).


Article
Extraction of medicinal compounds from botanicals using bulk liquid membrane in rotating film contactor: Recovery of vinblastine from catharanthus roseus.

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Abstract

The interest of application of liquid membrane (pertraction) processes for recovery of medicinal compounds from dilute ammoniacal leach solutions is demonstrated. Selectivity of the liquid membrane ensures a preferential transport of the desired solute from the native extract into the strip solution, vinblastine was successfully extracted from basic media (pH 9.2) and stripped by acidic media of sulfuric acid (pH= 1.3) applying continuous pertraction in a rotating discs contactor and using n-decane as liquid membrane. Transport of vinblastine in three-liquid-phase system was studied and performed by means of a kinetic model involving two consecutive irreversible first-order reactions. The kinetic parameters (apparent rate constants of the vinblastine extraction and re-extraction reactions (K1, K2), the maximum fraction of the vinblastine in the liquid membrane (XS.Max) and the time when this maximum is reached (TMax)) were calculated. Solute transfer into the LM is mainly diffusion-controlled.


Article
Extraction of atropine from Datura Innoxia using liquid membrane Technique

Authors: Wasan O. Noori --- Adel al-Hemiri عادل احمد عوض
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2009 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 23-27
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Selective recovery of atropine from Datura innoxia seeds was studied. Applying pertraction in a rotating film contactor (RFC) the alkaloid was successfully recovered from native aqueous extracts obtained from the plant seeds. Decane as a liquid membrane and sulfuric acid as a stripping agent were used. Pertraction from native liquid extracts provided also a good atropine refinement, since the most of co-extracted from the plant species remained in the feed or membrane solution. Solid–liquid extraction of atropine from Datura innoxia seeds was coupled with RF-pertraction in order to purify simultaneously the extract obtained from the plant. Applying the integrated process, proposed in this study, a product containing 92.6% atropine was obtained.


Article
Extraction of Penicillin V from Simulated Fermentation Broth by Liquid-Liquid Membrane Technique
استخلاص البنسلين Vمن ناتج التخمير المصطنع بأستخدام تقنية الغشاء السائل

Author: Khalid W. Hameed خالد وليد حميد
Journal: Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal مجلة الخوارزمي الهندسية ISSN: 18181171 23120789 Year: 2012 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 77-83
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Liquid-liquid membrane extraction technique, pertraction, using three types of solvents (methyl isobutyl ketone, n-butyl acetate, and n-amyl acetate) was used for recovery of penicillin V from simulated fermentation broth under various operating conditions of pH value (4-6) for feed and (6-8) for receiver phase, time (0-40 min), and agitation speed (300-500 rpm) in a batch laboratory unit system. The optimum conditions for extraction were at pH of 4 for feed, and 8 for receiver phase, rotation speed of 500 rpm, time of 40 min, and solvent of MIBK as membrane, where more than 98% of penicillin was extracted.

تم استخدام تقنية الأستخلاص بطريقة الغشاء السائل لثلاث انواع من المذيبات العضوية (ايزوبيوتايل مثل كيتون، اسيتات البيوتايل الأعتيادي، اسيتات الأمايل الأعتيادي) والتي أستخدمت لغرض استخلاص البنسيلين V من ناتج التخمير المصطنع تحت ظروف تشغيل متباينة من اس هيدروجيني بمدى (4-6) للقيم و (6-8) للطور المستلم، زمن استخلاص بمدى (0-40 دقيقة)، وسرعة خلط بمدى (300-500 دورة/دقيقة) في منظومة مختبرية ذات النظام الدفعي. الظروف المثلى للأستخلاص كانت عند اس هيدروجيني 4 للقيم و 8 للطور المستلم، سرعة خلط 500 دورة/دقيقة، زمن استخلاص 40 دقيقة وللمذيب العضوي ايزوبيوتايل مثل كيتون، حيث اكثر من 98% من البنسلين تم استخلاصه ضمن هذه الظروف.


Article
Ability of some Schiff base ligands to specific cation – transport through three phase system.

Author: Layla Jasim Abbas
Journal: Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences) مجلة ابحاث البصرة ( العلميات) ISSN: 18172695 Year: 2006 Volume: 32 Issue: 3A Pages: 88-104
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

This paper reports the specific and uphill transport of Cu (II) ions across a liquid membrane [CH2 Cl2 – C2H4Cl2 ] mediated by a tetradendate Schiff base ligands as carriers .The transport is driven by pH gradient between two aqueous phase (source and receiving phase ) and the cation transfer has been coupled by a counter flow of protons .The concentration of metal ions in SP(source phase ) , and RP(receiving phase ) monitored by spectrophotometric method and was found to decrease progressively in SP, whereas Cu (II) ions appeared in RP and their concentration increased with time .

سجل هذا البحث نقل عالي لأيونات النحاس الثنائي عبر غشاء سائل من ثنائي كلوروميثان :ثنائي كلورو ايثان تتوسطه ليكندات عبارة عن قواعد شف رباعية العطاء كناقلات للأيونات. وكان النقل مسير بوساطة انحدار الأس الهيدروجيني pH بين الطبقتين ( الواهبة والمستقبلة ) وكان الكاتيون ينتقل بوساطة سيل معاكس من البروتونات من الطبقة المستقبلة للكاتيون . وقدر تركيز أيونات الفلز في كلا الطبقتين الواهبة والمستقبلة بوساطة الطريقة الطيفية ووجد بأنه يقل في الطبقة الواهبة ويزداد في الطبقة المستقبلة مع مرور الزمن .


Article
Minimization of Toxic Ions in Waste Water Using Emulsion Liquid Membrane Technique

Authors: Heaven E. Mahmoud --- Adel A. Al - Hemiri عادل احمد عوض
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2010 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 11-19
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In the present study, the removal of zinc from synthetic waste water using emulsion liquid membrane extraction technique was investigated. Synthetic surfactant solution is used as the emulsifying agent. Diphenylthiocarbazon (ditizone) was used as the extracting agent dissolved in carbon tetrachloride as the organic solvent and sulfuric acid is used as the stripping agent. The parameters that influence the extraction percentage of Zn+2 were studied. These are the ratio of volume of organic solvent to volume of aqueous feed (0.5-4), ratio of volume of surfactant solution to volume of aqueous feed (0.2-1.6), pH of the aqueous feed solution (5-10), mixing intensity (100-1000) rpm, concentration of extracting agent (20-400) ppm, surfactant concentration (0.2-2) wt.%, contact time (3-30) min, and concentration of strip phase (0.25-2) M . It was found that 87.4% of Zn+2 can be removed from the aqueous feed solution at the optimum operating conditions. Further studies were carried out on extraction percentages of other toxic metal ions (As+3, Hg+2, Pb+2, Cd+2) by using the same optimum conditions which were obtained for zinc ions except for the pH of the feed solutions. The pH values for best extraction percentages of arsenic, lead, and cadmium were (1, 10, 10) respectively. Maximum extraction percentage of (98.5, 95.5 and 93.8) was obtained for arsenic, lead, and cadmium respectively, while mercury was completely removed from the aqueous feed solution within the acidic pH range.


Article
Extraction of Pelletierine from Punica granatum L.by Liquid Membrane Technique and Modelling

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Abstract

This work was conducted to study the extraction of pelletierine sulphate from Punica granatum L. roots by liquid membrane techniques. Pelletierine sulphate is used widely in medicine. The general behavior of extraction process indicates that pelletierine conversion increased with increasing the number of stages and the discs rotation speed but high rotation speed was not favored because of the increased risk of droplet formation during the operation. The pH of feed and acceptor solution was also important. The results exhibit that the highest pelletierine conversion was obtained when using two stages, (10 rpm) discs speed of stainless steel discs, (pH=9.5) of feed solution and (pH=2) of acceptor solution in n-decane. Assuming the existence of two thin reaction layers in the feed and stripping solutions, mathematical model was developed to describe the pelletierine transport. On the basic of the experimental data obtained under various conditions and the model proposed, it was found that the solute transfer into the liquid membrane is mainly diffusion-controlled.

يهدف هذا البحث الى دراسة استخلاص دواء الݒلترين سلفيت من جذور نبات الرمان بأستخدام تقنيات السائل الغشائي. الݒلترين يستخدم بصوره واسعه في الطب ,حيث يستخدم للقضاء على الديدان الشريطيه والديدان المعويه وكعلاج للاسهال و الدازنتري ,وكمضاد بكتيري. وبينت الدراسات الحديثه بأنه يستعمل كمضاد فطري عندما يمزج مع الاملاح الحديديه , وهذه المجموعه نفسها استعملت لاختبار تأثيره على نمو فيروس الايدز.السلوك العام لعملية الاستخلاص يشير الى ان تحول الݒلترين يزداد عند زيادة عدد المراحل وسرعة دوران الاقراص لكن السرع العاليه كانت غير مفضله بسبب تكون قطرات على الاقراص وبالتالي نقصان بالمساحه السطحيه للطبقات المتجدده. ولكن درجة الحامضيه للمحلول الداخل والمستلم كانت محكومه ضمن حد معين.اظهرت النتائج ان اعلى تحول للݒلترين تم الحصول عليه عند استخدام مرحلتين , سرعة دوران الأقراص (10 دوره / دقيقة) و درجة الحامضية للمحلول الداخل =9.5 , درجة الحامضيه للمحلول المستلم = 2 وبأستخدام الديكان كسائل غشائي .تم تطوير موديل رياضي لوصف عملية انتقال الݒلترين على افتراض وجود طبقتي تفاعل رقيقه في المحلول الداخل والمستلم . على اساس البيانات التجريبيه التي تم الحصول عليها والنموذج الرياضي المقترح وجد ان انتقال المذيب الى الغشاء السائل مسيطر عليه بشكل اساسي من قبل الانتشار.


Article
Kinetic of Alkaloids Extraction from Plant by Batch Pertraction in Rotating Discs Contactor

Author: Khalid M. Abed خالد محسن عبد
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2014 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 75-84
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

A liquid membrane process of Alkaloids extraction from Datura Innoxia solution was studied applying pertraction process in rotating discs contactor (RDC). Decane as a liquid membrane and dilute sulphuric acid as stripping solution were used. The effect of the fundamental parameters influencing the transport process, e.g. type of solvent used, effect of disks speed, amount of liquid membrane and effect of pH for feed and strip solution. The transport of alkaloids was analysed on the basis of kinetic laws of two consecutive irreversible first order reactions. Thus, the kinetic parameters (k1, k1, R_m^max, tmax, J_F^maxand J_S^max) for the transport of alkaloids were determined. The effect of organic membrane type on percentage of Alkaloids transport was found to be in the order (n-decane> n-heptane> n-hexane> ethyl ether). The results showed that the highest alkaloids extraction was obtained when using two stages, (10 rpm) discs speed, (pH=9.5) of feed solution and (pH=2) of acceptor solution in n-decane. Observation showed that the membrane entrance rate constant k1 and percentage of alkaloids transported in strip phase increased with increasing numbers of stages but the exit rate constant k2 decreased. The alkaloids extraction ratio increased with increasing the disks speed from 5 to 10 rpm but decreased at 15 rpm and decreased when increasing the volume of membrane. Also pH of feed and strip solution affected the extraction ratio and rate constants.


Article
SEPARATION OF ALKALOIDS FROM PLANTS BY BULK LIQUID MEMBRANE TECHNIQUE USING ROTATING DISCS CONTACTOR
فصل القلويدات من النباتات باستخدام تقانات الأغشية السائلة بواسطة جهاز الأقراص الدوارة

Authors: Khalid M. Abed --- Adel A. Al-Hemiri
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2015 Volume: 8 Issue: 4 Pages: 785-793
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

This paper describes the transport of Alkaloids through Rotating Discs Contactor (RDC) using n-decane as a liquid membrane. The transport of Pelletierine Alkaloid from a source phase through bulk liquid membrane to the receiving phase has been investigated. The general behaviour of Pertraction process indicates that %Extraction of pelletierine Alkaloid increased with increase in the number of stages and the agitation speed but high agitation speed was not favoured due to the increased risk of droplet formation during the operation. The pH of source and receiving phases were also investigated. The effect of organic solvent membrane on the extraction of Pelletierine was evaluated using n-decane, n-hexane and methyl cyclohexane. The results showed that n-decane has a good extracting ability. The highest %Extraction of pelletierine Alkaloid was observed of (69.16%).

هذا البحث يصف عملية انتقال القلويدات خلال جهاز الاقراص الدوارة باستخدام الديكان كسائل غشائي. و قد تم تحقيق عملية انتقال مادة البلترين من الطور المصدر خلال السائل الغشائي الى طور المستقبل. ان السلوك العام لعملية الانتقال يشير إلى أن النسبة المئوية لاستخلاص قلويد البلترين تزداد بازدياد عدد المراحل و ازدياد سرعة الخلـط لكن سرعـة الخلط العالية غير مفضلة بسبب ازدياد خطر تكون القطرات المتكونة خلال العملية. كما تم دراسة تأثير الدالة الحامضية على محلولي الاستلام والمحلول المغذي. تأثير نوع السائل الغشائي العضوي على عملية استخـلاص البلترين تم تقييمها ودراستـها بـأستخدام الديكـان و الهكسـان و المثيل سايكلوهكسان. اظهرت النتائج ان الديكان له الـقدرة الجـيدة على الاستخـلاص حيث كانت اعلى نسبة استخلاص لـقلويد البلترين تم ملاحظتها هي 69.16 %.


Article
Extraction of Phenol from Aqueous Solutions Using Bulk ionic Liquid Membranes

Authors: Sawsan A.M. Mohammed --- Mohammed Saadi Hameed
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2016 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 83-97
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Room temperature ionic liquids show potential as an alternative to conventional organic membrane solvents mainly due to their properties of low vapour pressure, low volatility and they are often stable. In the present work, the technical feasibilities of room temperature ionic liquids as bulk liquid membranes for phenol removal were investigated experimentally. In this research several hydrophobic ionic liquids were synthesized at laboratory. These ionic liquids include (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide[Bmim][NTf2], 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide[Hmim][NTf2], 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide[Omim][NTf2],1‐butyl‐1‐methylimidazoliumhexafluorophosphate[Bmim][PF6], 1‐hexyl‐1‐methylimidazoliumhexafluorophosphate[Hmim][PF6], 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide[Bmpyr][NTf2], and 1-octyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetra fluoroborate[Omim][BF4]. The distribution coefficients for phenol in these ionic liquids were measured at different pH values and found to be much larger than those in conventional solvents. Through the values of the distribution coefficients and the experiments that were conducted on bulk liquid membrane applying various types of prepared ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide was selected as the best ionic liquid which gave the highest extraction and stripping efficiencies. The effect of several parameters, namely, feed phase pH(2-12), feed concentration(100-1000 ppm), NaOH concentration(0-0.5M), temperature (20-50oC), feed to membrane volume ratio (200-400ml/80ml ionic liquid) and stirring speeds(75-125 rpm) on the performance of the choosen ionic liquid membrane were also studied. The preliminary study showed that high phenol extraction and stripping efficiencies of 97% and 95% respectively were achieved by ionic liquid membrane with a minimum membrane loss which offers a better choice to organic membrane solvents.

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