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Article
The Pragmatic Nature of Manipulation
The Pragmatic Nature of Manipulation

Authors: Fareed H. H. Al-Hindawi فريد حميد الهنداوي --- Salwa Ibrahim Kamil2 سلوى ابراهيم
Journal: Adab Al-Kufa مجلة اداب الكوفة ISSN: 19948999 Year: 2017 Volume: ج2 Issue: 33 Pages: 9-54
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Broadly defined, manipulation is a kind of covert behavior or a means, whether linguistic or non- linguistic, used by manipulators in certain communicative encounters to achieve their goals, desires, and interests regardless of the perceptual, cognitive , and emotional feelings of their interlocutors. In this regard, they utilize myriad devices, especially those dishonest ones, like cunning, lying, making tricks, deceiving, and the like. To be successful in doing so, manipulators should have a cognition which enables them to pursue their own interests through making use of some aspects of human cognition, notably reasoning, checking for likeliness, and emotions. As such, manipulators play on their targets’ weaknesses to influence their motivation, beliefs, emotions, and reaction. For some scholars, manipulation is a psychologicalissuebecause it can be considered as a kind of human behavior or cognition. For others, it falls within the region of cognitive pragmatics since it is basically based on the use of cognition in relation to context. In this study, as far as language use is concerned, it is argued that manipulation is more pragmatic than psychological in nature. Besides, it is characterized by pragmatic features other than the cognitive ones. Hence, it is felt, here, that there is a need to reveal those pragmatic aspects to locate its treatment in its right place. This is done by means of identifying the relationship between manipulation and various pragmatic theories and issues.

التلاعب بمعناه الواسع يشير الى نوع من السلوك المبطن او وسيلة لغوية أو غير لغوية يلجأ اليه أو اليها المتلاعبون في مواجهات تواصليةلبلوغ اهدافهم ورغباتهم ومصالحهم بغض النظر عن المشاعر العاطفية والذهنية والادراكية لمن يخاطبونهم.وهم بهذا النطاق يستخدمون تنوعا من الوسائل وخاصة غير النزيهة منها مثل المكر والكذب والتحايل والخداع وما شابه.ولكي ينجحوا في ذلك فعلى المتلاعبين ان يمتلكوا ذهنية تمكنهم من ملاحقة تحقيق مصالحهم الخاصة من خلال الانتفاع من بعض مظاهر الذهنية البشرية وبشكل ملحوظ من اعطاء الحجج والتحقق من الارجحية ومن العواطف.وعلى هذا المنوال يلعب المتلاعبون على نقاط ضعف اهدافهم للتأثير على دوافعهم وارائهم وعواطفهم وردود افعالهم.أما أكاديميا فان التلاعب لبعض المتخصصين مسألة نفسية كونه نوعا من االذهنية البشرية او السلوك البشري.وأما للبعض الاخر فان التلاعب يقع ضمن نطاق التداولية العقلية لأنه بصورة اساسية يستند على استعمال الذهن حسب علاقته بالسياق.وأما للدراسة الحالية وقدر تعلق الأمر باستعمال اللغة فالتلاعب قضية تداولية اكثر منها نفسية.أضافة الى ما تؤمن به هذه الدراسة من ان التلاعب يتصف بصفات تداولية اخرى فضلا عن الخصائص التداولية الذهنية. ومن هنا يأتي الشعور بالحاجة الى كشف هذه الخصائص لوضع التعامل مع التلاعب في مكانه الصحيح وهذا يتحقق من خلال تحديد العلاقة بين التلاعب والقضايا والنظريات التداولية العديدة والمتنوعة


Article
Manipulation of Toil in Frost's Poetry: Interference of Truth and Imagination
(معالجة موضوعة "الجهد" في شعر روبرت فروست: تداخل الحقيقة والخيال)

Author: Ghada Bakr Marie غادة بكر مرعي
Journal: Adab AL Rafidayn اداب الرافدين ISSN: 03782867 Year: 2010 Issue: 58 Pages: 707-717
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

يتناول البحث موضوعة الجهد في بعض قصائد روبرت فروست (1874-1963) مُرَكِّزاً على اثنتين من قصائده وهما (الحصاد) و(أشجار البتولا). فكرة البحث تتلخص في براعة فروست في توحيد الحقيقة والأحلام والخيال كوسيلة للوصول إلى المعرفة والتعلم. وتم هذا باستخدامه دور الصيغ الشعرية في الربط ما بين الرؤية الخيالية والجهد البدني. وينعكس هذا بدوره على ربط متطلبات الحقائق اليومية بخصائص لغة القصيدة الشعرية.


Article
Pattern of penile growth after HCG treatment in sever hypospadias might provide a clue to intra-natal endocrinopathy and pathogenesis

Author: Dr. Saadeldeen Gali. A. (F.I.B.M.S Urology)
Journal: KUFA MEDICAL JOURNAL مجلة الكوفة الطبية ISSN: 1993517X Year: 2012 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 378-385
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Hypospadias is a relatively common congenital anomaly of the penis that arises in 2 to 8 of 1000 live births, often as an isolated anomaly. This anomaly is repaired surgically in the first year of life to improve the cosmetic appearance and establish a glanular position of the urinary meatus for voiding and deposition of semen later in life. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of HCG hormonal manipulation in inducing penile growth in hypospadias boys before surgical repair , and the pattern of this growth and response , in addition to that this thesis try to add more knowledge to the etiology and pathogensis of one of these relatively common urogenital disorder.Patients and methods :-This small series thesis included 16 boys with an age ranged from 3-48 ms who had proximal and penoscrotal hypospadias with sever cordea .All boys received a full course of HCG treatment using the standard WHO protocol of HCG therapy in pediatric age group. The degree and rate of response to HCG therapy together with the pattern of penile growth have been measured and evaluated before and one week after HCG therapy using the student T – test for statistical analysis.Results :-At the end of HCG treatment penile growth has been achieved in all boys. The cordee decreased and penile length increased in all cases. The mean stretched penile length was changed from 18.68 pre HCG to 31.97 post treatment (P value < 0.001). The average penile length was nearly doubled after HCG treatment with an increase of 40% to 180% (mean 83%, P value < 0.001)What was very interesting and major finding that emerge during this study , is that the penile response and growth to HCG treatment was not universal over the whole shaft of the penis, with by far most of increment in penile length occurred proximal to urethral meatus and the percentage of penile growth was 262% (P value < 0.001) proximal to meatus , while it was only 24% not significant (P value > 0.001 ) distal to it . This disproportional penile growth causing the meatus to advance distally in all cases with a mean distal migration of urethral meatus was 9.75 mm (P value < 0.001).Conclusion :- HCG treatment in hypospadias was very effective in achieving sufficient penile growth that might facilitate the surgical outcome, the other finding is that hypospadias even the sever one is not at a fixed stage or degree, but it can easily be manipulated by hormonal treatment in addition to that, this study suggest that post natal response of hyposadias penis to HCG might provide a mirror that reflect its intra natal response during organogenesis and embryogenesis, and this thesis might provide a different insight toward the pathogenesis of hypospadias-chordea complex by diverting more attention and focusing toward a localized endocrinopathy that affect the tissue responsiveness to androgen.

هذه الدراسة أجريت لتقيم فعالية هرمون HCG لتحفيز نمو العضو الذكري لدى الأطفال المصابين بتشوهه المبال التحتاني الشديد قبل التداخل الجراحي ودراسة نمط هذه الاستجابة كما تحاول هذه الدراسة تعزيز إحدى النظريات الجديدة والتي قد تفسر كيفية حدوث هذا ألتشوه أثناء فترة تكوين الجنين. شملت هذه الدراسة التي أجريت في فرع الجراحة البولية ووحدة الجراحة التجميلية في مدينة الصدر الطبية ستة عشر طفلا مصابا بتشوهه المبال التحتاني الشديد. حيث خضع المصابين والذين كانت تتراوح أعمارهم بين ثلاثة أشهر إلى ثمانية وأربعين شهرا جميعا إلى برنامج العلاج الهرموني بهرمون HCG قبل أجراء التداخل الجراحي وقد خلصت هذه الدراسة بان هرمون HCG فعال جدا في تحفيز نمو العضو الذكري لدى جميع المرضى كما بينت هذه الدراسة بأنه وباستخدام العلاج الهرموني فان شدة الانحراف الولادي في العضو الذكري المصاحب لهذا ألتشوهه بدأت بالتناقص لدى جميع المرضى الخاضعين للعلاج مما يسهل أجراء عملية التداخل الجراحي كما بينت هذه الدراسة بان نمط النمو الحاصل في العضو الذكري بتحفيز الهرمون المذكور يكون معظمة في الجزء الداني لفتحة الاحليل أما الجزء القاصي من فتحة الاحليل فقد أظهرت الدراسة ممانعة أو عدم استجابة الأنسجة لهذا الهرمون وهذا النمط في النمو قد يفسر الأسباب التكوينية لهذا ألتشوهه خلال فترة تكوين الجنين.


Article
A Critical Discourse Analysis of the 2012 American Presidential Election Debates
تحليل خطاب نقدي للمناظرات الرئاسية لانتخابات 2012 الأمريكية

Authors: Munthir Manhal Muhammed --- Mohammed Sami Flaifel
Journal: Journal of the College of Languages مجلة كلية اللغات ISSN: 20479279 25203517 Year: 2015 Issue: 32 Pages: 1-26
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study discusses the Critical Discourse Analysis of 2012 American Presidential Election Debate’. The researcher adopts a model proposed by Van Dijk’s (2006 d). Six ideological categories have been selected within the overall strategies of the ideological square are used. The categories are of three levels of discourse structure : (the meaning, the argumentation, and the rhetoric) .They have shown effective criteria for detecting the most disguised systems of racism and manipulation. Based on the analysis, it can be concluded that the elite discourses of candidates contribute to the reproduction of domination, Orientalism, and Islamophobia. This can be applied to the three levels of discourse structures by focusing on the ideological polarized structures of positive self-presentation of ῾us’ (civilized and peaceful) and negative other-presentation of ῾them’ (barbarian and terrorists) as means of mind controlling and manipulating the audience.

تعتمد هذه الدراسة على تبني تحليل خطاب نقدي للمناظرات الرئاسية لانتخابات 2012 الأمريكية‟.للسبر في أغوار ماهية الآليات الأيدولوجية المتبعة من قبل المرشحين في نظرتهم للآخر تبنى الباحث في أسلوبه البحثي منهجا منتقى من أبحاث العالم فان دايك (d2006). حيث تم انتخاب ست تقنيات ضمن الاستراتيجية العامة للمربع الأيديولوجي بما يخدم أهداف الدراسة ويؤسس لفرضياتها، وقد أظهرت الأدوات المنتمية إلى ثلاثة مستويات مختلفة من بنية الخطاب (المعنى، الجدال، البلاغة) معايير فاعلة في الكشف عن نظم العنصرية والخداع الأكثر خفاء. بناءاً على نتائج تحليل هذه الدراسة نخلص إلى أن الخطاب النخبوي من كلا المرشحين قد ساهم في إعادة إنتاج الهيمنة، وكراهية الشرق، والخوف من الإسلام بعد تطبيقها على ثلاثة مستويات من الخطاب من خلال التركيز على الاستقطاب الأيديولوجي بين العرض الإيجابي للذات، والتقديم السلبي للآخر كوسيلة من وسائل التحكم والتلاعب في عقل الجمهور.


Article
Development of an Inverted Optical Tweezers with Full Motional Control

Author: H. Sridar
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء التطبيقية ISSN: 18132065 23091673 Year: 2011 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 19-25
Publisher: iraqi society for alternative and renewable energy sources and techniques الجمعية العراقية لمصادر وتقنيات الطاقة البديلة والمستجدة

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Abstract

A working optical tweezers setup was created and optimized by maximizing the gradient force. Yeast cells were successfully trapped and manipulated three-dimensionally. The trap’s radius of control was approximately 5μm and the stability of the trap lasted greater than an hour. Thirty percent power efficiency was achieved by careful alignment procedures. The tweezers exerted a 0.9pN force when manipulating particles on the xy-plane and a 0.4pN force when manipulating particles up the z-axis. Both forces were within the required range for optical manipulation techniques in the biological field


Article
The Treatment of Flexion Contracture of the Knee Joint in Hemophilic Patients Using Gradual Manipulation and Serial Casting

Author: Ali Bakir Al-Hilli
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 3 Pages: 407-412
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND :Hemophilia is a bleeding disorder caused by deficiency of clotting factor VIII or IX; it is inherited as sex linked recessive pattern. Musculoskeletal complications in haemophilic patients are disabling. Bleeding in to the large joints and soft tissues are associated with arthritic changes in the joints and contractures in the soft tissues. Deformities of the large joints especially flexion contractures are commonly seen in knee joint. It is important to prevent deformities, treat existing contractures and prevent recurrence to improve the patient's quality of life. OBJECTIVE:This is a retrospective study analyzing the effectiveness of gradual manipulation and serial casting for treatment of knee joint flexion contracture in Hemophilic Iraqi patients.PATIENTS AND METHOD:We included ten Hemophilic patients type A, treated between 2006-2008, six with unilateral and four with bilateral knee joint flexion contractures, excluding patients with multiple joint contractures other than knees, have severe arthritic changes, have subluxated unstable knees or have acute bleeding. Their age is between 16-22 years, the duration of deformity is 4-9 months, knee flexion contractures between 20-80 degrees and all of them don’t have significant pain but their daily life is severely restricted by the deformity. Under factor cover, general anaesthesia and haematological care, we started serial manipulations and plaster of Paris casting, the number of casts is between 2-6 casts, till we get straight knees. After that splints are prescribed for the patient and followed up for a minimum 6 months, physiotherapy to strengthen the muscles around knee is initiated from the start and gradually increasing after the application of the removable splints.RESULTS:We have ten patients with fourteen deformed knees, after manipulations and serial casting 8 knees get full correction, and 6 knees still have less than 10 degrees of flexion which is acceptable for the patients, all the patients have improvement of their quality of life and walk free of pain after 2 months.CONCLUSION:Serial manipulation and casting under general anaesthesia is a very good maneuver to correct knee joint flexion contractures in hemophilic patients.


Article
The Combined Effect of Rib with Single Large Eddy Break Up Devices on Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristic of Turbulent Flow in Rectangular Duct

Authors: Ekhlas Mohammed Fayyedh --- Moayed R. Hasan --- Ali Falah Mohammed
Journal: AL-NAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة النهرين للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 25219154 / eISSN 25219162 Year: 2017 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 281-291
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

An experimental investigation has been performed to study the effect of combined artificially roughened (ribs) with and without single Large Eddy Break-Up Devices, on flow and heat transfer characteristic of fully developed turbulent flow in rectangular duct. The aspect ratio of rectangular duct is 10, hydraulic diameter 72.72 mm, relative roughness pitch (P/e) 10 and relative roughness height (e/Dh) 0.05. The rib was in the form of circular shape with diameter of (4mm) which was mounted on heated wall of duct at spanwise direction. The experiments have been conducted by varying airflow rate in terms of Reynolds number ranging from 3.2x104 to 6.2x104 and constant heat flux of 600W/m2. The heat transfer and friction factor of the flow for rib and combined method were compared with those of a smooth duct under similar experimental conditions. It has been found that the combined method (rib with single Large Eddy Break-Up Devices) has significant effect on the friction factor and heat transfer with decreasing in friction factor with percent(1.2) and increasing Nusselt number with (4.1). Correlations for Nusselt number and friction factor in terms of (Reynolds number and Large Eddy Break-Up Devices) parameters are found which reasonably correlate the experimental data.


Article
THE COMBINED EFFECT OF RIB WITH TANDEM LARGE EDDY BREAK UP DEVICES ON FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER CHARACTERISTIC OF TURBULENT FLOW IN RECTANGULAR DUCT : PART B
دراسة التاثير المركب للعوائق المستعرضة واجهزة تفكك الدوامة الكبيرة على خصائص انتقال الحرارة للجريان المضطرب داخل مجرى مستطيل

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Abstract

An experimental investigation was carried out to study the effect of Large Eddy Breakup Devices with of circular ribs on one heated wall of a rectangular duct with fully developed turbulent flow , on heat transfer and flow characteristic. The artificially roughened duct has an aspect ratio (W/H) of 10, hydraulic diameter of 72.72 mm, relative roughness pitch (P/e) of 10 and relative roughness height (e/Dh) of 0.05. The experiments were conducted by varying airflow rate in terms of Reynolds number ranging from 3.2x104 to 6.2x104 and constant heat flux of 600 W/m2.The heat transfer and friction characteristics of the duct were compared with those of a smooth duct under similar experimental conditions. It was found that there was a significant enhancement of Nusselt number for combined high Reynolds number (2.6) and friction factor (3.47).

تم اجراء دراسة عملية للتحقق في تأثير كل من أجهزة تفكك لدوامة الكبيرة للأسطح الساخنة مع عوائق مستعرضة ذات مقطع دائري داخل قناة ذات مقطع مستطيل للجريان المضطرب على خصائص انتقال الحرارة والجريان, المجرى الهوائي ذات نسبة باعيه (W/H =10)قطر هيدروليكي 72.72ملم ، استخدم انابيب اسطوانية ذات مقطع دائري بقطر 4 ملم و المسافة بينهما 40 ملم ، نسبة الخشونة تمثل (p/e=10)، ارتفاع الخشونة النسبي(e/Dh=0.05) . تم إجراء التجارب لمدى من عدد رينولد تتراوح بين ( 3.2x104- 6.2x104) تمت مقارنة نتائج السطح الخشن بوجود او عدم وجود اجهزة تفكيك الدوامة الكبيرة تحت فيض حراري ثابت في تحسين انتقال الحرارة ومعامل الاحتكاك. لوحظ ان عدد نزلت تزداد بمقدار(2.6) اما معامل الاحتكاك فيتحسن بمقدار (3.47) بوجود اجهزة تفكك الدوامة الكبيرة مع العوائق العرضية .


Article
REPRODUCIBILITY OF CENTRIC JAW RELATION RECORD FOR EDENTULOUS PATIENTS
مدى تكرار العلاقة المركزية للمريض الادرد باستعمال الغلق الكيفي و بواسطة يد طبيب الاسنان

Authors: ABDUL QADIR M QADIR عبدالقادر محمد قادر --- SHUKRIYA HUSSEIN HABIB شكرية حسين حبيب --- MUNTHER KAZANJI منذر قازنجي
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: ISSN: 20717334 (online)/ ISSN: 20717326 (Print) Year: 2014 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 61-67
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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Abstract

ABSTRACTBackground and objectives Centric jaw relation still remains one of the controversial issues in prosthodontics. The aim of this study was to measure the variability of centric relation records utilizing three clinically accepted methods: Swallowing, chin point guidance andbimanual manipulation.Methods 30 edentulous (45-65) aged patients were participated in this study and divided into 3 groups, 10 for each method. The centric jaw relation was recorded by unguided swallowing and a midline was marked on graph paper fixed on the anterior and lateral sections of the bite section rims. 5 records were obtained from each patient per method. The deviation of midline in the medio-lateral axis were measured by the digital Vernier to the nearest 0.01mm and magnifier mounted on fixed distance from using the articulator. Data were extracted and analyzed statistically using SPSS version.Results Variability within subjects ranged from 0.5mm for the swallowing method to 1.5mm of the chin point guidance. There was no statistically difference (p > 0.05) among the three methods for measuring lateral displacement. The bimanual manipulation showed the most reproducible method (P< 0.05).Conclusion based on the results of this study, it may be concluded that the studied techniques demonstrated different variability degrees. The bimanual manipulation method can be considered the most reproducible from the three methods.

خلفية وأهداف البحث:ان الاطباق المركزي للمريض الأدرد كان ولا ي ا زل موضوع مناقشة. وهو قياس الفروقات في الاطباق المركزي باستعمال ثلاث طرق مقبولة سريري اً وهذه الطرق هي: البلع، نقطة الذقن، وبواسطة اليدين.الطريقة:٦٥ ) سنة، وقسم العدد الى ٣ مجاميع ( ١٠ ) لكل طريقة. تم قياس الاطباق المركزي – تم اش ا رك ٣٠ مريض ادرد بعمر ( ٤٥ الكيفي وحدد خط الوسط على ورق بياني، وأخذ ( ٥) قياسات لكل مريض. تم قياس الانح ا رف عن الخط الوسطي بواسطة .(SPSS) الى ٠,٠١ من المليمتر، تم تحليل النتائج باستعمال برنامج (Vernia)النتائج:كانت الانح ا رفات عن الخط الوسطي تت ا روح بين ( ٠,٥ ) من المليمتر لطريقة البلع و ( ١,٠ ) مليمتر لطريقة الذقن، لم يكن (P  للطرق الثلاثة المستعملة. طريقة استعمال اليدين أعطت أكثر تك ا رر للق ا رءات عن (P  هناك فرق معنوي ( 05.0.05)الاستنتاجات:بناء اً على النتائج التي جمعت استنتج ان هناك فروقات غير معنوية بين الطرق الثلاثة ولكن طريقة استعمال اليدينلطبيب الاسنان في حالة الغلق المركزي هي أحسن الطرق وأكثر طريقة اعطت نتائج متكررة.


Article
MANIPULATION OF FRACTURED NASAL BONES UNDER LOCAL ANESTHESIA, ITS EFFICIENCY AND PATIENT SATISFACTION

Author: Sajjad Halboos Mohammed Almansoori
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2018 Volume: 24 Issue: 2 Pages: 77-80
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

MB,ChB, FICMS, CABS (ENT), Consultant ENT Surgeon, Al-Sadr Teaching Hospital, Basrah, IRAQ.Abstract The nose is the most prominent structure in human face, making it more susceptible to trauma which may reach more than one third of all facial injuries. Although fracture nose is a common surgical problem, very few studies are conducted in Iraq on it. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of local anesthesia in fracture nose manipulation and to assess the degree of patient’s satisfaction from the functional and esthetic point of view. The majority of patients attended ENT department were males (68.5%) lying in the age group between 21–30 years and the reason for their injuries was personal assault. Waiting for complete resolution of edema results in some complications such as bleeding and pain. Fracture nose manipulation under local anesthesia gives high degree of satisfaction both for the functional (83.3%) and esthetic (88.9%) point of view, so this procedure can be recommended in ENT clinical practice in the view of these results as it is more safe, time saving and cost effective.

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