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Article
Performance Evaluation of Spatial Multiplexing MIMO Systems with Various Detection Schemes
تقییم اداء أنظمة الكشف لمنظومة الإدخال والإخراج المتعدد الإرسال المتعددة المكانیة

Author: Mahmood. Farhan Mosleh
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2012 Volume: 30 Issue: 5 Pages: 744-754
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Spatial Multiplexing (SM) over multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) channels significantly improves the data rates over wireless channels. The challenge is to design low complexity and high performance algorithms that capable of accurately detecting the transmitted signals. In this paper, the general model of MIMO communicationsystem was introduced in addition to several MIMO Spatial Multiplexing (SM) detection techniques. The Bit Error Rate (BER) performance and computational complexity of Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE), Zero Forcing (ZF), and Maximum Likelihood (ML) detection schemes have been analyzed and compared to each other using Matlab R2009b. Results of simulation illustrates that their performances of MMSE and ZF detectors are close together and need more than 14 dB of Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) to achieve 10-4 BER. On the other hand ML detector shows better results than MMSE and ZF detectors but the complexity and the delay arelarge. Been proposed to install the number of transmitter antennas fixed on 2 and change receiving antennas 2, 3, and 4. Results showed that the present proposal came close to the results of the previous model, but less complexity

Keywords

– MIMO --- SM --- ZF --- ML


Article
ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE OF ITERATIVE DECODING OF PRODUCT CODE IN ADDITIVEWHITEGAUSSIANNOISE CHANNEL
تحليل خصائص للمشفر التكراري لشفرات الضرب في قناة ذات ضوضاء كاوسية

Authors: Samir Abdul Cathem Khother سمير عبد الكاظم --- Haider jabber abd حيدر جبار عبد
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2010 Volume: 3 Issue: 2 Pages: 213-221
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

This search describes an iterative decoding of product code using Soft Input Soft Output Maximum Likelihood (SISO ML) decoder. The SISO ML decoder is implementing using Pyndiah's algorithm where the soft output of decoder is an estimation of the log likelihood ratio (LLR) of the binary decision of ML-decoder. The theoretical justification of this algorithm is developed, and the method used for computing the soft output is fully described. Then the implementation of iterative decoder of product codes (turbo product codes) is described.
Simulation results (using MATLAB program version 7 ) of turbo product codes are presented. The simulation process includes different cases. These result shows that powerful BER performance could be achieved by using block codes with large code length, and BER performance depends mainly on minimum Hamming distance of the outer code. These results also compare between conventional ML decoder and iterative ML decoder and show the powerful BER performance of iterative decoder at low SNR, that make it used in deep space communication

هذا البحث يوضح التشفير التكراري لشفرات الضرب باستخدام مشفر التشابه الاعظم ذوالدخل والخرج الناعم . هذا المشفر قد تم بناءه باستخدام خوارزمية "pyndiah" حيث ان الخرج الناعم للمشفر هو تخمين للنسبة اللوغارتيمية للتشابه (LLR) الماخوذ للقرار الثنائي للمشفر ذو التشابه الاعظم .المبررات النظرية لهذه الخوارزمية قد تم توضيحها بالتفصيل ، والطريقة التي تم بواسطتها حساب الخرج الناعم تم توضيحها بالكامل . كذلك تم توضيح كيفية بناء المشفر التكراري لشفرات الضرب (شفرات الضرب المسرعة) .نتائج المحاكاة تمت باستخدام برنامج ( (MATLAB version 7لشفرات الضرب المسرعة قد تم توضيحها . عملية المحاكاة تضمنت عدة حالات، النتائج بينت ان خصائص فعالة وقوية يمكن الحصول عليها بواسطة الشفرات ذات الطول الكبير ،تم مقارنة النتائج بين المشفر ذو التشابه الاعظم التقليدي و المشفر ذو التشابه الاعظم التكراري وبينت ان المشفر الاعظم التكراري يعطي نتائج فعالة وقوية عند قيم واطئة من SNR (نسبة قدرة الاشارة الى قدرة الضوضاء ) مما يجعلها صالحة للاستعمال في تطبيقات الاتصالات الفضائية .

Keywords

: MATLAB --- SISO --- BER --- ML-decoder


Article
DNA content of Spermatozoa with respect to Seminal Sperm Concentration using a Microchemical Spectrophotometric Method

Authors: Faraid A. AL- chalabi --- Munaf S. Daoud*
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2006 Volume: 48 Issue: 4 Pages: 410-412
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: To determine the DNA content in subfertile patients and to correlate it
with seminal sperm concentration.
Design: Prospective observational study.
Setting: College of Medicine, Dept. of Physiological chemistry and Institute for
embryo Research and infertility treatment-University of Baghdad.The study was conducted through years 2004-2005.
Methods: A random sample of 61 subfertile male patients undergoing semen evaluation and aged from 20-45 years were studied. Semen samples were assessed for seminal sperm concentration microscopically and were classified into 3 different groups according to count (million/ml).Then sperm D N A content (µg/ml) was estimated using a microchemical spectrophotometric method.
Results: The three groups were statistically of significant difference( P <0.01 ).The D N A concentration per spermatozoan in Gr.III ( 1 20 million/ml) was higher than the other two groups It was also noticed that there was a statistically significant (P< 0.05 ) correlation in Gr.III b etween D N A content and sperm concentration . No significant (P >0.05 )correlation was observed in the other two groups (Gr. I & Gr. II ).
Conclusion: Significant positive correlation was obtained between sperm concentration and DNA content. in the oligozoospermic subfertile patient , but no significant correlation was found in the normozoopermic patients . D N A content per spermatozoan from oligozoospermic patients was higher than that in normozoospermic patients.


Article
Sperm DNA content: An overall correlation study with sperm count, motility and morphology

Author: Munaf S. Daoud*Ph.D د. مناف صالح داود
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 2 Pages: 277-280
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:Background: To determine the DNA content in subfertile patients and correlate it with seminal sperm parameters, (count, motility and morphology).Design: Prospective observational study.Setting: College of Medicine, Department of physiological chemistry and Institute for Embryo research and Infertility treatment, University of Baghdad.Methods: A random sample of 58 subfertile male patients undergoing semen evaluation and their age ranged from 20-45 years were studied. Semen samples were assessed for seminal sperms (count , motility and morphology) by direct light microscopy. Sperm DNA content was estimated using a microchemical spectrophotometric method .The data were categorized into four groups according to normal and abnormal sperms count ( million / ml ),percent motility and percent morphology. The normal limits of those sperm function parameters were according to WHO criteria. The four groups were named as Normozoospermic (NZS) (control) , Normoasthenozoospermic (NAZS) ,Normoasthenoteratozoospermic (NATZS) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OATZS) groups.Results: The Mean ± SD of the four groups were of significant difference (P> 0.05 ) with respect to sperm count, sperm percent motility and morphology with exceptions of certain groups. Moreover, a non significant difference (P< 0.05) was found with respect to DNA content (µg /ml) and (µg/sperm) except for Gr. IV which showed a significant difference when compared to others.The correlation coefficients (r values) between sperm count and sperms motility, morphology and DNA content (µg/ml) were non significant in the four groups. Noticeably, the DNA content (µg/sperm) was statistically of significant (P>0.05) negative correlation with sperm count in all groups.Conclusion: All groups were of significant difference (P<0.05) among their Mean ±SD values of their count, motility and morphology. There were few exceptions. No significant differences (P>0.05) were found with respect to DNA content (µg/ml or µg/sperm) except for oligoasthenoteratozoospermic group compared to others. No significant correlation was found between sperm count and each of sperms motility , morphology and DNA content (µg/ml) in the four groups .However, the DNA content (µg/sperm) had a statistically significant (P<0.05) negative correlation with sperm count in all groups.Keywords:DNA, sperm concentration(count million/ml ), Normozoospermic(NZS),Normoasthenoszoopermic(NAZS),Normoasthenoteratozoospermic(NATZS), Oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OATZS ) .


Article
Estimation of Reliability in Multi-Component Stress-Strength Model Following Burr-III Distribution

Authors: Nada Sabah Karam --- Hind Husham Jani
Journal: Journal of College of Education مجلة كلية التربية ISSN: 18120380 Year: 2016 Issue: 1 Pages: 329-342
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

In this paper, we estimate the multicomponent S out of K stress-strength system reliability for Burr-III distribution. The research methodology adopted here is to estimate the parameters by using maximum likelihood ML, least square LS, weighted least square WLS, regression Rg and moment MOM estimation. The reliability is estimated using the same methods of estimation and results are compared by Monte-Carlo simulation study using MSE and MAPE criteria, the results show that the ML was the best between them

في هذه الورقة، سوف يتم تقدير معوليه نظام متعدد المكونات S من K الإجهاد-المتانه لتوزيع بور-III. منهجية البحث المعتمدة هنا هي لتقدير المعلمات باستخدام طريقة الامكان الاعظم MLE، طريقة المربعات الصغرى LS، طريقة المربعات الصغرى الموزونةWLS ، وطريقة الانحدار Rg، وطريقة العزوم MOM. والمعوليه تقدر باستخدام نفس الأساليب التقدير ومقارنة النتائج وفقا لدراسة محاكاة مونت كارلو باستخدام معايير MSE و MAPE،بينت النتائج أن ML كان الأفضل بينهما.


Article
2.HIGH PREVALENCE OF JOHN CUNNINGHAM VIRURIA IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

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Abstract

Background:John Cunningham virus (JCV) is one of the important viruses in immunocompromised patients. High JC viruria is seen in kidney allograft recipients; some of them with a polyomavirus associated nephropathy (PVAN) just like BK polyomavirus but to a lesser extent.Objective:To detect JCV viruria in a sample of Iraqi renal transplant recipients, and its association with renal function.Methods:A prospective study enrolled 71 renal transplant recipients (RTR) and 20 normal donors (ND) as controls. Urine samples were collected from all RTR and ND. Viral DNA was extracted from 1 ml urine samples, and then, JC virus DNA was detected and measured by Taqman quantitative real-time PCR.Results:Out of 71 RTRs, 31 (43.66%), and 2 out of the 20 (10%) controls had positive JC viruria. The mean JCV viruria was 6.8 x104, and 1.04x103 copies/ml for RTRs and controls respectively.Conclusion:There is a relatively high prevalence of JCV viruria in Iraqi RTR patients.Keywords:JC virus, renal transplantation, urine, real-time PCR. Citation:Mervit B. Jasim, Ali J.H. Al-Saedi, Mustafa R. Hussein, Asmaa B. Al-Obaidi, Haider S. Kadhim. High prevalence of John Cunningham viruria in renal transplant recipients. Iraqi JMS. 2017; Vol. 15(2): 108-115. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.15.2.2


Article
COMPARISON BETWEEN MLD AND ZF ALGORITHMS FOR MIMO WIRELESS SYSTEM AT RAYLEIGH CHANNEL

Authors: Mohannad A. Al-Ja'afari --- Saif H. Abdulwahed --- Ameer H. Ali
Journal: KUFA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING مجلة الكوفة الهندسية ISSN: 25230018 Year: 2018 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 13-22
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

In this paper, the performance of the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) technique evaluated in term of Bit Error Rate (BER) with respect to Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) by using Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation for two algorithms Maximum Likelihood (MLD) and Zero-Forcing (ZF) with different configurations of antennas array in Rayleigh and Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channels. The results were compared between them to determine which of the numbers antenna elements are suitable in the transmitter and receiver of each algorithm. The results of MLD offers a better configuration when 4×4 and 3×4 antennas array were used, while the ZF remains the same performance for the 2×2, 3×3 and 4×4 configurations. In different numbers of antennas, the best performance of ZF is got when the number of transmitter and receiver antennas are equal to 2×4 respectively. Also, the last one is better than the 4×4 and 3×4 configurations of MLD algorithm.


Article
التصحر وعلاقته بالمشكلات البيئية

Author: د.سعد جاسم محمد
Journal: AL-Mostansiriyah journal for arab and international studies مجلة مركز المستنصرية للدراسات العربية والدولية ISSN: 2070898X Year: 2014 Issue: 46 Pages: 214-239
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The “Desert”is considered a climatic expression that refers to the regions which are characterized by rarity of the rain especially if they are less than 10 ml year and the increasing of the temperature might increase its annual average of 30 m, so one of the characteristics of these regions is the rarity of its plant cover and if it occurs it appears in som thorn plants that bear the strong dryness. The desertification or what is called the desert crawling means the decline of the agriculthral lands that produce the crops and turn them into unproductive barren lands because of natural and human factors and the natural (climatic) factor is at the beginning which appears in the increasing of the temperature and lack or rarity of the rain and consequently these regions began to acquire the climatic features of the desert regions. Thus,then leads to disregard broad areas of agricultural lands on the earth planet out of the economical sectors and therefore the possibility of happening disasrers and international economical crises which may become one of its results the happening of changes of the international relationships in the world to the directions which may lead to the struggles and wars. There are many international conference held in deferent world capitals to deal or to solve the problems of desertification . Such as Nairobi in 1977 , Rio de janeriro in 1922 , Kyoto in 1977 , Buenos Aires in 1998 , Bali in 2007, Copen Hagen in 2009, and Van cover in 2013 .

الصحراء هي تعبير عن حالة المناخ للمناطق التي توصف بقلة الامطار خاصة التي تقل عن 10مليمتر وارتفاع معدل درجات الحرارة السنوية عن 30 درجة مئوية. ولهذا اصبحت سمة هذه المناطق هي ندرة غطاءها النباتي وان وجد فانه من نوع النباتات الشوكية المقاومة للجفاف الشديد . يقصد بالتصحر او مايدعى بزحف الصحراء هو نقص الاراضي الزراعية المنتجة للمحاصيل او خروجها عن الاراضي الزراعية الى اراضي متصحرة لاسباب او عوامل طبيعية وبشرية ، حيث يشكل عامل المناخ من العوامل المهمة للتصحر والجفاف بسبب ارتفاع درجات الحرارة ونقص الامطار وبالتالي تتحول هذه المناطق الى اراضي صحراوية خارج الاراضي الزراعية وبالتالي خارج القطاع الاقتصادي ، لذا فان امكانية وقوع الكوارث والازمات الاقتصادية الدولية التي قد تؤثر في تغير نمط العلاقات الدولية في العالم والتي قد تكون سبباً مباشراً للصراعات او الحروب . لقد شرعت الامم المتحدة وبجهد دولي الى عقد العديد من المؤتمرات في عواصم عديدة من العالم للتعامل مع ظاهرة التصحر والجفاف وايجاد سبل المعالجة والحلول الناجمة لها . ومن هذه المؤتمرات (مؤتمر نايروبي عام 1977 ، وريودي جانيرو عام 1922، وكيوتو عام 1977، وبوينس ايرس عام 1988 ، ومؤتمر بالي عام 2007، ومؤتمر كوبنهاكن عام 2009 ، واخيراً مؤتمر فانكوفر عام 2003) .


Article
Analysis of Factors Affecting the Anti-Money Laundering using the Managerial factors” Moderate Variable” in Iraq

Authors: Sarmad Muwfaq Khazaal --- Lamyaa Salah Al-Den M. F. Al-Salyhy --- Hasson Mohammed Ali AL-Haddad
Journal: Journal of Baghdad College of Economic sciences University مجلة كلية بغداد للعلوم الاقتصادية الجامعة ISSN: 2072778X Year: 2018 Volume: 2018 Issue: 7 Pages: 267-300
Publisher: Baghdad College of Economic Sciences كلية بغداد للعلوم الاقتصادية

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Research aims to diagnose the impact of ML dimensions in the availability and the uses of its components, also for the diagnosis of the elements of (available resources, managerial processes) which prevent the influence of this phenomenon, and poll the reality of anti- ML measures available and the use of its components (reasons of circulation, functions indicators, supervisory role, obstacles). Role of combat MLS and the dimensions of (placement, layering and integration) as legitimacy attempt to steal money in order to reveal in illegal money. The study sample included (57) relevant people from academic disciplines, management leadership, and monitors compliance in banks.The results showed that there are widespread dramatic ML in Iraq, which found to be of 85%, and that the main sources to ML are smuggling of oil, projects phantom reconstruction, gangs of kidnapping and extortion, also observed that the elements (reasons of circulation, supervisory role), have occupies the first place in reducing the effectiveness of the Anti-ML level, and then came (function indicators, obstacles). After that (placement) has achieved first class in facilitating ML, and then came (confused, merger), then the impact of managerial factors affect in the Anti-ML. Also the role of the resources available has played as moderate in the role of the Anti-ML.Research recommends that financial institutions be able to exchange information with other countries, in order to know their customers, identify controls on the basis of the degree of risk, and the bank must verify the "identity of the customer," if necessary, to monitor transactions for any suspicious activity. Often called the name of the "know your customer, and the training of bank staff on the Anti-ML, and record-keeping and the development of instructions and reporting suspicious activities. The adoption of modern IT, which helps monitors compliance with the Anti-ML for the detection and reporting of such crimes

يهدف البحث على تشخيص طبيعة البيئة الداخلية للعوامل الأدارية (الموارد المتاحة، والعمليات الإدارية) وعوامل البيئية الخارجية المحيطة بالنظام الإداري.واستطلاع واقع عناصر Anti-ML (أسباب الأنتشار، والمؤشرات الدالة، الدور الرقابي، المعوقات).وتشخيص دور المكافحة على MLS بأبعادها (التوظيف ، الخلط، الاندماج) في محاولة أضفاء الشرعية على ML ، واستطلاع مدى تأثيرات مراقبة الامتثال، وتأثير (IT) الحديثة على Anti- ML، في الحد من التأثير السلبي على الاقتصاد العراقي. شملت الدراسة عينة (57) شخصاً من التخصصات الأكاديمية ذات الصلة، والقيادات الإدارية، ومراقبي الامتثال في البنوك.أظهرت النتائج هناك انتشارا دراماتيكيا ML في العراق ، وكانت نسبته 85٪، وان المصادر الرئيسية في ML هو تهريب النفط ، والمشاريع الوهمية لأعادة الإعمار، وعصابات الخطف والابتزاز، وأظهرت النتائج أن العناصر (أسباب الأنتشار، الدور الرقابي) أحتلت المرتبة الأولى في مستوى الحد من فعالية Anti-ML ، وجاء بعدها (المؤشرات الدالة ، والمعوقات). كما حقق بعد (التوظيف) الدرجة الأولى في تسهيل عملية ML، وجاء بعدها (الخلط ، الاندماج)، وهناك تأثير للعوامل الإدارية في Anti-ML ، أذ لعبت الموارد المتاحة دور المتغير المُعدْل في دور Anti-ML.يوصي البحث أن تكون المؤسسات المالية قادرة على تبادل المعلومات مع تلك المؤسسات في الدول الأخرى في التعرف على عملائها، وتحديد الضوابط على أساس درجة المخاطر، ويجب على البنك التحقق من "هوية العميل" ، في رصد المعاملات عن أي نشاط مشبوه. وغالبا ما يطلق على هذا اسم "اعرف عميلك”، وتدريب موظفي البنك على Anti-ML ، وحفظ السجلات ووضع التعليمات والإبلاغ عن الأنشطة المشبوهة. واعتماد IT الحديثة الذي تساعد مراقبي الامتثال على Anti-ML من أجل الكشف والإبلاغ عن تلك الجرائم.


Article
Development of A New HPLC Method for Separation and Determination 25(OH)- Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3).
تطویر طریقة جدیدة في كروماتوكرافیا السائل عالي الأداء لفصل وتقدیر (D 25- فیتامین ( 3 (OH)-Cholecalciferol

Author: Sarmad B. Dikran سرمد بهجت ديكران
Journal: journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly) مجلة القادسية للعلوم الصرفة (فصلية). ISSN: 19972490 Year: 2016 Volume: 4 Issue: 21 Pages: 101-111
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Vitamin D3 was found interference with other fat soluble vitamins (especially vitamin A and E) that arecommonly present with vitamin D, in Serum & pharmaceutical preparation.In the present study, a rapid, simple and economical reversed phase-HPLC procedure has been fixedoptimization of condition and developed for the separation and determination of vitamin D3 in mixture standardof Vitamin D3and Vitamin A.Anew method were developed in HPLC ,based method with a UV detector by examining various conditionsincluding mobile phase, flow rate, volume inject and temperature, we have also proposed a very simple methodof isolation of these vitamins. The vitamins were separated isocratically on a Knauer C18 column (250×4.6mm,5μm particle size) with a mobile phase consisting of isocratic acetonitrile and methanol (75:25, v/v) operated at40ºC with retention times less than 10 min. and the detection limit of our developed HPLC method is 0.01μg/ml.The eluted vitamins were identified and monitored on a UV-Detector at 265 nm with optimum flow rate 1.5mL/min and 50μL Injection volume. The linearity of the method was excellent (r2 > 0.999), over the concentration rangeof 10-200ng/ml.Vitamin D3 was found interference with other fat soluble vitamins (especially vitamin A and E) that arecommonly present with vitamin D, in Serum & pharmaceutical preparation.In the present study, a rapid, simple and economical reversed phase-HPLC procedure has been fixedoptimization of condition and developed for the separation and determination of vitamin D3 in mixture standardof Vitamin D3and Vitamin A.Anew method were developed in HPLC ,based method with a UV detector by examining various conditionsincluding mobile phase, flow rate, volume inject and temperature, we have also proposed a very simple methodof isolation of these vitamins. The vitamins were separated isocratically on a Knauer C18 column (250×4.6mm,5μm particle size) with a mobile phase consisting of isocratic acetonitrile and methanol (75:25, v/v) operated at40ºC with retention times less than 10 min. and the detection limit of our developed HPLC method is 0.01μg/ml.The eluted vitamins were identified and monitored on a UV-Detector at 265 nm with optimum flow rate 1.5mL/min and 50μL Injection volume. The linearity of the method was excellent (r2 > 0.999), over the concentration rangeof 10-200ng/ml.Key Words: 25(OH) Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) , HPLC..

یتواجد فیتامین 3والمستحضرات الدوائیة . أذ تم في ھذه الدراسة الحالیة استخدام طریقة سریعة وبسیطة واقتصادیة وحساسة ھي كروموتوغرافیا السائل عاليفي مزیج یحوي محالیل قیاسیة لكل من D وتثبیت ظروف قیاسیة مثلى جدیدة لفصل وتقدیر فیتامین 3 reversal HPLC الاداء ذو الطور العكوس. D و 3 A فیتامین200-400 ) ، الطور المتحرك، سرعة ) nm وشملت الدراسة الظروف المثلى التي ثبت بھا الفصل ضمن مدى من الاطول الموجیة تراوحت مابینالجریان، حجم النموذج المحقون ودرجة الحرارة أذ تم فصل ھذه الفیتامینات بطریقة سھلة وبأستخدام عمود فصل ذو مواصفاتوطور متحرك مكون من مزیج الایثانول: Knauer/Germany والمجھز من شركة C18 column (250×4.6mm, 5μm particle size)0.01 . وتم تشخیص μg/mL 40 وبزمن تظھیر اقل من 10 دقائق وحد كشف عند ºC الاسیتونایترایل بنسبة حجمیة ( 25:75 )ودرجة حرارة265 و بمعدل سرعة جریان مثلى 1.5 nm عند طول موجي UV ومراقبة الفیتامینات المعزولة بأستخدام مكشاف الاشعة فوق البنفسجیة.50 μl و كان حجم النموذج المحقون mL/min

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