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Article
Effect of Moderate Exercise on the Level of Melatonin Hormone and Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Healthy Subjects

Authors: Israa F. Ja'afar --- Huda Arif Jassim --- Alaa G. Hussein
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 88-94
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Physical exercise is important for promotion of the immune system. The immune responses to exercise are dependent on the intensity and duration of the exercise performed. During exercise, metabolic and hormonal changes occurred that can induce lymphocyte apoptosis. Melatonin is one of the hormones that are affected by exercise, it is a pineal gland hormone, its production and secretion followed a circadian pattern, onset of darkness stimulate its secretion, while day light suppress its production. Melatonin is regarded as an anti-aging hormone; it has a role in the elimination of harmful lymphocytes which may give rise to chronic inflammation and possibly to autoimmunity. OBJECTIVE: This prospective study aimed to elucidate the effect of moderate endurance exercise on melatonin hormone and the percentage of peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis in healthy subjects. METHODS: Sixty healthy subjects with a mean age of (37.05 ± 13.02) year, participated in the study. They were subjected to moderate exercise session which lasted for 60 min and repeated 3 times per week for 3 months. The exercise intensity was 50-60% of heart rate reserve (according to Karvonen formula). Two exercise stages were performed; the first stage include 30 minute of physical activity program and the second stage include 30 minute of treadmill exercise. Blood sample were collected before and after exercise to examine its effect on the level of melatonin hormone and apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocyte. RESULTS: This study showed significant increment in the level of melatonin hormone and the percentage of lymphocyte apoptosis after exercise in comparison to pre exercise values for each week along the period of the test (P < 0.05). Three months exercise showed a significant correlation with the levels of melatonin hormone (P= 0.008, r= 0.44), and with percentage of lymphocyte apoptosis (P = 0.001, r= 0.701). CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that moderate exercise for three months was associated with increased percentage of periphral blood lymphocyte apoptosis and increased level of melatonin hormone in the first two months while in the third month this anti aging hormone had reached a steady state after the subjects get trained to exercise


Article
Effect of Moderate Exercise on the level of DHEAS hormone and lymphocyte apoptosis in healthy subjects

Authors: Alaa G. Hussein علاء حيبن --- Israa F. Ja'ffar اسراء فائق --- Huda A. Jassim هدى جاسم
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2010 Volume: 52 Issue: 2 Pages: 225-229
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Physical exercise is essential for performance of the immune system. The integrity of immune response is dependent on the intensity and duration of the exercise performed. During exercise the metabolic and hormonal changes that occurred can induce lymphocyte apoptosis. Dehydroepiandrosteron sulphate (DHEAS) is one of the hormones that is affected by exercise, it is an androgen released from the adrenal cortex in response to adrenocortiocotropin releasing hormone (ACTH). DHEAS is regarded as an anti-aging hormone; it is primarily immune enhancing, providing some degree of counterbalance to the potentially detrimental effects of catecholamine and cortisol which are immunosuppressive if chronically elevated, it also had a role in the elimination of harmful lymphocytes which may give rise to chronic inflammation and possibly to autoimmunity. Methods: Sixty healthy subjects were involved in this study with a mean age of (37.05 ± 13.02) year. They were subjected to moderate exercise session which lasted for 60 min and repeated 3 times per week for 3 months. The exercise intensity was 50-60% of heart rate reserve (according to Karvonen formula). Two exercise stages were performed; the first stage include 30 minute of physical activity program and the second stage include 30 minute of treadmill exercise. Blood samples were collected before and after exercise to examine its effect on the level of DHEAS hormone and apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocyte. Results: This study showed significant increment (P < 0.05) in the level of DHEAS hormone and the percentage of lymphocyte apoptosis after exercise in comparison to pre exercise values for each week along the period of the test.Three months exercise showed a significant correlation with the levels of DHEAS hormone (P= 0.000, r= 0.75), and with percentage of lymphocyte apoptosis (P = 0.001, r= 0.701).Conclusion: in this prospective study, following moderate exercise for three months; there was increase in the percentage of periphral blood lymphocyte apoptosis and increased level of DHEAS hormone in the first two months while in the third month this anti aging hormones had reached to a steady state after the subjects get trained to exercise. Keywords: moderate exercise, DHEAS, lymphocyte apoptosis.


Article
The role of Bcl-2 protein, Bax protein and there ratio in peripheral bloodlymphocytes of asthmatic patients

Authors: Haider S. Kadhim --- Musaab H Ali --- Israa F. Jaffar
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 2 Pages: 219-222
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Asthma is an inflammatory airway disease; this inflammatory response can
be attributed to reduced lymphocyte apoptosis in peripheral blood and in airway tissues.
The mechanism behind this could be attributed to decreased Bcl2 protein and increase
Bax protein in peripheral blood lymphocytes of asthmatic patients.
Aim: to explore the mechanism behind decreased lymphocyte apoptosis in peripheral
blood of asthmatic patients at cellular level.
Method: Ninety four subjects; (44) control and (50) patients were included in this study
during the period from (2003) to (2004). The aspirated lymphocytes for each individual
were prepared and stained by immunocytochemistry to study the percentage of anti-
apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, pro-apoptotic Bax protein and their ratio.
Results: Our results showed that the percentage of Bcl2 protein in peripheral blood
lymphocyte of asthmatic patients were significantly higher than control (33.23±11.56,
21.47±4.16)(P=<0.00001).
The percentage of Bax protein in peripheral blood lymphocyte in asthmatic patients was
significantly lower than the control (21.43±6.88, 24.89±4.8) (P-O.0323). Bcl2/Bax ratio
was positive in asthmatic patients there was significant difference in comparison with the
control (1.68±0.57, 0.87 ± 0.17) (P=<0.00001).
Conclusion: This study clarifies the role of these 2 proteins in the process of reduction of
apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes of asthmatic patients.


Article
Lymphocytes Apoptosis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
استماتة الخلايا اللمفاوية لدى مرضى النوع الثاني لداء السكري

Author: Saba Fawzi Salih صبا فوزي صالح
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2012 Volume: 25 Issue: 4 Pages: 330-332
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

AbstractBackground: Apoptosis and proliferation of cells are responsible for shaping tissues and organs in developing embryos. During adult life, apoptosis is a protective mechanism which eliminates old, useless, and damaged cells. In healthy organisms apoptosis and cell proliferation are in balance.Aim of the study: To detect apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and its relation with the percentage of glycated hemoglobin and the effect on the outcome of the disease.Method: This study was carried out on 40 volunteers, twenty of them (9 males and 11 females) were patients with type 2 diabetes and twenty (5 males and 15 females) were normal healthy subjects and was served as controls of the study. From each patient a sample of blood was aspirated for detection of peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis and for the measurement of the percentage of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). For the control subjects, blood samples were aspirated to detect peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis.Results: The percentage of peripheral blood lymphocytes apoptosis increased significantly (P<0.0001) in diabetic patient (15.3±50%) than the percentage in healthy subjects (4.9±1.6%). There was a strong positive correlation between the peripheral blood lymphocytes apoptosis percentage and the percentage of glycated hemoglobin (r=0.56, p<0.01).Conclusion: High blood glucose and in turn increasing blood level of glycated hemoglobin in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus disease is associated with increased rate of apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes which can be considered as a marker of severity for this disease.Key words: lymphocyte apoptosis, glycated hemoglobin, diabetes mellitus.

الخلاصةالخلفية: ان عمليتي الاستماتة وتكاثر الخلايا هماالمسؤولتان عن تشكيل الانسجة والاعضاء في عملية تكوين الجنين. في الكائنات الحية الطبيعية تكون عمليتا التكاثر والاستماتة في توازن مع بعضها البعض، اما في مرحلة البلوغ, تعتبر الاستماتة عملية دفاعية للجسم للتخلص من الخلايا الهرمة والمتضررة.الهدف من الدراسة: اكتشاف استماتة خلايا الدم اللمفاوية في مرضى النوع الثاني لداء السكري و علاقتها بالنسبة المئوية بالهيموكلوبين السكري و اثر ذلك على نتيجة المرض.طرائق البحث: ان هذه الدراسة اجريت على اربعين شخص, عشرون منهم (9 ذكور و11 اناث) كانوا مشخصين كحالات من النوع الثاني لداء السكري. اما العشرون الاخرون (5 ذكور و 15 اناث) فكانوا اشخاص اصحاء كمجموعة سيطرة لهذه الدراسة. عينات الدم التي اخذت من المرضى كانت للكشف عن الخلايا اللمفاوية المستميتة في مجرى الدم و ايضا لقياس نسبة الهيموكلوبين السكري في الدم، اما مجموعة السيطرة فعينات الدم اخذت للكشف عن الخلايا اللمفاوية المستميتة في مجرى الدم فقط.النتائج: النسبة المئوية للخلايا اللمفاوية المستميتة في مجرى الدم ازدادت بشكل ملحوظ لدى مرضى السكري (15,3±5 )% اكثر من النسبة المئوية لدى الاشخاص الاصحاء (4,9±1,6)% ,(قيمة الاحتمالية اقل من 0,00001)، و كان ايضا هناك علاقة قوية بين النسبة المئوية لاستماتة خلايا الدم اللمفاوية في مرضى النوع الثاني لداء السكري و النسبة المئوية للهيموكلوبين السكري (معامل الترابط=0,56, قيمة الاحتمالية اقل من 0,01).الاستنتاج: ان ارتفاع نسبة السكر في الدم و بالتالي ارتفاع نسبة الهيموكلوبين السكري لحالات النوع الثاني لداء السكري و التي تفتقر السيطرة عليها,يصاحبها ازدياد نسبة الخلايا اللمفاوية المستميتة في مجرى الدم حيث يمكن اعتبار هذه الزيادة كمؤشر يدل على شدة المرض.


Article
Role of mitochondria transmembrane potential in lymphocyte apoptosis

Author: Israa F. Jaffar
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 1 Pages: 71-75
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:
Background: Mitochondria play an important role in the regulation of physiological type of cell death (Apoptosis) this type of cell death can be stimulated by two major pathways: external (Fas-Fas ligand interaction) and internal mitochondrial pathway which require disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (&#8710;طm ) which leads to opening of mitochondrial channels that lead to release of cytochrome –C which would execute apoptotic process.
Patients and Methods:The study included 32 normal subjects; 2 ml of venous blood were aspirated from each of them and processed for peripheral blood lymphocytes separation (PBL)
Then lymphocyte apoptosis was studied before and after exposing (PBL) to hyperthermia by these three methods to compare which of them can detect earliest apoptotic changes: Cell count and viability, morphological changes (by acredine orange stain) and the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential by Mitolight Apoptosis Detection Kit.
Results: Our results showed that the percentage of lymphocyte apoptosis detected by mitolight was significantly higher than those detected by other two methods.
Conclusion: This study shows that mitochondrial changes can detect earlier apoptotic process than morphological features detected by DNA stains.


Article
EVALUATION OF HORMONAL EFFECTS ON PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTE APOPTOSIS IN NORMAL MENSTRUATING FEMALES

Authors: Ghassan Th Al-Ani غسان ثابت العاني --- Wassan H Jassim وسن حسن جاسم --- Israa F Al-Samaraee اسراء فائق السامرائي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2011 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 131-136
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Apoptosis is a physiological type of cell death plays an important role in the regulation and maintenance of cell populations in tissues upon physiological and some pathological conditions.Objective: To evaluate the hormonal status and peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis in normal menstruating female during normal menstrual cycle.Methods: 50 healthy menstruating females with regular cycles were studied. Two samples of peripheral blood were aspirated; the first during the ovulation day and the second at the first day of the menstrual cycle. Lymphocyte separation was done; by Trypan blue exclusion test, and the morphological features of lymphocyte apoptosis by the DNA binding dye (Hoechst stains). Hormonal assessments of FSH, LH, Estradiol, and progesterone were also done.Results: Lymphocyte apoptosis in the first day of cycle was (9.31%±1.7) using Trypan blue exclusion test and (9.76%±1.36) using Hoechst stain while at the day of ovulation the percentages were (2.33%±0.7) and (1.38%±0.84) respectively with P value < 0.00001. Serum level of hormones were FSH (5.76±1.77; 9.14±3.34), LH(3.65±1.4; 28.35±18.94), Estradiol (40.05±14.73; 206.38±70.3) and Progesterone (0.35±0.13; 1.41±0.98) in the first day of the menstrual cycle and during ovulation respectively which showed a highly significant difference with P value <0.00001.Conclusion: The increment in the lymphocyte apoptosis in the first day of the menstrual cycle compared with ovulation day is mostly due to low ovarian steroid hormones and gonadotrophins. This might confirm the hypothesis that FSH, LH, estrogen and progesterone act as survival hormones for different tissues including peripheral blood lymphocytes.Key words: Lymphocyte apoptosis, FSH, LH, estrogen, progesterone, Hoechst stains


Article
EFFECT OF LASER LIGHT ON LYMPHOCYTE APOPTOSIS
تأثير أشعة الليزر على استماتة الخلايا اللمفية

Authors: Israa F. Al-Samaraee اسراء فائق --- Rowaida A. Al-khazragi رويدة عبد الأمير
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2008 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 45-51
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Apoptosis is a physiological type of cell death characterized by certain morphological nuclear and biochemical changes. This process deletes the unwanted cells by a clean mechanism that does not evoke any inflammating changes.Objective: To show the effect of laser light on the lymphocyte apoptosis.Subject & Methods: The study was conducted on lymphocyte apoptosis. The taken number of apoptotic lymphocyte was estimated before and after exposure. Results: Results showed that there was a significant increase in the percentage of lymphocyte apoptosis after exposure to 630nm laser light, which was further increased by increasing the time of exposure.Conclusion: Lymphocyte apoptosis can be induced by low dose of laser and increasing the exposure time can increase this.

خلفية الدراسة: الاستماتة هي نوع فسيولوجي من موت الخلية، تمتاز بتغييرات معينة كيميائية ونووية.يتم بهذه الطريقة التخلص من الخلايا الغير مرغوب فيها بطريقة صحيحة بحيث لا تثير أي تغيرات تسبب الالتهاب. هدف الدراسة: لبيان تأثير أشعة ألليزر على استماتة الخلايا اللمفية.طريقة العمل: أجريت هذه الدراسة على الخلايا اللمفيةالمستميتة. يتم تقييم عدد الخلايا اللمفية المستميتة قبل وبعد التعرض لأشعة ألليزر.النتائج: هذه الدراسة بينت أن هناك زيادة ملحوظة بنسبة الخلايا اللمفية المستميتة بعد تعرضها إلى أشعة ألليزر وكان هناك زيادة أيضاً بهذه النسبة عند زيادة زمن التعرض.الاستنتاج: ان استماتة الخلايا اللمفية يمكن أن يُحث بواسطة جرعة قليلة من أشعة ألليزر وهذا يمكن أن يزداد بزيادة زمن التعرض لهذه ألأشعة.

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