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Article
Effects of Fenugreek on Lung Cancer / In Vitro Study

Authors: Azher Abdul-Hafidh Jabir --- Haider Sabah Kadhim --- Adeeb A. Alzubaidy
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2015 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 116-131
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Lung cancer is the leading cause (account for 18%) of cancer death in both men and women world-wide.The overall 5-year survival rate for all stages combined is disappointing (15%).The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible cytotoxic effects of fenugreek on lung cancer cell line and to determine its IC50 alone and in combination with cisplatin. And to study the effects of fenugreek on the expression of each of p53 and EGFR QU-DB lung cancer cells were cultured in Eagle's MEM culture media supplemented with 5% FBS and antibiotics. The cells were seeded in 96 well plate and the cytotoxic effects of each of cisplatin [25-0.195 µl/ml (or µg/ml)] and fenugreek [300-1.1719 µl/ml (each one µl is extracted from 25 µg of dried seed)] was determined using neutral red uptake (NRU) assay for 24, 48, and 72 hours in comparison with their corresponding control groups. Combined effect of each of fenugreek and cisplatin was determined also using NRU assay. Cytotoxicity was further assessed by trypan blue exclusion assay at IC50 of each agent for 48 hours duration. Immunocytochemistry assay was performed also to detect EGFR and p53 expression. Cisplatin induced a directly proportional, dose-dependent and time-dependant cytotoxic effect with an IC50 of 8.5 µg/ml and 7.3 µg/ml after 48 hrs and 72 hrs of exposure respectively. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in optic density of cisplatin group from that of the control for all tested concentrations.Fenugreek extract also induced a directly proportional, dose-dependent and time-dependant cytotoxic effect in experiments with 48 hrs and 72 hrs of exposure with an IC50 of 88.25 µl/ml and 125 µl/ml respectively (each one µl is extracted from 25 µg of dried seed). While it produces a growth enhancing effect in 24 hrs exposure experiment. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in optic density of fenugreek from that of the control at concentrations of 37.5 µl/ml and above.Fenugreek produces an antagonistic action when combined with cisplatin, combination index (CI) >1.3.Cisplatin highly significantly (p<0.005) increased EGFR expression at different concentrations. While fenugreek extract highly significantly (p<0.005) reduced EGFR expression at 300 µl/ml (each one µl is extracted from 25 µg of dried seed).Cisplatinand fenugreek highly significantly (p<0.005) decreased the expression of P53.Monotherapy of fenugreek have anticancer effect on lung cancer cell line, but an antagonizing effect to cisplatin when combined with it.Fenugreek may have a beneficial therapeutic effect in decreasing EGFR expression and decreasing mutant p53 expression. Further study is recommended to explore the effect of fenugreek on other cell cycle proteins and to study their potential beneficial therapeutic effects in vivo.

Keywords

Fenugreek --- Lung Cancer


Article
Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Human Papilloma Virus in Lung Cancer
التقييم المناعي لفيروس الورم الحليمي البشري في سرطان الرئة

Authors: AbbasR.Ibraheem Al-Fatlawy --- Liwaa H. Mahdi
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2015 Volume: 5 Issue: 3 Pages: 113-121
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background: Lung cancer is the common repeated cause of death in both gender. The highest risk factor for lung tumor is the smoking and the relationship of human papilloma virus(HPV) infection and lung tumor has been reported.HPV can be detected in patient suffering from lung tumors. But there was conflict in the detection of (HPV) infection in patients with lung tumor as a result of racial and geographical diversiform, this current study to detect the rate of HPV infection in lung cancer tissue sample by immunohistochemical technique.Aim of study:This study was designed to detect the presence of HPV in lung cancer patients by immunohistochemistry in specimens taken as lobectomy ,tru cut biopsy or bronchoscopic biopsy.Material and Methods: A total forty 40 lung cancer tissue samples of thirty 30 male and ten 10 female patients, who had undergone lobectomy or tru cut bronchoscpical biopsy from their lungs, where involved in this study, that performed in the Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine. a University of Kufa from January 2014 to February 2015,twenty seven patients 27 were squamous cell carcinoma (67%5) and seven 7 patient were adenocarcinoma ( 17.5%) And six 6 patients were small cell carcinoma (15%).wart( benign skin lesion) was considered as control involve in this study. All these cases were collected from Al-Seder Teaching Hospital and three private laboratories in AL-Najaf governorate. Their ages were ranging from 37-95 years, with mean 64.15 year and standard deviation ±11,45, thirty two 32 patient were smoker, twenty four 24 were male , while eight 8 were female smoker, while the remaining eight 8 of cases not smoking, six 6 were male, and two 2 were female cases. Labeled Streptavi- Biotin (LSAB+) method for Immnohistochemical detection of HPV was employed. The statistical analysis was officiated using the SPSS version 20.0 statistical software program. The Differenses of HPV prevalence among gender, smoking status, age groups and histological cell types, , were calculated using the Pearson's Chi-square test. and correlation- regression test at P value <0.05and ≥0.3 respectively.Results: The immunohistochemistry detection of HPV was reported in seven 7(25.9%) out of twenty seven 27 cases of squamous cell carcinoma ,and one 1case (14.3%) out of seven7case of adenocarcinoma ,But there was no detection of HPV in six 6 cases of small cell lung cancers (0%). Conclusions:HPV expressed in lung cancer tissue, mainly in squamous cell carcinoma specially in male smoker patient but with no significantType of cancer and smoking and gender and age may have significant effect on expression of HPV in lung cancer. HPV play significant role as risk factor in lung cancer .Recommendations:1- Incorporation of HPVimmunohistochemical study with other pathological parameters will give more accurate prediction of clinical outcome .2- Further study with large number of lung cancer cases and with other techniques like PCR and ISH are recommended to detect the HPV in high sensitivity and specefity .

خلفية البحث:سرطان الرئة هو السبب الأكثر شيوعا للوفاة في كلا الجنسين. وأشد عامل خطر للورم الرئوي هو التدخين و هناك علاقة بين عدوى فيروس الورم ألحليمي البشري (HPV) وورم الرئة و قد تم اكتشاف هذا الفيروس في مرضى مصابون بأورام الرئة. ولكن كان هناك جدل قائم في الكشف عن إصابة(HPV) في مريض ورم الرئة الحالي نتيجة الاختلاف في التنوع العرقي والجغرافي وان هذه الدراسة الحالية للكشف عن نسبة الإصابة بفيروس الورم ألحليمي البشري في عينات نسيج سرطان الرئة بواسطة تقنية المناعي.النسيجي الكيميائي.الهدف:صممتهذهالدراسة للكشفعنوجودفيروسالورم ألحليمي البشريHPV))على مرضى السرطان الرئوي من خلال التقنية المناعية والنسيجية وعلى عينات مأخوذة عن طريق تقنية الناظور الرئوي والعينات المأخوذة بواسطة جراحة الصدر المفتوح. المنهجية:تضمنت الدراسة 40 مريضا ثلاثون منهم ذكورا وعشرة إناث ممن أخذت عيناتهم بتقنية الناظور الرئوي او عن طريق جراحة الصدر المفتوح صممت هذه الدراسة , كبحث استرجاعي في قسم الإمراض/كلية الطب/جامعة الكوفة من يناير/ كانون الثاني 2014الى فبراير/ شباط2015وشملت العينات 27( %67.5) حالة سرطان الرئة الحرشفة و7(17.5%) حالة سرطان الرئة الغدية و6( %15) سرطانالخلاياالصغيرة.واعتبرتالبثرة(حميدةالجلدية) كسيطرة نوعيةفيهذهالدراسة. وجمعتجميعهذهالحالاتمن "مستشفى الصدر التعليمي" وثلاثةمختبراتخاصةفيمحافظةالنجف. و أعمارهمتتراوحبين 37-95 عاماً، وكان المعدل العمري 64.15سنة استخدمت طريقة +LSAB لتحديد التعبير المناعي النسيجي لبروتين الفيروس ((HPV . النتائج: كانت نسبةالكشفعنفيروسالورمالحليميالبشري والتي تم التحري عنها بطريقة التصبيغ الكيميائي النسيجي المناعيفي7سبعة(25.9%) منأصلسبعةوعشرين 27حالة سرطان حرشفي،وواحد من 7 حالاتمن سرطان الغدية(.14.3%).،ولكنلم يكشف عنفيروسالورمالحليميالبشريفي 6 ستحالاتسرطانالرئةالخليةالصغيرة (0%)،و الكشفعنفيروسالورمالحليميالبشريفيمايتعلقبالتدخين7 (21.75%)منأصل 32 اثنانوثلاثونحالة،و 1(12.5 %) واحدمنأصل 8 حالاتلغير المدخنين. أيضا كانت نسبة الكشفعنفيروسالورمألحليميالبشربينالجنسين 8 ثمانية (26%) حالاتالذكور من أصل ثلاثون حالة قي حين لم يتم الكشف عن الفيروس جميع حالات الإناث العشرة أما بالنسبة لكشف الفيروس ألحلمي نسبة إلى العمر فكانت 4 من أصل 13 حالة تتراوح أعمارهم مابين( 51-60سنة) بنسبة (30.8%) و2من أصل عشر حالات تتراوح أعمارهم مابين(61-70سنة)وبنسبة (20%) و1 من أصل ثلاث حالات تتراوح أعمارهم مابين (41-50سنة)وبنسبة (33.%)و1 من أصل اثني عشر حالة تتراوح أعمارهم مابين(71-80سنة) وبنسبة (12.5%).أظهرت الدراسة وجود علاقة بين وجود الفيروس ونوع السرطان وحالة التدخين وجنس المريض ولكن دون مغزى (p>0.05) .الاستنتاج:وجودفيروسالورمالحليميالبشريفي الأنسجة السرطانية الحرشفية وخاصة الذكور والمدخنين بنسبة أغلى من باقي سرطانات الرئة الأخرى ولكن دون مغزى ولذلك فان نوع السرطان و جنس المريض والتدخين وعمره له تأثير كبير في وجود فيروسالورمألحليميالبشريفيسرطانالرئة. وانفيروسالورمالحليميالبشري قديلعبدورا هاماكعاملخطرالإصابةبسرطانالرئة. التوصيات:إدراجهذهالدراسةالمناعية النسيجية الكيميائية للكشف عن فيروسHPVمعالمعلماتالمرضيةالأخرىسوف تعطي نتائج عملية بشكل أكثر دقة و ينصحمزيدمنالدراسةمععددكبيرمنحالاتسرطانالرئةومعتقنيات أخرىمثل تفاعل سلسلة البلمرة المتعدد((PCRوتقانة التهجين الموضعي ISH)). للكشفعنفيروسالورمالحليميالبشريفيحساسيةعالية وبصورة أكثر دقة.

Keywords

Lung cancer --- Expression --- HPV


Article
Significance of serum heat stable alkaline phosphatase as a marker in lung cancer

Author: Jasim Mohammed H. Al-jassani
Journal: journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly) مجلة القادسية للعلوم الصرفة (فصلية). ISSN: 19972490 Year: 2014 Volume: 19 Issue: 4 Pages: 166-170
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

The objective of this study is the evaluation of serum levels of heat stable alkalinephosphatase(HSAP) as marker in lung cancer. The study include 44 lung cancer patientswith and without metastases and 30 matched healthy individuals. It has been found asignificant elevation (p<0.001) in patients with metastase and(p<0.01) in patients withoutmetastases for biomarker, in sera of patients in comparison to the health subjects. Adecreaese in the levels of the biomarker was apparently significant after removal of themalignant tumor. However multiple post-operative determinat of HSAP showedcontinuing elevation of the biomarker above the normal value in patients who developedmetastases. The results indicate that the HSAP can be used as a marker in the detectionand prediction of metastases in lung cancer.

Keywords

HSAP --- lung cancer


Article
Evaluation of College of Nursing Affiliates’ Knowledge about Lung Cancer and its Relationship with Smoking
تقويم معارف منتسبي كلية تمريض حول سرطان الرئة وعلاقته بالتدخين

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Objective: To evaluate knowledge towards smoking and its relationship with lung cancer among members of Baghdad Nursing College.Methodology: The study comprised 100 affiliates from the College of Nursing/ University of Baghdad that included students, teaching staff and employees. All data was collected through a structured questionnaire prepared by the National Cancer Research Center which were answered during a scientific symposium organized by the center on lung Cancer Awareness in March 2016.The data were analyzed by using the SPSS, version 22Results: The age of the respondents ranged from (19-64 years); 76% were females and only 4% were smokers. The results showed that the mean score for the level of knowledge was 65%. The correlation coefficient between the response and the occupation was 0.03. Twenty-two percent of the participants were of average grade while 20% of the responses were of acceptable level. The calculated rates for scores good, very good and excellent responses were for 18%, 12% and 10% respectively. It was displayed that 41% expressed interest to participate in the awareness campaign under the supervision of the National Cancer Research Program; females expressed a desire for charity more than males (74%).Recommendations: To promote public awareness about the harmful effects of tobacco and the importance of preventing smoking, highlighting its relationship with lung cancer and other malignant diseases. Non Governmental organization should collaborate with the health and educational institutions to raise the level of knowledge among the Iraqi society.

الهدف: تقويم معارف منتسبي كلية التمريض في جامعة بغداد حول سرطان الرئة و علاقته بالتدخين . . المنهجية: جمعت البيانات عن طريق استبيان اعد ليجيب عليه المشاركون خلال ندوة تخصصية علمية حول مخاطر التدخين والوقاية من سرطان الرئة شارك بها مائة شخص من منتسبين كلية التمريض في جامعة بغداد نظمها المركز الوطني لبحوث السرطان خلال شهر اذار 2016 وتم تحليل البيانات باستخدام البرنامج الاحصائي SPSSطبعة 22النتائج: تراوحت أعمار المشاركين بين )19-64) سنة وشكلت الاناث (76% ) من العينة والمدخنين( 4% ) فقط،. و أظهرت النتائج يصورة عامة بان متوسط الدرجة التي تعبر عن تقدير الإجابة لجميع العينة كانت (65 %)، اما معامل الارتباط بين درجة الإجابة والمهنة فقد كان ( -0,03 ) و أن (22% )من المشاركين كانت درجاتهم بمستوى متوسط بينما كانت ( 20 %) من الاجابات بمستوى مقبول، اما نسب الاجابات الجيدة و الجيدة جدا و الممتازة فقد سجلت ل (18%،) ( 12% ) و ( 10% )على التولي.41% من العينة أعانت عن رغبتها بالمشاركة في عملية الارشاد الصحي حول اضرار التدخين وتحت اشراف البرنامج الوطني لبحوث السرطان, و أبدت الاناث الرغبة في العمل الخيري أكثر من الذكور بنسبة 74%،و كان اندفاع الطلبة للمشاركة أكثر ( 56%.)التوصيات: ترويج عملية التوعية الجماهيرية حول مضار التبغ و أهمية الاقلاع عن التدخين مع تسليط الضوء على علاقته بسرطان الرئة و غيرها من الامراض الخبيثة، مع ضرورة تعاون منظمات المجتمع المدني مع المؤسسات الصحية و التعليمية لرفع مستوى المعرفة في المجتمع العراقي.


Article
An evaluation of methods of inducing sputumproduction in patient with suspected lung cancer

Author: Maha Shakir Hassan
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2006 Volume: 48 Issue: 4 Pages: 383-386
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background : the major focus of respiratory cytology is the diagnosis of lung cancer , carcinoma of the lung is now reported to be the most commonly diagnosed non- Cutaneous malignancy in the world. Iraq has faced the increase in incidence of this lethal type of cancer. Sputum cytology is a convenient method of screening and diagnosing primary epithelial tumor of the lung which is of many types include fresh smear ,Sacccomanno smear, and mailing container method.
Methods : Sputum cytological study was done on 50 patients suspected to have pulmonary carcinoma prepared by fresh smear method ,Saccomanno method ,and mailing container method.One, two,or three samples taken from each patient.Slides were prepared and stained by H and E stain and examined thoroughly .The accuracy specificity, and sensitivity was found for each method for comparison.
Result and Conclusion : A careful and sometimes frequent sputum samples is very essential in the diagnosis of lung cancer .Preservation and fixation methods are found to facilitate more accurate diagnosis especially in areas far from hospital.


Article
Lung Cancer in a Sample of Iraqi Patients

Author: Yousif A. Al-Rahim
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2007 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 53-59
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Lung cancer is responsible for the most cancer deaths in both men and women throughout the world. Deaths from lung cancer (160,440 in 2004, according to the National Cancer Institute) exceed the number of deaths from four other major cancers combined (breast, colon, pancreatic and prostate).
Objective: To assess the behavior and the approaches of lung cancer in a sample of Iraqi patients.
Methods: This descriptive retrospective study was performed using the records of 390 patients proved to have lung cancer that had attending the Thoracic Surgery Department of Surgical Specialties Hospital-Medical City Baghdad for the period from January, 1st , 2001 to December, 31st ,2002.
Results: The results of this study revealed that 71.8% of the patients were male, with a mean age of 63 years. The majority of the patients (90.2%) were smokers, the number of cases increases with the increase in the duration of smoking or the amount of daily cigarette smoking.
Radiotherapy is the primary management of 75.9% and the surgical choice was in 24.1% of the patients, but the tumors were removed only in 42.5% of operable patients.
Conclusions: Lung cancer is an important and serious public health problem with an increasing in incidence and prevalence in Iraq; cough is the most common clinical finding, found in 98.5% of patients, followed by haemoptysis (64.1%); cigarette smoking is responsible for the at least 90% of its etiology. Sequamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of primary lung cancer in Iraq (42.6%) with prominence in male gender; adenocarcinoma is the second common type with equal distribution in male and female.
Key words: Lung cancer, Bronchogenic carcinoma, Tumor


Article
POLYMERS TRACK DETECTOR USED FOR RADON SURVEY IN BABIL CITY (AL HILLAH-IRAQ)

Author: I.J.M. AL-KHALIFA
Journal: Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences) مجلة ابحاث البصرة ( العلميات) ISSN: 18172695 Year: 2006 Volume: 32 Issue: 2A Pages: 26-30
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

This paper deals with the measurement of 222Rn in dwellings of Babil city for the first time in Iraq, using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs). The plastic detectors used in this survey were LR-115 type II.The levels of Radon measured in Babil are ranging from 5 Bq m-3 to 35 Bq m-3 compared with that in Karbala city 14 Bq m-3 [4], as well as in Sweden 100 Bq m-3 [6] and Finland 70 Bq m -3. The variation of radon concentration with height of the floor is also discussed.

تم في هذا البحث لأول مرة في العراق دراسة تركيز 222Rn (الرادون) في الدور والمباني السكنية لمركز محافظة بابل (الحلة) في العراق باستخدام تقنية الكواشف الأثر الصلبة النووية (SSNTDs). وقد استخدم الكاشف LR-115 في هذا الدراسة.وقد وجد بأن مستوى الإشعاع للراد ون في مركز المدينة يتغير من 5 Bq m-3 إلى 35 Bq m -3وقورنت هذه النتائج مع نتائج محافظة كربلاء 14 Bq m -3والسويد 100 Bq m-3 وفنلندة 70 Bq m-3. وقد نوقشت أسباب تغيير تركيز الرادون مع ارتفاع طوابق البنايات السكنية.

Keywords

Radon --- SSNTDs --- Dwelling --- Lung cancer.


Article
Reduced Natural Killer Cells Percentage in Patients with Lung Cancer
نقص النسبة المئوية لخلايا القاتلات الطبيعية في مرضى سرطان الرئة

Authors: Aseel I. Ibrahim اسيل اسماعيل ابراهيم --- Dhuha S. Saleh ضحى سعد صالح --- Majeed A. Sabah مجيد ارشد سباح
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2014 Volume: 55 Issue: 4A Pages: 1496-1500
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Increased as well as decreased percentages of NK cells of lung cancer patients in comparison to healthy control subjects have been reported. Percentage of NK cells in the peripheral blood were analyzed in 30 patients with lung cancer and 16 subjects of healthy control by flow cytometer technique using CD56+CD3-marker. Our result indicated that 13.3% of NK cells percentage of lung cancer patients was within normal range (with mean value 6.250 ±0.30204 % ) compared with 25% of healthy control subjects (with mean value 10.500±0.84764) as compared with normal NK cells percentage (5-15%).

زيادة نسبة Natural Killer cells إضافة إلى نقصانها في مرضى سرطان الرئة بالمقارنة مع الأصحاء تم إثباته. تم تحليل مستويات القاتلات الطبيعية في الدم المحيطي في 30 من مرضى سرطان الرئة و16 من الأصحاء من قبل تقنية التدفق الخلوي باستخدام معلمات الخلاياCD56+CD3- . أشارت دراستنا إلى إن %13.3 من مستوى القاتلات الطبيعية في مرضى سرطان الرئة كان ضمن المعدل الطبيعي مع القيمة المتوسطة (6.250 ±0.30204 % ) مقارنة مع 25% للأصحاء مع القيمة المتوسطة 10.500±0.8476)) بالمقارنة مع المستويات الطبيعية للقاتلات الطبيعية (5-15%).


Article
Lung Cancer in Non- Smoker Patients in Baghdad Teaching Hospital

Authors: Hamza Abdullah Al Sabah --- Asaad Abdal Hameed --- Abdulla Janger Alfarttoosi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2015 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 258-266
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: Despite the predominance of tobacco smoking as its presumed etiology, lung cancer is also a significant health problem in those with no history of smoking.OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of lung cancer in non smokers patients.PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrograde across-sectional study conducted at Baghdad teaching hospital during the period from 14th February 2012 to 8th January 2013. Including 100 patients with proved lung cancer all were never smokers.Medical records of those patients were revised, data were collected regarding sociodemographic characteristics of patients and medical history in addition to the clinical characteristics. Data analyzed with SPSS software, and the results were presented in tables and figures accordingly. RESULTS:In the current study 100 patients with different types of lung cancer were included, all were never smoker. Female gender was more common than males .In this study majority of the cases were aged 60 years and more.The prevalence of passive smoking among studied group was (39%),Urban residence was the dominant, 74%. On X-ray examination all the patients had positive findings; (99%) had unilateral findings and only one with bilateral.Adenocarcinoma was the predominant type, (51%) of the cases, which is much higher than the prevalence of other types. Adenocarcinoma was significantly predominant among females than males (64.7%) vs. (35.3%) respectively, P= 0.003.majority of the cases were of stage IV (78%) and stage III (22%), this reflected the late presentation of the patients.Vast majority of dead cases (96.5%) were died within 2 years, and only 3 patients were survived for three years while none of the cases were survived for more than 3 years. CONCLUSION:The prevalence of lung cancer in non smoker women was higher than in men. In this study the prevalence of lung cancer seemed to be increased with the advancing age. Passive smoking was an important risk factor for lung cancer in more than one third of studied group, and women were more likely to be affected.


Article
Bronchogenic Carcinoma in Patients Younger Than 40 Years

Authors: Hashim M. Al-Kadhimi --- Qasim H. Al-Azzawi --- Alaa K. Salih
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2017 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 2785-2791
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: lung cancer is the most frequent cancer related cause of death for both gender, currently 10 millions new lung cancer are diagnosed each year worldwide. Objective: To determine the different clinical characteristics and other features of lung cancer in the different age groups. Methodology: This was descriptive retrospective study carried on 32 patients with histological proven lung cancer under the age of 40 years from three medical centers. All patients underwent full clinical assessment including history (particularly smoking) and full physical examination Bronchoscope was done to all patients except those unfit pleural effusion cytology and pleural biopsy done to all patients with pleural effusion. FNA Cytology done under ultrasound guide and was of great help in those patient in whom the histological diagnosis was difficult to be obtained by other methods. Results: The age of studied group ranged between (10_40 years) with a mean of 25. From the thirty two patients, there were 18 males patients (56%) and 14 females patients (44%), with 1.3:1 male: female ratio. History of smoking in the young age group was present in19 patients (60%), 13 were males (68.5%) and 6 patients (31%) were females, and 13 patients (40%) never smoked .Undifferentiated carcinoma is much more common in males than females (20% and 8% respectively). The most common histological types of lung cancer in both sex of young group was adenocarcinoma (44% of cases) occurring 50% of females and 40% of male. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking is an important cause of the current epidemic of lung cancer among our young patients, so it is preventable rather than curable medical problem. Adenocarcinoma was the most frequent histological type of lung cancer in Iraqi young patients.

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