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Article
Pattern of mandibular third molar impaction in patients attended the Hawler College of Dentistry: a retrospective radiographic study
نمط الانحشار المولي الفك السفلي لدى المرضى الذين حضروا كلية هولير لطب الأسنان: دراسة إشعاعية بأثر رجعي

Authors: Omed I. Shihab --- Katayon N. Kurchid
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2010 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 67-70
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Back grounds and objectives: The aim of this study was to assess radiographically the angulations and depth of impacted mandibular third molars.Method: In a retrospective study 163 impacted mandibular third molars of 100 patients were examined on orthopantomograms (OPT) in the College of Dentistry/ Hawler Medical University during 2008. From these orthopantomograms the angulations (mesioangular, distoangular, vertical, and horizontal) and the depth (types A, B, and C) of the impacted mandibular third molars were recorded. The frequencies of unilateral and bilateral impaction were also recorded.Results: The average age of the patients was 26.5 + 5 ranging from 20-40 years with a median of 25 years. Fifty eight (58%) of the cases were female and 42 (42%) were male. The frequency of mesioangular, distoangular, vertical and horizontal impactions were 73 (44.8%), 37 (22.6%), 28 (17.2%), and 25(15.4%) successively. The depths of the impactions were 45 (27.6%) depth A, 74 (45.4%) depth B, and 44 (27%) depth C.The frequency of unilateral impaction was 26 (26%) and that of bilateral impaction was 74 (74%).Conclusion: Impacted mandibular third molars are more common in female. Mesioangular impaction is more common followed by distoangular. Depth B most common and most of the patients have bilateral impaction.


Article
Factors associated with facial swelling severity following impacted lower third molar surgery: A prospective study

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Abstract

Background: The ultimate purpose of this prospective study is to estimate and measure swelling associated withsurgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molars in different four post-operative times and to identify the riskfactors associated with determination of their risk degree.Material and Methods: In this prospective cohort study 159 consecutive cases in which removal of impacted lowerthird molars in 107outpatients were evaluated. Five groups of variables have been studied which are regarded as apotential factor for swelling after mandibular third removal which will enable the surgeon to predict and counsel highrisk patients in order to offer a preventive strategy.Results: Facial measurements were carried out on 1st, 2nd days, 1st and 2nd week postoperatively to measure theswelling area in each time respectively The peak level of swelling was noted on the second post-operative day andsubside by seven days but in some cases the swelling was still in minor degree while in most patients it was zero byday 14.Conclusions: The degree of difficulty of the surgical extraction was the main indicators of risk factors for the swelling inall post-operative days because it involves all the other risk factors together


Article
The Relationship of the Lower third Molar to the Anterior Dental Crowding

Authors: Emad H. Abdulla --- Maha I. Abdulazeez --- Labeed S. Hasan
Journal: Journal of Oral and Dental Research مجلة طب الفم والاسنان ISSN: 23106417 Year: 2014 Volume: 1 Issue: 2 Pages: 29-32
Publisher: Iraqi Association for Oral Research الجمعية العراقية لبحوث طب الفم

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Abstract

Introduction: The role of the lower third molars in the lower incisors crowding has been debated for more thana century. Significant disagreement exists among practitioners, including both orthodontists and oral and maxillofacialsurgeons whether the third molar causes mandibular anterior crowding.Aim of study: The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether the lower third molars can contribute to the occurrenceor aggravation of crowding.Materials and methods: A sample of 131voluneteer (67 males and 64 females) aged 18-25 years were includedin the 1st ,2nd, ,3rd ,4th and 5th stage of college of dentistry /Tikrit University was chosen, the sample wasdivided into three main groups consisted subjects who had mandibular third molars that were either impacted,erupted into function or agenesis.Results: The study showed that 70(53.4%) volunteer s out of the 131 have impacted lower 3rd molar, 52(39.7%)volunteers have erupted lower 3rd molar, while 9(7.6%) volunteer have agenesis of the 3rd molar.Conclusion: The crowded group revealed a higher percentage of impacted third molar while lowest percentageof third molar agenesis.


Article
Evaluation of Mandibular Third Molar Position by Using Space-Width Ratio Method

Authors: Istabraq M. Mohamed استبرق محمد --- Nidhal H. Ghaib نضال حسين غايب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 4 Pages: 168-171
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The prediction of changes in the mandibular third molar position and eruption is an important clinical concern because third molar retention may be beneficial for orthodontic anchorage. The aims of this study were to assess the mandibular third molar position by using medical CT scan and lateral reconstructed radiograph and evaluate gender differences.Materials and Methods: The sample of present study consisted of 39 patients (18 males and 21 females) with age range 11-15 years who were attending at Al-Suwayra General Hospital/ the Computerized Tomography department. The distance from anterior edge of ramus to distal surface of permanent mandibular second molar and mesio-distal width of developing mandibular third molar were measured in both three dimensional volumetric and two dimensional CT derived lateral images. The statistical analyses included: means, standard deviations. Paired t-test was used to compare between the two methods and independent t-test was used in verifying the genders difference.Results: The results showed that there was high significant method difference between 3D CT and 2D image and gender differences were observed in values of linear measurements of present study, as males showed higher mean values than females.Conclusion: There is high accuracy of measurement on CT images, so C.T. scan is advisable during the diagnosis and treatment plan of orthodontic cases


Article
Assessment of mandibular third molar position by using computed tomography and reconstructed lateral radiograph

Authors: Istabraq M. Mohamed --- Nidhal H. Ghaib نضال حسين غايب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 2 Pages: 104-107
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Consideration of mandibular third molar is important from orthodontic perspective due to severalfactors such as, lower anterior arch crowding, relapse in lower anterior region, interference with uprighting ofmandibular first and second molars during anchorage preparation and molar distalization. The aims of this studywere to assess of gender differences in the mandibular third molar position and compare and evaluate whetherthere is any differences in the results provided by CT scan and lateral reconstructed radiograph.Materials and Methods: The sample of present study consisted of 39 patients (18 males and 21 females) with agerange 11-15 years. CT images for patients who were attending at Al Suwayra General Hospital/the ComputerizedTomography department. Computed tomographic images were obtained for The distance from Xi point to distalsurface of permanent mandibular second molar was measured in both three dimensional volumetric images andtwo dimensional CT derived lateral image. The statistical analyses included: means, standard deviations. Paired t-testwas used to compare between the two methods and independent t-test was used in verifying the gendersdifference.Results: The results showed that there was high significant method difference between 3D CT and 2D image andgender differences was observed in values of linear measurements of present study, as males showed higher meanvalues than females.Conclusion: There is high accuracy of measurement on CT images, so CT scan is advisable during the diagnosis andtreatment plan of orthodontic cases


Article
Pre-Emptive Analgesic Effect of Tramadol and Ibuprofen After Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Extraction

Author: Bara S. Minwah
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2017 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 76-85
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: to evaluate the efficacy of analgesia produced by preoperative administration of tramadol or ibuprofen on surgically extracted mandibular 3rd molars .Materials and Methods :surgical removal of lower 3rd molar was performed in 30 patients , they were divided into three groups of ten patient for each. Group I: preoperative 100mg tramadol IM injection; Group II: preoperative 800 mg Ibuprofen orally; Group III: control group with no preoperative treatment .Analgesia was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS), Verbal pain Scale(VPS), patient satisfaction(PS), amount of analgesic consumption and time elapsed before first intake were recorded after 24 hours. Results: There was significant differences between tramadol and control group in all types of pain scales in favor of tramadol group . There was significant difference in the visual analog scale (VAS) ,number and time of tablets needed during 24 hours between Ibuprofen and control group . There was significant difference between Tramadol and Ibuprofen groups in both of (VAS) and (VPS) in favor of Tramadol group. Conclusions: The use of tramadol or ibuprofen preemptively is effective method of postoperative pain control in impacted lower 3rd molar surgery .


Article
Impacted mandibular third molar and the inferior alveolar canal in Iraqis (A radiographical study)

Author: Dr.luay Nafie kaka. B.D.S, M.Sc.* د.لؤي نافع كاكا
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2008 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Pages: 403-409
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Aim of the study: To evaluate the position of impacted mandibular third molars and its relation to the inferior alveolar canals by the aid of panoramic radiographs.Materials and method: The study includes (246) panoramic radiographs with (444) impacted mandibular third molar teeth that are collected from different oral and maxillofacial surgery units belong to patients with the age between (20-35) years who seeks for help to remove their impacted mandibular third molar teeth in order to evaluate the relationship between the position of impacted mandibular third molars and its relation to the inferior alveolar canals by the aid of panoramic radiographs. Impacted mandibular third molar teeth position were classified as vertical, horizontal, mesioangular, and distoangular (Winter’s classification)and the radiographic relationship of the root apex of impacted mandibular third molar to the inferior alveolar canal was categorized as :below,superimpose,grooving and none of them(none).Result and discussion: The majority of impacted mandibular third molar teeth was of mesioangular position (35%), then the vertical position (29%), distoangular (20%), and the horizontal position (16%) in both gender and males has a higher percentage than females.Ingeneral,superimposition relationship between impacted mandibular third molar teeth and inferior alveolar canal is the highest (39%) in most of the cases among the other types of relation, then to a lesser extent was below the roots (31%), grooving (25%), and lastly, none (5%).The alveolar canal is mostly below the vertical and horizontal type of impaction. The alveolar canal is mostly superimposed on the roots of mesioangular and distoangular type of impaction. Grooving relation ship is most common with mesioangular impacted mandibular third molar.


Article
Effect of platelet rich-fibrin on alveolar osteitis incidence following surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars: A comparative study

Authors: Ali H. Al-Hussaini --- Ali S. Abdul-Kareem
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2019 Volume: 31 Issue: 4 Pages: 63-70
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Postoperative morbidity after extraction of the impacted mandibular third molar (IMTM) is inevitable. One of the most common postoperative complication is alveolar osteitis (AO) which is a painful non healed socket. Many researches were attempted to prevent the occurrence of AO by introducing and applying a new materials inside the extraction socket. Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) is a biological complex fibrin matrix where autologous platelets and leucocytes are present, used to enhance tissue healing process and reduce the early adverse effects of the inflammation.Aims: To evaluate the effect of PRF on the incidence of AO. Also to assess PRF effect on pain, swelling, and trismusfollowing the surgical removal of IMTM and compare it with the control group.Materials and methods: This clinical prospective study was conducted from October 2016 to October 2017 at the Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, College of dentistry/University of Baghdad; and Al-Sadr Specialized Health Center. A total number of 50 IMTMs were surgically removed from 45 patients who met the inclusion criteria (21 males and 24 females) with age ranged from 16-41 years. The cases were divided into two groups: a study group (25 cases) where PRF were placed inside the extraction socket and control group (25 cases) where traditional surgery were performed. AO, trismus and swelling were assessed at the 2nd and 7th postoperative day. Pain scored by numeric rating scale daily by the patients.Results: The study showed that age, gender, side of impaction, oral hygiene condition, impacted tooth classification, surgical difficulty, and the time of procedure in both control and study groups had nearly similar distribution with non- significant difference. At the 1st follow up period: Trismus (P-value = 0.834) and Swelling (P-value = 0.592) were non- significant between the two groups. AO had overall incidence of 4% occurred only in the control group, while the PRF group had no occurrence (0%), but the difference was statistically non significant. Postoperative pain had no significance difference in both groups. At the 2nd follow up period there was no significant difference regarding trismus, swelling, and incidence of AO between both groups.Conclusion: Local application of PRF can reduce the incidence of AO but not to a significant level. PRF had no effect concerning postoperative pain, swelling, and trismus.


Article
The Influence of Mandibular Third Molar Position on Distal Caries in Mandibular Second Molar

Authors: Basma Kamal --- Faaiz Alhamdani --- Athil Raheem
Journal: Journal of Oral and Dental Research مجلة طب الفم والاسنان ISSN: 23106417 Year: 2015 Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Pages: 16-23
Publisher: Iraqi Association for Oral Research الجمعية العراقية لبحوث طب الفم

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Abstract

Introduction: Distal caries of mandibular second molars has been documented to be associated almost exclusivelywith impacted third molars. The level of involvement of second molars in distal caries is influenced by the angulationof the occlusal surface of mandibular third molars and third molars depth. In spite of the importance of these factors onthe occurrence of distal caries, their influence on prophylactic extraction decision of asymptomatic impacted molars forIraqi population did not get enough attention.Aim: of the study: To determine the influence of mandibular third molar impaction, as identified by panoramicradiograph, on distal caries incidence in second molar in Iraqi population.Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of impacted mandibular third molars prior to surgical extraction wereretrieved from the database of Al-Karamah Secondary Dental Care Centre in the period 2004-2013. Demographic datawere collected for all cases. Each panoramic radiograph was examined for the presence of distal caries of mandibularsecond molar and for the level of depth and degree of angulation of adjacent impacted mandibular third molar.Results: One hundred forty-eight panoramic radiographs of 214 pre-surgically extracted impacted mandibular thirdmolars were reviewed. Eighty-four (56.8%) of the cases were for males and sixty-four (43.2%) were for females. ChiSquareTest showed significant relationship between age group, impaction angulation, impaction depth and incidenceof mandibular second molar distal caries. It also showed highly significant relationship between angulation and depthof impaction.Conclusion: Horizontally impacted mandibular third molars close to the level of occlusion increases the chance ofdistal caries incidence in adjacent mandibular second molars. Close monitoring for such cases would be a suitableoption. Further prospective studies should be conducted to study the influence of other factors on distal caries incidence.

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