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Nutritional risk factors for acute lower respiratory tract infection among infants and children 2-‎‎60 months old in Basra, Southern Iraq
عوامل الخطورة التغذوية المؤدية إلى عدوى المجاري التنفسية السفلى ألحاد عند الأطفال ‏ من عمر 2-60 شهر في البصرة- جنوب العراق

Author: Nehad Kadhim Al- Jaferi, Mea`ad Kadhum Hassan د.نهاد كاظم، د.ميعاد كاظم
Journal: The Medical Journal of Basrah University المجلة الطبية لجامعة البصرة ISSN: 02530759 Year: 2014 Volume: 32 Issue: 1 Pages: 30-36
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Objectives: A case-control study was carried out to identify nutritional risk factors for acute lower respiratory tract infections among infants and children ‎under 5 years.‎Methods: Children who have been admitted to the pediatric wards at Basra Maternity and Children Hospital and those who have visited Al-Razie Primary ‎Health Center over the period from the 4th of November 2007 till the end of May 2008 were recruited. A total of 110 patients with pneumonia according to the ‎WHO criteria and 207 apparently healthy infants and children, their age ranged from 2 months-5 years were included. ‎Results: The study has revealed that formula feeding in early life, duration of breast feeding of less than 6 months, time of introduction of weaning foods ‎before 6 months, anemia, rickets and malnutrition are significant risk factors for acute lower respiratory tract infection. In addition, a significant correlation ‎was found between the severity of the acute lower respiratory tract infection and rickets, malnutrition, serum calcium level, and hemoglobin levelConclusion: Presence of anemia, rickets and malnutrition are significant risk factors for acute lower respiratory tract ‎infections and also for a more severe disease.‎

الاهداف: أجريت هذه الدراسة المقارنة باستخدام العينة الضابطة لتحديد عوامل الخطورة التغذوية المسببة لعدوى المجاري التنفسية السفلى ‏للأطفال دون سن الخامسة . ‏طريقة البحث:شملت الدراسة الاطفال الذين تم ادخالهم إلى ردهات الأطفال في مستشفى البصرة للنسائية والأطفال وكذلك ممن راجعوا مركز ‏الرازي للرعاية الصحية الأولية للفترة من الرابع من شهر تشرين الأول 2007 ولغاية نهاية شهر أيار 2008.‏تضمنت الدراسة مئة وعشرة مرضى مصابا بعدوى المجاري التنفسية السفلى اعتمادا على مبادئ منظمة الصحة العالمية وكذلك مائتان وسبع من غير ‏المصابين تراوحت أعمارهم ما بين شهرين إلى خمس سنوات.‏النتــائج: أثبتت هذه الدراسة ان الرضاعة الاصطناعية في الأشهر الأولى من العمر, قصر مدة الرضاعة الطبيعية لفترة اقل من ستة أشهر ووقت بداية ‏إطعام الطفل قبل الستة أشهر, فقر الدم, الكساح و سوء التغذية كلها عوامل خطورة للإصابة بعدوى المجاري التنفسية السفلى عند الأطفال دون ‏سن الخامسة.كما بينت الدراسة وجود ترابط معتد إحصائيا بين شدة المرض والإصابة بالكساح وسوء التغذية وفقر الدم, نسبة الكالسيوم في الدم ‏ونسبة الهيموغلوبين. ‏الاستنتاجات:الاصابة بفقر الدم, الكساح, و سوء التغذية هي عوامل خطورة مهمة للإصابة بعدوى المجاري التنفسية السفلى عند الأطفال دون سن ‏الخامسة وكذلك لشدة المرض.‏


Article
Clinical predictors of hypoxemia in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections
تنبئ السريرية من نقص الأكسجة في الأطفال الذين يعانون من التهابات الجهاز التنفسي السفلي الحادة

Authors: Dlair A. K.Chalabi --- Kawes O. Zangana
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2011 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 24-29
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objectives: Acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries. Pulse oxymetry is a simple technique to determine the oxygen saturation. However, the detection of hypoxemia by use of pulse oxymetry is not available in most situations in developing countries; in addition, the availability of supplementary oxygen is inadequate. It is therefore, important to identify hypoxemia accurately in children by using of clinical signs. The objective of this study was to find out the clinical signs and symptoms that predict hypoxemia in acute lower respiratory tract infection.Methods: A well matched case control study was performed on 120 children from 2 months to 5 years of age admitted with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) to the emergency department of Raparin Pediatric Teaching Hospital -Erbil, from 1st January 2009 to 1st April 2010.Clinical symptoms and signs were recorded .Hypoxemia was defined as oxygen saturation less than 95%. A portable oxymeter was used to measure oxygen saturation with an appropriately sized sensor on the finger or the toe. The reading was taken while the child was breathing room air. The clinical symptoms and signs to predict the presence of hypoxemia were evaluated.Results: Sixty (50%) children were hypoxemic. The median O2 saturation was 91.2%with a range of 72-93.8%. Physical signs including intercostal and subtotal retractions, supraclavicular recessions, grunting, nasal flaring, cyanosis, head nodding, were statistically associated with hypoxemia.Conclusion: None of the clinical features either alone or in combinations has sufficient sensitively and specificity to predict hypoxemia in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections, therefore pulse oxymetry is desirable for identification of hypoxemia.


Article
ANATOMICAL STUDY OF THE PRIMARY BRONCHI AND THE LUNG OF THE BEE-EATER BIRD ( MEROPS ORIENTALIS)

Author: Nabeel Abd Murad Al-Mamoori نبيل عبد مراد المعموري
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 9-15
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The present study has been out to examine macroscopic structure of the primary bronchi and lung in Bee-eaters bird ( Merops orientalis) observed exist within the rib cage, the distal part of the trachea are divided into two primary bronchi (left and right) and the macroscopic appearance of the primary bronchi consists of a short tube extend caudally from syrinx to enter the proximal third of the visceral surface of the lungs through the hilus. The basic unit consisting of the primary bronchi are cartilaginous rings which takes - C - shape. The mean total length of left and right primary bronchi are (1.025 ± 0.15 cm) and (1.075 ± 0.14 cm); and the number of cartilaginous rings in left and right primary bronchi are ( 18.5 ± 0.50) and (18.5 ± 1.50). The lungs are small, pyramidal-shaped, unlobed, bright pink color, and surrounded by thin colorless membrane the pleura and the air sacs. The lung containstwo surfaces (dorsal and ventral), two borders ( medial and lateral) and two extremities ( proximal and distal ). The mean total length, width and thickness of the right lung are (1.77 ± 0.17 cm), (0.95 ± 0.15 cm) and (0.4 ± 0.10 cm) while the mean total length, width and thickness of the left lung are (1.6 ± 0.15 cm ), ( 0.9 ± 0.14 cm )and (0.37 ± 0.02 cm ).


Article
Influence of feeding pattern on risk factors of lower respiratory tract infections in infants
تأثير نمط التغذية على عوامل خطر انخفاض التهابات الجهاز التنفسي عند الرضع

Authors: Dhahir Tahir Gardi --- Kawes O. H. Zangana
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2013 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 582-589
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Human milk is recommended as the exclusive nutrient source for feeding infants for the first six months of life and should be continued with the addition of solid foods after six months of age. This study is designed to study the socio-demographical risk factors on lower respiratory tract infections and influence of feeding on these factors. Methods: A well matched case control study performed on 200 children admitted with acute lower respiratory tract infections to Raparin Pediatric Teaching Hospital – Erbil city in the period of 1st September 2010 to 1st May 2012. Children between 2 months and 2 years of age presenting with an acute history of cough and rapid respiration or difficulty in breathing were included in the study, according to WHO criteria for ALRI. The study sample was divided into two groups: group 1 (cases) and group 2 (control) . After that the cases were subdivided to two groups; bottle fed or mixed fed group and a excusive breast fed group.Results: This study showed that 69% of bottle-fed infants developed lower respiratory tract infections compared with 31% infants of breast-fed. This was significant statistically (p value 0.013). Mean age was 9.8 ±2.6 months; male: female ratio was 1.5:1. Concerning vaccination status; cases were had lower level of vaccination, history of respiratory infection in the family was highly recognized as a risk factor.Conclusion: infants who are more prone to develop respiratory infections are those of bottle fed, low level of vaccination, less than one year of age, family history of respiratory infections, low socio economical status and overcrowd families.


Article
Detection of Human Bocavirus Infection in Children with Lower Respiratory
الكشف عن فيروس بوكا البشري بين الأطفال المصابين بعدوى قناة الجهاز التنفسي السفلية

Authors: Qasim Sh. Al-Mayah قاسم صالح --- Areej A. Hussein اريج احمد حسين --- Duraid A. Hasan دريد احمد حسن
Journal: Rafidain journal of science مجلة علوم الرافدين ISSN: 16089391 Year: 2018 Volume: 27 Issue: 5E-Microbiology Pages: 32-42
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Background: Respiratory tract diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in young children, and a great variety of viruses are responsible of these infection. Objectives: To determine the infection rate of human bocavirus in children with lower respiratory tract infection and related with different variable. Patients and methods: Cross sectional study consists of 122 children under five years old their age ranged between 1 and 60 months and 75 males and 47 females; suffering from lower respiratory tract infection. They were attending respiratory wards in Fatima Al-Zahraa Hospital, Al-Elwiya Pediatrics Hospital, Ibn Al-Baladi Hospital and Pediatrics Protection Hospital in Baghdad, during the period from December 2017 to February 2018. Full information were collected from parents or relevant of each patient use specific formula sheet as well as nasopharyngeal samples were collected and used for DNA extraction and amplification with specific primers by PCR. Results: Out of all 122 samples, eight samples were positive for HBoV (6.6%). Most infections were recorded in males 5(62.5%) patients aged 1-30 months 7(87.5%) but statistically non-significant. Significant differences (p=0.02) were noticed with nasal discharge 100% and wheezing 100% in HBoV-positive children, while non-significant with other parameter so higher proportion of HBoV-positive children had asthma (62.5%).Exactly 50% of HBoV-positive children were suffering from diarrhea. Nervous manifestation did no differ significantly between positive and negative groups (37.5% and 38.59% respectively). The results of phylogenetic analysis for HBoV DNA isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs revealed that all local isolates (8 isolates) are with HBoV type 1.Conclusions: Infection rate of human bocavirus was compared with rates of infection from neighboring countries, no significant differences were notice between infection rate and different parameters except with nasal discharge and wheezing.

خلفية الدراسة: تعد عدوى قناة الجهاز التنفسي المسبب الرئيسي للمرض والوفيات خصوصا بين اطفال. والمسببات المرضية عديدة ومتنوعه. الهدف من الدراسة: لتحديد نسبة الاصابة بفيروس بوكا عند الاطفال الذين يعانون من عدوى الجهاز التنفسي السفلية وعلاقتها مع بعض المتغيرات.المرضى وطرائق العمل: دراسة المقطعية شملت 122 طفلاً دون سن الخامسة، تراوحت أعمارهم بين شهر واحد لغاية 60 شهراً، (75 ذكر، 47 إناث) من الذين يعانون من إصابات الجهاز التنفسي السفلية والمراجعين لمستشفى فاطمة الزهراء، مستشفى العلوية للأطفال، مستشفى ابن البلدي و مستشفى حماية الاطفال في بغداد للفترة من كانون الأول عام 2017 ولغاية شباط عام 2018. معلومات كاملة جمعت من ذوي او مرافقي المريض باستخدام استمارة خاصة. إضافة إلى المسحات الانفية البلعومية التي استخدمت لاستخلاص الدنا وتضخيمه بواسطة بادئ خاص باستخدام تضاعف البلمرة المتسلسل. النتائج: سجلت الدراسة الحالية ثمانية إصابات بفيروس بوكا من بين 122 عينة، وبنسبة إصابة بلغت 6,6% اذ كانت أكثر شيوعا عند الذكور 5(62.5% (و الاطفال دون السنة 7(87.5%). لم تسجل نتائج التحليل الإحصائي علاقة ذات دلالة إحصائية بين العلامات السريرية المختلفة والإصابة بفيروس بوكا الا في حالة الصفير والسيلان الانفي122 (100%) لكل منهم، 62.5% كانوا يعانون من الربو و50% الاسهال كما لوحظ عدم وجود اختلافات ذات دلالة احصائية مع الاختلاجات العصبية ضمن الحالات الموجبة 37.5% والسالبة 38.5% على التوالي. اظهرت التحايل الجينية ان جميع العزلات تعود الى فيروس بوكا البشري النوع الاول.الاستنتاجات: نسبة فيروس بوكا البشري كانت مقاربة للدول المجاورة. لم تسجل نتائج التحليل الاحصائي علاقة ذات دلالة إحصائية بين العلامات السريرية المختلفة والاصابة بفايروس بوكا الا في حالة الصفير والسيلان الانفي.

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