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4.MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIAL IN PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON’S DISEASE: A TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION STUDY

Authors: Ali F. Al-Hashimi علي فؤاد الهاشمي --- Haneen R. Ahmed حنين رباح احمد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2018 Volume: 16 Issue: 1 Pages: 14-21
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative condition of the central nervous system, which is accompanied by the impairment of the cortico-subcortical excitation and inhibition systems. It is characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms, having both hypokinetic and hyperkinetic features.Objective:To investigate the integrity of the central motor pathways by studying the motor evoked potential (MEP) latencies, amplitudes and central conduction time (CMCT) of the median nerve in patients with PD as compared to healthy controls.Methods:Twenty-five patients with documented PD were studied; with a mean age of (63.16±5.49 years) as compared to 25 age and sex matched apparently healthy controls. All subjects were instructed about the examination and informed consent was provided. Transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS-MEP study of the right median nerve was done. Cortical and cervical latencies and amplitudes of the MEP study were determined. The responses were recorded with both relaxed and slightly contracted target muscle. CMCT calculation was done by subtraction of the latency of peripheral segment of the motor pathway (spinal motor root to muscle) from that of the entire motor pathway (motor cortex to muscle) or by calculation of the CMCT with the F-wave method. Results:The means of the cortical latencies of PD patients during relaxation and facilitation states were lower than controls; and the differences were significant for both (P=0.03 and 0.02; respectively). In both relaxed and facilitation states, the means of CMCT in PD patients were lower than in control and the difference was significant during contraction (P=0.02), and near statistical significance during relaxation (P=0.08). CMCT calculations by the estimation of F wave and distal motor latency (DML) were equivocal between relaxation and facilitation states. Nevertheless, the differences were not statistically significant (P=0.45; P=0.62; respectively). The means of the MEP amplitude of PD patients were lower than controls (4.21±1.94 versus 4.28± 1.84 mV; respectively). Nevertheless, the differences were not significant (P=0.89).Conclusion:Single-pulse TMS is a valuable study to investigate central motor dysfunction in PD. CMCT measurement of the median nerve or any nerve in the upper limb is a potential marker for the evaluation of the severity of PD; especially in the facilitated state.Keywords:Parkinson’s disease, TMS, MEP, CL, CMCTCitation:Ahmed HR, Al-Hashimi AF. Motor evoked potential in patients with Parkinson’s Disease: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study. Iraqi JMS. 2018; Vol. 16(1): 14-21. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.16.1.4

Keywords

Parkinson’s disease --- TMS --- MEP --- CL --- CMCT


Article
Effect of active smoking on the tympanometry findings in adult men.

Author: Taghreed A. Hussain
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2010 Volume: 52 Issue: 2 Pages: 221-224
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Tympanometry findings are considered by many investigators to be associated with passive and active smoking.
Patients and methods: One hundred forty healthy adult men aged (20-50 years). 70 smokers and 70 non-smokers were recruited for the study. The examination included otoscopy, and screening tympanometry. Smoking history was ascertained by self –report. For each subject, age, smoking status and number of cigarettes per day were noted.
Results: There is a tendency for more negative middle ear pressure in smokers than in non-smokers though this difference may not clinically significant. There were no significant differences in ear canal volume, middle ear compliance and presence of Stapedial Reflex in both smokers and non-smokers groups. There was no correlation between middle ear pressure and duration of smoking and number of cigarettes smoked amongst smokers.Conclusion; A definitive study with a larger sample size is needed to explore the effects of smoking on findings of tympanometry in healthy men


Article
Experimental Analysis of Several Variables Influencing Formed Thickness in Two-Point Incremental Forming Process

Authors: A.K. Ibrahim --- W.K. Hamdan
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2017 Volume: 35 Issue: 7 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 749-755
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

In the current paper, an experimental analysis on Al-sheet (AA 1050) with thickness 0.9 mm to reveal the effect of relevant forming factors on the formed thickness in two-point incremental forming (TPIF) process has been conducted. The formed thickness of pyramid-like shapes was analyzed by studying seven variables: die geometry, tool diameter, tool path, stepover, tool shape, lubricant and slope angle. The proposed analysis utilizes Box-Behnken design of experiment (BBD), main effects plot (MEP) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for sake of studying the influences of the seven forming factors on the resulted thickness. The results of these analyses have indicated that the most significant factor affecting the formed thickness is the die geometry followed by tool shape, lubricant and stepover respectively for both slope angles of the pyramid. In addition, it has been found that the other variables have also significant effects on the formed thickness at both slopes of the pyramids produced.

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