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Article
Morphological and histological study of the liver in migratory starling bird (Sturnus vulgaris)

Authors: Saddama Saed Faraj --- Genan Adnan Al-Bairuty
Journal: Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science مجلة علوم المستنصرية ISSN: 1814635X Year: 2016 Volume: 27 Issue: 5 Pages: 11-16
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The present work was aimed to form the baseline data of normal morphological and histological structure features of liver in migratory starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Anatomically, the starling liver bird was dark red -brown in colour and located in the cranial third of the abdominal cavity and consisted of undivided lobes (left and right). The liver right lobe was larger than the left. Histological examination revealed that the liver parenchyma was covered by a connective tissue capsule which appears to be thicker in the rim of liver lobes than other area in the liver lobe. Liver parenchyma was arranged in an unlimited hepatic lobules, which composed of polygonal hepatocytes organized as irregular, radial interconnecting cords or laminae of one or two cells thickness around a central vein and separated by blood sinusoids. In the boundary of each lobule showed a portal area which consists of a branch of hepatic artery; one or more branches of hepatic vein and one to four branches of the bile duct which lining by cuboidal cells that characterized by their empty non-staining cytoplasm. The histochemical observation by using PAS staining in the current study revealed that the glycogen granules arranged close to the central vein and in the rim of liver lobules


Article
Blind Percutaneous Needle Liver Biopsy: Still the Gold Standard Method in Diagnosing Chronic Liver Diseases

Authors: Dr. Mohammad A. Shaikhani --- Dr. Sabah M. Zangana
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2009 Volume: 2 no.6, 7 Issue: 4 Pages: 397-402
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

ercutaneous liver biopsies were done for 55 patients in 2 central hospitals in Kirkuk &Sulaimaneyah in Iraq. The patients were 40 males & 15 females. The clinical conditionsfor which liver biopsies were indicated included liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, livertumors, undiagnosed hepatomegaly, fatty liver & pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO).Thediagnostic accuracy in reaching the final diagnosis of chronic liver disease was more than 50% incases of cirrhosis & 100% in the other causes, although the number of those cases were small todraw accurate conclusions. The complications included only a minor complication in only onecase, without major complications or deaths.


Article
THE VALUES OF HYALURONIC ACID AND AS A MARKER OF CIRRHOSIS IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC LIVER DISEASES

Authors: Nadia N Hassan نادية نوري حسن --- Firyal H Al-Obaidi فريال حسن العبيدي --- Hala S Arif هاله سامح عارف
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 72-77
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Hyaluronic acid (HA) is removed by the liver via sinusoidal cell adhesion molecules. This is impeded in fibrosis, leading to a rise in serum HA. As a noninvasive marker of fibrosis, HA may obviate the need for liver biopsy.Objective:To evaluate HA as a marker of hepatic fibrosis in unselected children undergoing liver biopsy or ultrasound.Methods:Fifty children aged 2-156 months diagnosed to have different types of chronic liver diseases (CLDs) and thirty healthy children aged 2-156 months were studied as controls were evaluated at the Teaching Hospital and Gastroenterology and Hepatology Center, Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq. The degree of severity of liver infection was assessed by liver biopsy or ultrasound. HA levels were measured using an ELISA.Results:The mean of HA level was 0.61± 0.32 ng/ml in the control group, 3.05± 1.11 ng/ml in patients with significant fibrosis and 1.18±0.86 ng/ml in patients with chronic liver diseases without significant fibrosis. Significant fibrosis was found in 31 out of 50 children with chronic liver disease, 20 of them were classified (METAVIR score) as cirrhotic liver. Seven out of 18 biopsies value of stage 4. Thirteen out of 32 ultrasounds described as having a coarsely textured liver. The sensitivity and specificity of estimated HA values in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis were 87.1% and 94.74%, respectively.Conclusion:HA is a valid noninvasive predictor of histological fibrosis in children with CLD. It complements the thorough investigations of a child with CLD; however, it cannot at present replace histological examination to identify liver fibrosis. Further evaluation of HA is needed to ascertain the use of serial measurements in the targeted patient groups.Key word:Hyaluronic acid, chronic liver disease, liver fibrosis.


Article
Physiological and histological effects of broccoli on lead acetate induced hepatotoxicity in young male albino rats
التأثيرات الفسلجية والنسجية للبروكلي على السمية الكبدية المحدثة بخلات الرصاص في ذكور الجرذان البيض اليافعة

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of Broccoli against lead acetate (PbA) hepatotoxicity by some physiological and histological indicators. The results showed that intraperitoneal (I.P.) injection by 12 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate once a week for 8 weeks led to an increase in the activity of Glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Acid phosphatase (ACP), Total serum protein (TP) and Total serum bilirubin (TSB). Liver's histological sections of lead acetate injected rats showed infiltration of inflammatory cells with sinusoid dilation, necrosis, and apoptosis of Kupffer cells. Broccoli has an ameliorative effect, that the physiological parameters and histological examination have been showed an improvement. In conclusion, lead acetate produces hepatic disorder and the potential use of Broccoli as a source of natural antioxidants or nutraceuticals protects against lead acetate hepatic toxicity.

تهدف الدراسة الحالية إلى معرفة التأثير العلاجي للبروكلي على السمية الكبدية المستحدثة بخلات الرصاص PbA في ذكور الجرذان البيض اليافعة بواسطة بعض المعايير الفسلجية والنسجية. أظهرت النتائج أن حقن 12 ملغم/كغم من وزن الجسم من خلات الرصاص داخل الصفاق IP مرة واحدة في الأسبوع ولمدة 8 أسابيع أدت إلى زيادة في نشاط إنزيم كلوتامات بايروفت ترانسامينز GPT، إنزيم كلوتامات أوكزالواسيتت ترانسامينز GOT، إنزيم الفوسفات القلوي ALP، إنزيم الفوسفات الحمضي ACP، البروتين الكلي TP والبيليروبين الكلي TSB. أظهرت المقاطع النسجية لكبد الجرذان المعاملة بخلات الرصاص ارتشاح الخلايا الالتهابية مع اتساع الجيبانيات، تنخر في خلايا الكبد والموت المبرمج لخلايا كوفر. أظهر البروكلي تأثيراً ايجابياً على المعايير الفسلجية والفحوصات النسيجية في ذكور الجرذان. ونستنتج من هذه الدراسة ان خلات الرصاص ينتج اضطرابًا كبديًا واستخدام البروكلي كمصدر لمضادات الأكسدة الطبيعية أو المغذيات يحمي الكبد من سمية خلات الرصاص.


Article
Preventive Effects of Different Doses of Pentoxyfilline Against CCl4-Induced Liver Toxicity in Rats

Authors: Nada N. Al-Shawi ندى ناجي الشاوي --- Dawser K. Ismael دوسر خليل اسماعيل --- Jameel I. Abd Al-Zahra
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 16833597 Year: 2009 Volume: 18 Issue: 1(Suppl.) Pages: 39-46
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The liver protective effects of pentoxifylline were studied through pre-treatment of rats with various intraperitoneal (IP) doses (25, 50 and 100mg/kg/day) 14 days before induction of liver toxicity by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The parameters of oxidative stress, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured in liver homogenate in addition to histopathological examinations. Analysis of data revealed significant amelioration of oxidative stress in groups of animals pre-treated with different doses of pentoxifylline (PTX) compared to group of animals intoxicated by CCl4 as evidenced by lowering MDA contents and elevation of GSH levels in liver tissue homogenate but the levels still significantly different compared to controls. Additionally, increasing doses of PTX produce a dose-dependent improvement in liver tissue damage induced by CCl4, as evident histologically by the stained liver sections. In conclusion, these findings suggest that, the hepatoprotective effects of pentoxifylline are dose dependent.

تم دراسة تقييم التأثير الوقائي لجرع متعددة من البنتوكسيفيلين (25، 50، 100 ملغم لكل كيلوغرام من وزن الجسم) داخل الصفاق في الجرذان 14 يوم قبل أستحداث التسمم الكبدي بواسطة رباعي كلوريد الكربون حيث تم قياس الأدلة الخاصة بظاهرة فرط الأكسدة مثل تراكيز MDA , GSH في نسيج الكبد هذا بالاضافة الى دراسة نسيجية بفحص مقاطع من نسيج الكبد المصاب تحت المجهر الضوئي لمتابعة المتغيرات الحاصلة فيه. أظهر تحليل النتائج وجود تحسن ظاهر في معايير فرط الأكسدة من خلال انخفاض معنوي في مستوى MDA وأرتفاع مستوى GSH في نسيج الكبد مقارنة بالمجموعة المصابة الا ان مستويات الأدلة الخاصة بفرط الأكسدة بقيت مختلفة عن مستوياتها في مجموعة السيطرة ، كما أظهرت النتائج التأثير الوقائي للبنتوكسيفيلين من خلال منعه حدوث التأثيرات التلفية والألتهابية التي سببتها الجرعة السامة لرباعي كلوريد الكربون لدى الجرذان. ومن خلال النتائج التي تم الحصول عليها، يمكننا الاستنتاج بوجود علاقة وثيقة بين الجرعة المستخدمة من البنتوكسيفيلين وفعاليته الوقائية ضد التسمم في الكبد.


Article
A clinical study of the hepatopulmonary syndrome in Iraqi patients with chronic liver disease

Author: Ziad M. Jureidini
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 32-38
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Objective To evaluate the frequency, clinical, and laboratory features of HPS and to determine their usefulness in its diagnosis in Iraqi patients with liver disease. Patients and Methods Fifty-two patients with chronic liver disease were evaluated for the presence of HPS using pulse oximetry, arterial blood gas analysis (ABG), and transthoracic contrast-enhanced echocardiography (CEE). Patients with SaO2 of ≤92% and/or a decrease in SaO2 of ≥4% after change from supine to upright position; were further tested with ABG and CEE. Patients who had a PaO2 of ≤70 mmHg together with positive CEE were considered to have HPS. Results Of 52 patients studied, 13 (26.9%) were in Child-Pugh class A, 16 (30.7%) in class B, and 23 (42.3%) in class C. Four patients (7.6%) proved to have HPS; one was in Child-Pugh class B and the other three were in class C (p=0.3574). Among the clinical features assessed as predictors of HPS, dyspnea (p = 0.0027), cyanosis (p < 0.0001), and finger clubbing (p = 0.0514) reached statistical significance. Neither upper GI endoscopy nor biochemical liver tests were statistically different between patients with and without HPS. Conclusions HPS is not rare. Dyspnea is a useful marker for its presence in the appropriate clinical setting. Platypnea, cyanosis, and finger clubbing are much less sensitive but more specific features of the syndrome. No particular pattern of biochemical liver tests is useful in predicting the presence or absence of HPS. There was a trend for HPS to occur in patients with more advanced liver disease.


Article
Histopathological Studies of the Liver and Kidney in Mice Fed on Smut Wheat Infected with Tilletia

Authors: Mustaffa A.K. Al-Taie --- Mohammed K. Faraj
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2012 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 112-118
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

The current study was designed to investigate the effect of Tilletia smut spores on histopathological changes in liver and kidney in mice. Twenty animals were divided into two equal groups, 10 mice each, control group fed on normal diet and the treated groups were fed on a mixture of 50% normal diet with 50% wheat infected with Tilletia for 30 days. Histopathological sections taken from liver and kidney treated with Tilletia revealed several alterations. The changes in liver included, multiple granulomatous lesions, area of coagulation necrosis, vacuolar degeneration in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, proliferation of hepatocytes with formation of pseudolobull which initiates for procancer. Whereas in the kidney, the changes included cellular degeneration, thickness of Bowman's capsules, in other section aggregation of inflammatory cells in the interstitial tissue together with degeneration and sloughing of epithelial lining of the renal tubules.

درست التغيرات النسجية المرضية في الأعضاء الداخلية (الكبد، الكلية) للفئران المغذاة على الحنطة المتفحمة المصابة بفطر الـتليشيا. استخدامت عشرون فارا، قسمت إلى مجموعتين متساويتين بالعدد، غذيت المجموعة الأولى على العلف الاعتيادي بينما غذيت المجموعة الثانية على خليط من العلف مكون من 50% من علف اعتيادي و50%% من علف ملوث بفطر الـتليشيا ولمدة ثلاثون يوما. قطعت نماذج من الكبد والكلية من كل فار من المجموعتين لعمل مقاطع نسجية في نهاية التجربة.أظهرت النتائج تغيرات مرضية في الأكباد والكلى في الفئران المغذاة على الحنطة المتفحمة. أذ أظهرت المقاطع تغيرات مرضية في الأكباد شملت آفات كثيرة من الأورام الخبيثة, النخر التخثري، التنكس الفجوي في سايتوبلازم الخلية الكبدية, تكاثر الخلايا الكبدية مع تكوين الفصيص الكاذب والذي يشير إلى بداية تكون السرطان.أظهرت المقاطع النسجية للكلى لتنكس خلوي، تثخن محفظة بومان و تجمعات من الخلايا الالتهابية في النسيج الخلالي مع تحطم و انسلاخ النسيج الطلائي للانيبات الكلوية.

Keywords

PAH --- Kidney --- Liver --- Mice


Article
The Value of Using Echocardiography in Patients of Advanced Liver Disease with Cardio Pulmonary Complications

Authors: Basil. N. Saeed --- Sameer Hakeam --- Lutf Ahmed --- Jalal Ahmed
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 4 Pages: 323-326
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Patients with chronic liver disease are liable to get cardio – pulmonary complications, one of these complications is development of pulmonary hypertension ranging from mild to it's sever form – this complication could give some abnormal findings in chest x-ray, electrocardiography but more prominently by echocardiography.OBJECTIVES:To clarify the benefit of using the echocardiogram is detecting pulmonary hypertension prior to the use of invasive methods (catheterization) in patients with advanced liver disease.METHODS:A total of 50 patients with chronic liver diseases (cirrhosis, chronic active hepatitis) their age range is (25-70 years) (mean are 37.07 years), the fifty patients were free from any cardiac or respiratory diseases.The study extending from December 2007-August 2008. All patients went through full history and routine blood test: including complete blood picture, fasting blood sugar, blood urea & screatinne, lipid profile, liver function tests, clinical examination, and investigations included routine blood test, chest x-ray, and electrocardiography, echocardiography (Transthoracie and transoesphageal). The child-Pugh score used for assessing the severity and prognosis of chronic liver disease and it classified into three groups (A, B, C) used in this study.RESULTS:Fifteen patients from the 50 cases (30%) only proved to have cardio-pulmonary changes (i.e. pulmonary hypertension right ventricular hypertrophy and dilatation with the mean value of ≥ 25mm Hg at rest or ≥ 30mm Hg during exertion) those patients were having fatigue in (70%) of them while dysponea, chest pain, cyanosis, syncope were detected in 30%, 10%, 1%, 2% respectively in those cases of pulmonary hypertension with chronic liver disease.CONCLUSION:The use of non invasive methods especially echocardiography were helpful in detecting the presence of pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic liver disease


Article
Light Microscopic Study of the Effect of Zinc on Liver in Mice

Author: Ahmed Anwar Albir
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2007 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 157-163
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:The study demonstrated that zinc affected the liver cells by giving the mice particular doses of zinc as Znso4. The mice were divided into four groups of 6 mice each. Both of moderate and high dose groups showed various degrees of degenerative changes in the hepatocytes, such as increased size and the presence of spaces, dark appearance of the cytoplasm, whereas none of these changes were present in both group I (controls) and group II (low dose group) .BACKGROUND:According to previous studies, there is a correlation between certain doses of zinc and the changes that may occur in the liver cells.METHODS:The study was conducted on mice, which were divided into four groups of six mice each. Group I received tap water during the entire period of experimentation (30 days), group II, group III and group IV were received 5 mg, 10 mg and 15 mg/Kg body weight zinc as Znso4 consecutively (orally and daily) . Sections of livers were made and examined by light microscope.RESULTS:Zinc affected liver cells (hepatocytes) in mice under certain doses. Group III and group IV animals which received 10 mg and 15 mg/kg body weight zinc as Znso4 consecutively showed various degrees of degenerative changes in the hepatocytes, such as increased size and the presence of spaces, dark appearance of the cytoplasm. The degree of these changes was more abundant in liver cells of high dose group in comparison with the changes in liver cells of moderate dose group, whereas none of these changes were present in both group I (controls) and group II (low dose group) which received tap water and 5mg/kg body weight zinc consecutively .CONCLUSION:Certain doses of zinc could cause damages to the liver cells.

Keywords

Zinc --- Liver --- Mice


Article
ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS (Cd, Pb AND Zn) CONTENTS IN LIVERS OF CHICKEN AVAILABLE IN THE LOCAL MARKETS OF BASRAH CITY, IRAQ
تقدير محتوى العناصر الثقيلة )الكادميوم والرصاص والزنك( في أكباد الدجاج المتوفرة في

Author: Reem Th. Hussain ريم ثناء حسين
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 43-51
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the concentration of Cd, Pb and Zn (using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer ASS) in nine brands of chicken livers: (Keyf-i Gezzet, Al Murad, Al Kafeel, Sadia 2, Sadia 1, Karbala, Halal, Faqeeh, in addition to livers of locally breed chicken), which are widely consumed from the local markets of Basrah city. The levels of metals in the chicken livers were ranged between (0.004) μg/g and (0.124) μg/g for Cd; (0.171) μg/g and (3.269) μg/g for Pb; and (4.116) μg/g and (3.266) μg/g for Zn. The results showed that concentration of Pb in four brands exceeded the permissible limits set by WHO/FAO (1) and ANZFA (2). The concentrations of Cd and Zn in all samples were within the tolerance limits.

جاءت هذه الدراسة لتحديد تراكيز كل من الكادميوم والرصاص والزنك باستخدام جهاز الامتصاص الذري في تسعة أصناف من أكباد الدجاج المتوفرة في الأسواق المحلية لمدينة البصرة والتي تستهلك بشكل واسع وهي: (Keyf-i Gezzet، المراد، الكفيل، سادية 2، سادية 1، كربلاء، حلال، فقيه، بالإضافة إلى الأكباد المأخوذة من دجاج تمت تربيته في مراكز الدواجن المحلية). كانت نسب المعادن المدروسة تتراوح بين (0,004 و 0,124) مايكروغرام/غرام لعنصر الكادميوم، وبين (0,171 و 3,269) مايكروغرام/غرام لعنصر الرصاص، وبين (4,116 و 3,266) مايكروغرام/غرام لعنصر الزنك. لقد أظهرت النتائج أن تركيز الرصاص في اربعة اصناف من الأكباد قد تعدت النسب المسموح باستهلاكها حسب منظمة WHO/FAO (1) و ANZFA (2). وكانت نسب كل من الكادميوم والزنك ضمن النسب المسموحة بها لكافة الأنواع المدروسة.

Keywords

Chicken --- liver --- heavy metals

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