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Article
A comparison study of saliva content before and after menopause

Authors: Shama Abd-Alazez شيماء عبدالعزيز --- Buthena Abass Frhan بثينة عباس فرحان --- Ferdous Abass Jabir فردوس عباس جابر
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Medical Journal مجلة القادسية الطبية ISSN: 18170153 Year: 2011 Volume: 7 Issue: 12 Pages: 57-65
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Background:- In recent year saliva test is used instead of blood test in many medical fields for being more accurate and not invasive, for example it is used for evaluation of the benefit of using hormonal replacement therapy as treatment in post menopausal women. Objective:- As relatively little is known about the effect of age on salivary composition, the aim of this study is to compare between saliva content before and after menopause for some of biochemical markers which are used for diagnosis of many medical condition and risk groups. Methods :- Sixty-eight female were participate in this study, divided for two groups the first group consist of thirty-four female in premenopausal age and another thirty-four female represent the second group postmenopausal.Salivary samples were taken to assess urea level, glucose level, uric acid and cholesterol levels. Results:- The results shows that urea level along with cholesterol level were significantly higher in postmenopausal women (P<0.01) while uric acid and glucose shows no significant difference (P>0.01).

في السنوات الأخيرة وفي العديد من الحقول الطبية بدأ الاعتماد على فحص اللعاب بدل الدم لأغراض التشخيص يكون أكثر استخدام كونه ومن الناحية الطبية أدق ولا يتسبب بالألم ومن ضمن هذه المجالات استخدامه لتقييم مدى الاستفادة من العلاج الهرموني للنساء بعد سن اليأس . ما نملكه من المعلومات حول التغيرات المحتمل حدوثها لمكونات اللعاب في المراحل العمرية المختلفة هي قليلة جدا" . ولهذا كان الهدف من هذه الدراسة هي إجراء مقارنة بين محتويات اللعاب للنساء قبل سن اليأس ومحتوياته بعد سن اليأس مركزين في البحث على بعض المتغيرات الكيميائية المهمة لأغراض التشخيص للعديد من الأمراض . اشتركت في هذا البحث 68 أمرآة مقسمات إلى مجموعتين أساسيتين الأولى للنساء قبل سن اليأس وكانت تشمل 34 فتاة وتتراوح أعمارهن بين 18-22 سنة ، وشملت المجموعة الثانية 34 امرأة بعد سن اليأس تراوحت أعمارهن بين 52-66 سنة .. تم جمع العينات من اللعاب لأغراض الفحص (اليوريا ، الكلوكوز ، اليورك اسد وأخيرا" الكولسترول ) أوضحت النتائج إن مستوى اليوريا مع الكولسترول كان عاليا" وبدلالة إحصائية معنوية لدى النساء بعد سن اليأس بينما لايوجد فرق في مستويات (اليورك اسد والكلوكوز (P 51-25 لدى المجموعتين .

Keywords

saliva --- menopause


Article
Age at Natural Menopause and Factors Influencing its Timing in a Sample of Iraqi Women In Baghdad
سن اليأس الطبيعي والعوامل المؤثرة في توقيته لدى عينة من النساء العراقيات في بغداد

Author: Lamia Dhia Al-Deen د. لمياء ضياء الدين بهاء الدين
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2009 Volume: 22 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-8
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Aim of the study: This study was an attempt to determine the age at natural menopause and factors influencing its timing in a sample of Iraqi women in Baghdad.Subjects & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during the period extending from 12th of November 2006 to the 1st of April 2007. Five hundred women with age range of 46-57 years were included in the study. The data were collected by direct interview using a questionnaire which was constructed to collect information about some sociodemographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, weight and height were measured for each woman and the body mass index was calculated. The study was carried out in Al-Sadder general hospital (Al-Qadisyia hospital), Fatema Al-Zahraa hospital (Al-Habibiya hospital) and Al- Rafidain bank/main branch in Baghdad.Results: The result of the study shows that the mean age at menopause was 47.96 years and the median was 48 years. Out of the 500 women who represent the whole sample, 210 (42%) of them were at natural menopause .About three quarters (79%) of the sample were either illiterate or had elementary education. Regarding the relation of socioeconomic status to the age at menopause, educational level and occupational status of both women and their husbands were significantly associated with age at menopause. Concerning the relation of some reproductive characteristics to the age at menopause, the study shows that the mean age at menopause for nullipara and grandmultipara were later than those women with 1- 4 children (47.4±3.7, 48.3± 4.0 and 45.7± 4.3 respectively) and these differences were statistically significant. All other variables (such as marital status, handedness, body mass index, age at menarche, and regularity of period, didn’t show significant relation with age at menopause. Conclusion: Average age of Menopause was 47.96 years. Socioeconomic status, educational level occupational status, and parity were statistically associated with age of MenopauseKey Words: Menopause, Average age

الهدف :هذه الدراسة هي محاولة لمعرفة سن اليأس الطبيعي والعوامل المؤثرة في توقيته لدى عينة من النساء العراقيات في بغداد.طريقة البحث :أجريت هذه الدراسة المقطعية خلال الفترة الممتدة من الثاني عشر من شهر تشرين الثاني 2006 ولغاية الاول من شهر نيسان 2007. تضمنت العينة خمسمائة أمراة تتراوح أعمارهن بين 46-57 سنة . جمعت المعلومات من خلال اجراء مقابلة مباشرة باستعمال استمارة استبيان والتي نظمت لجمع معلومات تخص بعض المتغيرات الاجتماعية والديموغرافية ،الانجابية ومتغيرات تخص نمط الحياة،تم قياس الوزن والطول واحتساب مؤشر كتلة الجسم.اجريت هذه الدراسة في مستشفى الصدر العام (مستشفى القادسية) ، مستشفى الزهراء ( مستشفى الحبيبية ) ومصرف الرافدين/ الفرع الرئيسي في بغداد.النتائج: أظهرت الدراسة أن العمر الوسطي لسن اليأس هو ( 47.96) سنة. من مجموع خمسمائة امراة واللواتي يمثلن كل العينة ، 210 امرأة (42%) منهن كن في سن اليأس الطبيعي. حوالي ثلاث أرباع النساء (79%) كن غير متعلمات أو لديهن تعليم اولي.أظهرت الدراسة وجود علاقة مؤثرة بين المستوى التعليمي ونوع المهنة)لكل من النساء وازواجهن) مع سن اليأس.فيما يخص علاقة بعض المتغيرات الانجابية وسن اليأس، أظهرت الدراسة أن العمر الوسطي لسن اليأس للنساء اللواتي لم ينجبن مطلقا والنساء اللواتي انجبن خمسة اطفال او اكثر ، كان متاخرا عن النساء اللواتي انجبن 1- 4 اطفال (47.4±3.7 , 48.3 ± 4 , 45.7 ± 4.3 سنة بالتعاقب ) وهذه الفروقات كانت مما يعتد به احصائيا . أما المتغيرات الاخرى مثل( الحالة الزوجية، كون المراة تستعمل يدها اليسرى او اليمنى، مؤشر كتلة الجسم، سن البلوغ وانتظام الطمث) لم تظهر علاقة مؤثرة مع سن اليأس. الاستنتاج:- معدل سن الياس هو (47.96) سنة وهناك علاقة معنوية بين الوضع الاقتصادي, المستوى التعلمي, نوع المهنة, وعدد الولادات مع معدل سن اليأس الطبيعي.

Keywords

Menopause --- Average age


Article
Etiology of the oral burning pain and its relationship to sex, age and anatomical sites (Clinical study among a sample of Iraqi patients in Baghdad)

Author: Sabah M. Dhamad صباح ضمد
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: special issue 2 Pages: 70-77
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The studies about oral burning pain are few in Iraq in spite of this disease is a significant commonamong numbers of Iraqi patients, so more information were required in order to avoid its effect and occurrence. Theaim of the current study is to determine the actual causes for the disease by examining a sample of Iraqi patients inBaghdad, in order to evaluate its relationship to the age, sex and the anatomical sites.Subjects and methods: Sixty patients were selected from two hospitals, several specialized dental clinics and publicmedical clinic, in east of Baghdad (Sadder, Jamella and Baladeyate cities). Nineteen patients were excludedbecause they could not continue in this study. The remaining forty one patients, 23 female patients, their agesranged between 25 – 60 years, while the male patients were 18, their ages ranged between 20 – 60 years. Theduration of symptoms of burning inside the oral cavity ranged from 6 months to 3 years . Each patient in this studywas examined clinically to detect any oral lesion may have direct cause for the disease , also patients were askedabout the types of drugs intake , in addition to their psychological conditions . The medical and dental histories weretaken from all examined patients, also all medical and dental reports of the patients were determined. Few results ofdifferent investigations of the examined patients were replaced by new ones, and the others were taken inconsideration for obtaining results for this study. Fasting blood sugar, thyroid function test, histopathologicalexamination and others were examples for such investigations which had been done. The most important finding inthis current study that the cause of oral burning pain in the examined Iraqi sample was mainly multi factorial causesand a few cases were caused by single etiology.Results: This study revealed that the most common causes of the oral burning pain in this Iraqi sample was , hormonalchanges , bad psychological conditions , the side effects of some drugs intake , chronic gastritis in addition to otherfactors. The most anatomical site affected inside the oral cavity was the dorsal portion of the tongue.Conclusion: One conclusion for the current study in some examined cases was found that a hiding cause may play arole in oral burning pain occurrence beside other factors. This study appeared that female patients over 50 yearswere more susceptible to this disease than male patients; also older age groups for both sexes were mostly affected


Article
The influence of menopause on unstimulated salivary flow and subjective oral dryness inrelation to other oral symptoms and salivary gland hypofunction

Author: Sahar H. Alani سحر حمدان
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: special issue 2 Pages: 78-80
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate unstimulated salivary flow rate and oral symptoms inmenopausal women.Materials and Methods: A total of 200 individuals including 100 women in their menopause (case group) and 100men in the same age range (control group) participated in this analytic descriptive investigation. None of thepatients were being treated for any systemic disease or taking any medication. Unstimulated salivary flow rate wasmeasured using the spitting method and the prevalence of oral symptoms was evaluated by filling out aquestionnaire. The results were analyzed with ANOVA, chi-square and Student’s t-test (P<0.05).Results: The average of unstimulated salivary flow rate was 0.127 ml/min (SD=0.057) in women and 0.214 ml/min(SD=0.105) in men. The prevalence of dry mouth was 50% versus32%, difficulty in eating dry foods 31% versus 8%,burning sensation in oral mucosa 3% versus 0%, taste reduction, 4% versus 2% and bitter or metallic taste 16% versus8% in female and male subjects, respectively.Conclusion: A significant difference in salivary flow rate and prevalence of oral symptoms was found between thetwo groups (P<0.05). Reduced salivary flow rate and a high prevalence of oral symptoms in menopausal womenmay be related to the hormonal alterations that occur during this period

Keywords

menopause --- salivary flow


Article
Effects of menopause on serum oxidant status and lipid profile in Mosul city

Author: Bassam N. Aziz بسام
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy المجلة العراقية للصيدلة ISSN: 16802594 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 & 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-8
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Objectives: To study the effect of menopause associated with estrogen deficiency on lipid peroxidation products, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) with evaluation of some antioxidants like, glutathione (GSH) and its relation to lipoprotein levels in women living in Mosul City.Design: Case-control study.Setting: The study was carried out in Al-Salam Teaching Hospital in Mosul City, during the period from January 2008 to April 2008.Patients and Methods: A total of 27 women aged 20–45 years were reported to be premenopausal and 42 women aged 45–60 years were recorded to be postmenopausal. Blood samples were collected for both groups. The assessments of serum malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), estrogen, arylesterase, calcium, total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) were done.Results: There were significant increase in MDA level in women after menopause in comparison with premenopausal age. On the other hand, GSH, estrogen, arylesterase, and calcium levels were significantly decreased. In respect to lipids, total cholesterol, TG, and LDL-c, were significantly increased in opposite to HDL-c, in which was decreased significantly in postmenopausal women in relation to premenopausal subjects.Conclusion: The increase of MDA and the decrease of antioxidants concentrations like gluthathione, estrogen and HDL-c in postmenopausal women could contribute to acceleration of the cellular oxidative damage.

أهداف البحث: دراسة تأثير سن اليأس المصاحبة لانخفاض الاستروجين في نواتج البيروكسدة المتمثلة بالمالونديالديهايد مع قياس بعض مضادات الأكسدة كالكلوتاثايون وعلاقتها بمستويات البروتينات الدهنية في النساء في مدينة الموصل.التصميم: دراسة عينية مقارنة.مكان اجراء البحث والاطار الزمني: نفذت الدراسة في مستشفى السلام التعليمي بمدينة الموصل, خلال الفترة من كانون الثاني 2008 ولغاية نيسان 2008.المرضى وطرق العمل: تضمنت هذه الدراسة 27 امرأة قبل سن اليأس تراوحت أعمارهم من 20-25 سنة , و 42 امرأة بعد سن اليأس تراوحت أعمارهم من 45-60 سنة. أخذت عينات الدم. تم في المجموعتين قياس كل من مستويات مصل دم المالونديالديهايد والكلوتاثايون وهرمون الأستروجين والأريل أستريز والكالسيوم وكمية الكوليستيرول الكلي والشحوم الثلاثية والبروتين الدهني واطئ الكثافة والبروتين الدهني عالي الكثافة.النتائج: أظهرت نتائج هذه الدراسة وجود زيادة معنوية في مستوى المالوندايالديهايد في النساء بعد سن اليأس مقارنة مع تلك المجموعة قبل سن اليأس. من ناحية أخرى, فقد انخفضت معنويا مستويات كل من الكلوتاثايون وهرمون الأستروجين والأريل أستريز والكالسيوم. وفيما يتعلق بالدهون فقد ازدادت معنويا مستويات كل من الكوليستيرول الكلي والشحوم الثلاثية والبروتين الدهني واطئ الكثافة وانخفض البروتين الدهني عالي الكثافة في النساء بعد سن اليأس قياسا للأفراد قبل سن اليأس.الاستنتاج: إن زيادة المالونديالديهايد وانخفاض مستويات مضادات الأكسدة كالكلوتاثايون والأستروجين والبروتين الدهني عالي الكثافة في النساء بعد سن اليأس يمكن أن يساهم في تعجيل التخريب الخلوي التأكسدي.


Article
Periodontal health status in relation to physicochemical characteristics of saliva among pre-menopausal and postmenopausal women in Baghdad city-Iraq

Author: Alhan A.Qasim
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 3 Pages: 121-124
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Menopause can bring oral health problems and also associated with significant adversechanges in the orofacial complex. After menopause, women become more susceptible to periodontaldisease due to deficiency of estrogen hormone. Current study aimed to evaluate the periodontal healthstatus in relation to salivary constituent including pH, flow rate and some elements (Magnesium, Calciumand inorganic phosphorus) of pre and post-menopause women.Materials and Methods: Periodontal health status of 52 women aged 48-50 years old (26 pre-menopauseand 26 post-menopause) were examined including (gingival index, plaque index, calculus index, probingpocket depth and clinical attachment level). Salivary sample was collected for two women groups, pHand flow rate was recorded, and also biochemical analysis was assessed for some salivary elementsinclude (Magnesium, Calcium and inorganic phosphorus). Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis.Results: Salivary pH and flow rate of post-menopause women were found significantly lower than those ofpre-menopause women, where as the mean of gingival index, probing pocket depth and attachmentlevel indices significantly higher in post-menopause women. The level of salivary magnesium ion wassignificantly higher in pre-menopause women; also the level of calcium and inorganic phosphorus waslower in post-menopause women with non-significant difference.Conclusions: This study has shown that the importance of preventive dentistry increases with aging in women


Article
Serum Fetuin-A, A New Potential Biomarker For Diagnosis Of IHD In Menopausal Women.
استخدام فيتوين ا (Fetuin-A) كمؤشر حيوي لتشخيص مرض القلب الأقفاري لدى النساء في سن اليأس.

Authors: Safaa Ali Khudhair --- Arshad N. AL-Dejaly --- Mohammed Emad
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2013 Volume: 3 Issue: 3 Pages: 119-123
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background: The role of inflammation in atherogenesis would suggest, a great deal of work looking for inflammatory markers that are risk factors for IHD. The most extensively examined markers are fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, IL-6, homocysteine, and fetuin-A.Aim of the study: The present study is focusing on role of biomarker fetuin-A in the diagnosis of IHD in menopausal female.Method: This study involved 76 menopause women suffering from IHD (42 patients with AMI and 34 with angina) and 20 healthy menopause women as control. Patients were divided into subgroups according to the presence of DM and hypertension. Serum Fetuin-A level is estimated in each group. Results: There is significant reduction in serum fetuin-A levels in menopausal women with IHD. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension associated with significant decrease in serum fetuin-A levels in menopausal women with IHD.Conclusion: Serum fetuin-A can be used as biomarker for diagnosis of angina and AMI in menopausal women. Both DM and hypertension have detrimental effect on serum fetuin-A levels.

المقدمة: دراسة المؤشرات الحيوية ومساراتها الكيميائية سمح بتطور العديد من الاستراتيجيات الجديدة في تشخيص النساء المصابات بمرض القلب الأقفاري في سن اليأس. احد هذه المؤشرات الحيوية هو .(Fetuin-A)هدف الدراسة: دراسة اهمية المؤشر الحيوي (Fetuin-A) في تشخيص مرض القلب الأقفاري لدى النساء في سن اليأس.منهجية العمل: شملت الدراسة 76 من النساء المصابات بمرض القلب الأقفاري بالإضافة الى 20 من النساء الاصحاء. تم تقسيم المريضات الى عدة مجاميع بناءً على وجود مرض السكري و ارتفاع ضغط ألدم ثم تم قياس مستوى (Fetuin-A) في الدم لدى كافة النساء.ألنتائج: اظهرت الدراسة انخفاض معنوي في مستوى (Fetuin-A) في الدم لدى النساء المصابات بمرض القلب الأقفاري.الاستنتاج: يمكن استخدام (Fetuin-A) كمؤشر حيوي لتشخيص المصابات بمرض القلب الأقفاري.التوصيات: دراسة المؤشر الحيوي (Fetuin-A) في تشخيص مرض القلب الأقفاري لدى الرجال و النساء و في اعمار مختلفة

Keywords

Fetuin-A --- IHD --- DM --- menopause


Article
Evaluation of dental health and thickness of mandibular inferior cortex among menopaused Iraqi cigarette smokers sample by the aid of using digitapanoramic radiography

Authors: Dr. Dujanah S. Al-Abboushi, B.D.S., M.Sc.** د. دجانة العبوسي --- Assist. Prof. Dr. Lamia H. Al-Nakib, B.D.S., M.Sc د. لمياء النقيب
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2010 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 235-244
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

AbstractSmoking is linked to osteoporosis through its anti-estrogenic effect in womenwhich results in premature menopause in smokers and increased bone resorption iscorrelated with estrogen loss in menopause women. The aim of this study is toevaluate the effects of smoking and hormonal changes on the thickness of mandibularinferior cortex and the dentition status in both maxilla and mandible (DMFT) inmenopausal females and to estimate the value of panoramic radiographic findings inassessing the possibility of latent osteoporosis. Panoramic images for 80 healthy,median stature, smokers and non-smokers Iraqi female subjects aged (20-35) yearspremenopausal and (45-60) years menopause was done, then the thickness ofmandibular inferior cortex and (DMFT) was evaluated. The results showed thatpanoramic radiographic measurements are considered as indicator of bone turnoverand the dentist is able to identify smokers and non-smokers postmenopausal femaleswith increase risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis by using dental panoramicradiography which is a simple valuable screening tool.


Article
ASSOCIATION OF DYSLIPIDEMIA AND OBESITY AFTER MENOPAUSE

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Background: Ageing and hormonal changes in menopause are factors which may play the most important role in the development of all events of this stage of women's life. Of importance in this respect is obesity and related events as insulin resistance, oxidative stress, dyslipidemia and consequent increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease.Objective: To evaluate the association of dyslipidemia with the development of obesity and related events as lipid peroxidation after menopause, and to correlate the different parameters with each other.Methods: Thirty seven premenopausal women aged (33.95±7.9 years) and 41 postmenopausal women aged (59.9±7.2 years) were involved in this study. All were normal and without a previous history of any disease or illness. Blood specimens were collected after 12 hour fast for measurement of serum lipids (total cholesterol TC, Triglycerides TG, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C) by enzymatic spectrophotometric methods. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was estimated by calculation. The athrogenic index (AI) indicates the ratio of LDL-C to HDL-C, while sex hormones (estradiol, E2, follicle stimulating hormone, FSH and luteinizing hormone, LH) and oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) were measured by ELISA methods. All participants were subjected to anthropometric measurements including body mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC).Results:Marked significant increase in BMI and WC in the postmenopausal women as compared with the premenopausal women and was associated with a significant low E2, high serum TG, TC, LDL-C, AI and ox-LDL with low HDL-C.Conclusion: Changes in serum levels of sex hormones at menopause may be the trigger for the development of post-menopausal obesity, dyslipidemia and elevated Ox-LDL, and that at a given age all these factors should be considered for evaluation of body fat distribution and related health risks. Key Words: menopause, obesity, dyslipidemia, sex hormones, ox-LDL

Keywords

menopause --- obesity --- dyslipidemia --- sex hormones --- ox-LDL


Article
اتزان بعض العناصر النادرة لدى النساء بعد سن اليأس

Authors: داخل غاني عمران --- سارة حاتم عجيل
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2015 Volume: 23 Issue: 3 Pages: 110-117
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Menopause marks the time in women's life when her menstruation stop and she is no longer fertile because of exhaustion of ovarian follicles and sharply decrease in ovarian production of estrogen and progesterone . The present study was designated to determinate some trace elements levels such as (Cu+2 , Zn+2 , Mg+2) of postmenopausal women . A total number used in this study was 130 women , 100 women were postmenopause and subdivided into four age groups (46-50 year, 51-55 year , 56-60 year , and 61-65 year) . Thirteen women were premenopause ,used as a control group, their ages ranged between 20-30 years. In all age groups of postmenopausal women , it have been found that the levels of estradiol hormone were progressioly decreased (p<0.05) when compared with control group .The present study involved determination specific and essential trace elements, levels of copper explained a significant decrease (p<0.05) in all age groups and a significant increase (p<0.05) of zinc levels in postmenopausal women. values of magnesium were insignificantly different (p>0.05) in all age groups of postmenopausal women when compared with control group.

يتميز سن اليأس لدى النساء بتوقف دورة الحيض (Menstruation) وتصبح الانثى غير خصبة بسبب فقدان جميع الحويصلات المبيضية (Ovarian follicles) وكذلك حصول انخفاض شديد لهرموني الاستروجين والبروجسترون , لذلك صممت الدراسة الحالية لقياس تركيز بعض العناصر النادرة مثل النحاس والزنك والمغنسيوم لدى الاناث في سن بعد اليأس (Postmemopausal women) اجريت الدراسة الحالية في مستشفى الاسكندرية العام في محافظة بابل ومختبرات كلية العلوم للبنات وكلية العلوم في جامعة بابل وشملت الدراسة فحص 130 امرأة , منها 100 امرأة في سن بعد اليأس وقد قسمت هذه المجموعة الى اربعة فئات عمرية الاولى(50-46 سنة) والثانية (55-51 سنة) والثالثة (60-56 سنة) والرابعة ( 65-61 سنة) . كذلك شملت الدراسة اختبار 30 امرأة في سن الانجاب كمجموعة سيطرة , اذ تراوحت اعمارهن بين 30-20 سنة .بينت قيم هرمون الاستراديول انخفاضا معنويا (p<0.05) لدى جميع الفئات العمرية للنساء بعد سن اليأس عند مقارنتها مع النساء قبل سن اليأس . تضمنت الدراسة الحالية قياس تركيز بعض العناصر النادرة (Trace elements) في المصل , اذ لوحظ حصول انخفاض معنوي (p<0.05) في قيم النحاس (Cu+2) المصلي في جميع الفئات العمرية بينما حصل ارتفاع معنوي (p<0.05) في قيم الزنك (Zn+2) في الفئتان الاولى والثانية و حصل انخفاض معنوي p<0.05 في الفئات العمرية الثالثة والرابعة , بينما تبين عدم حصول اختلاف معنوي (p>0.05) في قيم المغنسيوم (Mg+2) لدى جميع النساء في سن اليأس عند مقارنتها مع مجموعة السيطرة .

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