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Article
Frequency of Metabolic Syndrome in a Sample of Adult Diabetics in Baghdad
نسبة انتشار المتلازمة الايضية في عينة مرضى السكر البالغين في مدينة بغداد

Author: Faisal Gh. Al-Rubaye د. فيصل غازي الربيعي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2011 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 12-16
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

AbstractBackground: The metabolic syndrome (MS) which is characterized by risk of developing diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is becoming an increasingly recognized disorder with an age- adjusted prevalence of 23.7%. In Iraq, there is little data concerning metabolic syndrome hence this study come to add some information about MS and to find the frequency of metabolic syndrome among Iraqi sample of patients with type 2 diabetes attending National Diabetes Centre of Al-Mustansiriya University.Method: This is a cross sectional study on 400 cases of diabetes mellitus who attended the National Diabetic centre/ Al-Mustansiriya university for a period of 6 months. All cases were examined by a consultant physician. All the patients were interviewed and blood pressure is examined, BMI was calculated and lipid profile measuring TG and HDL was done.Results: The prevalence of MS among diabetics in this study was 38.7%. The main factor of metabolic syndrome was diabetes followed by hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia. Females in this study were more prone to have metabolic syndrome; male: female ratio 1:2. Those in the age group 60-69 had the highest frequency of metabolic syndrome. Those with BMI 30-40 had the highest frequency of metabolic syndrome.Conclusion: This study concludes that early diagnosis and aggressive treatment is needed for metabolic syndrome to avoid cardiovascular complications. Key word: DM, metabolic syndrome.

الملخص: الخلفية: المتلازمة الايضية والتي تتميز باضطراب السكري وامراض القلب و جهاز الدوران اصبحت مرضا معروفا بازدياده مع نسبة انتشار تصل الى 23.7% . في العراق هناك القليل من المعلومات حول المتلازمة الايضية ولهذا هذه الدراسة وجدت لاضافة معلومات حول المتلازمة الايضية وايجاد نسبة انتشارها في عينة من المصابين البالغين بمرضى السكري.طريقة العمل: دراسة مقطعية تمت على 400 حالة من المصابين البالغين بمرضى السكري والذين كانوا يراجعون المركز الوطني لعلاج السكري – الجامعة المستنصرية لمدة 6 أشهر. جميع الحالات تم فحصهم من قبل الاختصاصي، وتم مقابلة جميع المرضى، وتم قياس ضغط الدم الشرياني، وتم حساب دليل كتلة الجسم، وتم قياس نسبة الدهون لدى جميع المرضى.النتائج: كانت نسبة انتشار المتلازمة الايضية في هذه العينة 38,7%. كان اضطراب السكري في الدم متبوعا بارتفاع ضغط الدم متبوعا بالسمنة وزيادة الدهون في الدم اكثر شيوعا في هذه المتلازمة. كانت النساء اكثر عرضة للاصابة بالمتلازمة الايضية حيث كانت نسبة الذكور : الاناث =2:1. كان المرضى ضمن عمر 60-69 هم الاكثر في هذه المتلازمة الايضية. وكان حلول الكتلة الجسمية 30-40 ممن لديهم المتلازمة الايضية الاكثر انتشارا.الاستنتاج: تخلص هذه الدراسة الى ضرورة التشخيص المبكر والعلاج الشديد لحالة المتلازمة الايضية لتجنب المضاعفات على جهاز الدورة الدموية.

Keywords

DM --- metabolic syndrome.


Article
METABOLIC SYNDROME AND COLORECTAL CANCER IN DUHOK, KURDISTAN IRAQ
متلازمة الايض وسرطان القولون والمستقيم في دهولك، كوردستان - العراق

Authors: INTISAR SALIM PITY أنتصار سالم بتي --- DHIA JAAFAR AL-TIMIMI ضياء جعفر التميمي --- SHERWAN FERMAN SALIH شيروان فرمان صالح
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: ISSN: 20717334 (online)/ ISSN: 20717326 (Print) Year: 2016 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 10-20
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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Background: Increasing evidence arguing the association between metabolic syndrome andcolorectal cancer in general population is in progress. Since there is a lack of information aboutthis issue in Duhok population, the present study was conducted to investigate the associationbetween metabolic syndrome and its components in patients with colorectal cancer.Methods: A case control study was conducted on 158 subjects, 79 patients with histologicallydiagnosed colorectal cancer and 79 apparently healthy subjects. Demographic information wascollected for all subjects through an interview. Components of metabolic syndrome includingabdominal waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), fasting serum glucose (FSG),triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-ch) were measured.Results: Of the seventy nine patients with colorectal cancer, 23 (29.1%) had metabolicsyndrome as compared to 20 (25.3%) of the healthy subjects, with rates of 20.2% and 7.6% formales and 8.9% and 17.7% for females, respectively. Patiexhibited a significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than did the healthy subjects(odds ratio= 2.08, p= 0.024).Conclusion: Patients with colorectal cancer may be associated with increased risk of metabolicsyndrome in a Duhok population, particularly among males and older age group.

الهدف: هناك زيادة في الأدلة حول العلاقة بين متلازمة الأيض وسرطان القولون والمستقيم في عموم السكان، وبسبب نقص المعلومات حول هذه المشكلة لدى سكان دهوك أجريت هذه الدراسة بهدف تحليل العلاقة بين متلازمة الأيض ومكوناته لدى المرضى الذين يعانون من سرطان القولون والمستقيم.طرق البحث: أجريت الدراسة من نمط الحالات والشواهد على 158 شخص، 79 منهم مريض بسرطان القولون والمستقيم تم تشخيصهم بالفحص النسيجي و79 أشخاص أصحاء. تم جمع المعلومات السكانية لجميعهم من خلال المقابلة المباشرة مع قياس مكونات متلازمة الأيض بما في ذلك محيط الخصر، ضغط الدم، نسبة غلوكوز الدم، الشحوم الثلاثية والكوليسترول من نوع البروتين الدهني العالي الكثافة.النتائج: من مجموع التسعة وسبعين مريض بسرطان القولون والمستقيم، 23 (29.1٪) منهم كانت لديهم متلازمة الأيض بالمقارنة مع 20 (25.3٪) من الأصحاء، مع معدلات 20.2٪ و7.6٪ للذكور و8.9٪ و 17.7٪ للإناث، على التوالي. تبين بأن المرضى من الفئة العمرية ستون سنة فأكثر يعانون من متلازمة الأيض بمعدلات أعلى بكثير من الأصحاء (نسبة الأرجحية = 2.08، P = 0.024).الاستنتاج: قد تكون زيادة خطر الإصابة بمتلازمة الأيض مرتبطة بمرضى سرطان القولون والمستقيم لدى سكان محافظة دهوك، وخاصة بين الذكور وكبار السن.


Article
Serum Uric Acid Level in Metabolic syndrome

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Abstract

AbstractIn this paper we present results of a study carried out to explore the association of serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome .Serum uric acid level among 100 patients with metabolic syndrome attending An- Nassirrhya General Hospital for non cardiac complaint was found to be higher than normal level and control group (405.98micromole/L., 378.51 micromole/L. respectively).serum uric acid level have a direct relationship with the number of metabolic syndrome components with significant higher levels among those with hypertriglyceridemia.


Article
Assessment of Neck Circumference Measurement among Type 2 Diabetic

Author: *Hayder Sabah Hasan ,M.B.CH.B., M.Sc.
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2012 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 41-45
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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health problem in both developed and developing countries. Traditional obesity indices as body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip-ratio are well known measures to identify obese subjects, however, neck circumference as an index of upper-body obesity was found to be a simple and time-saving screening measure that can be used to identify obesity and the likelihood of developing metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients.Aim: to investigate the relationship of neck circumference (NC) to obesity and metabolic syndrome in Iraqi subjects with type 2 diabetes.Methods: The study group included 90 type 2 diabetic subjects (48 men and 42 women) aged 30-68 years. The subjects were those who attending The Specialized Center for Endocrinology and Diabetes/Baghdad. Main indicators studied included Neck Circumference (NC), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and lipoprotein levels.Results: Pearson's correlation coefficients indicated a significant association between NC and body circumference, and waist-hip-ren and from 0.014 to less than 0.0001 in women). Also NC is positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), triglycerides (TGA), fasting blood glucose level (p value from 0.092 to less than 0.0001). Cross tabulation between NC and BMI indicated that NC identified obese persons with 100% sensitivity in men and 90% in women, also a cross tabulation between NC and metabolic syndrome indicated that NC can identify metabolic syndrome with 100% sensitivity in both men and women. Metabolic syndrome was identified according to a modified criteria proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII).mass index, waist atio (p <0.0001 in mConclusion: Neck circumference is positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip-ratio, and positively correlated with components of metabolic syndrome in Iraqi individuals with type 2 diabetes. Accordingly, the measurement of neck circumference could be useful in clinical screening for obese persons and for persons who are at risk of developing metabolic syndrome.Keywords: neck circumference, obesity, metabolic syndrome.


Article
Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Schizophrenic Patients

Authors: Ali Obaid Al-Hamzawi --- Aqeel Reheem Hassan --- Naeem Shami Aboed
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2015 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 161-173
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Metabolic syndrome (MS) & other cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in schizophrenic patients. Patients are at risk for premature mortality & overall have limited access to physical health care. To date there have been scarce studies that provide estimates of MS in schizophrenic patients in Iraq. The aim of the study is to examine the prevalence of MS & related factors in schizophrenic patients.By using a case-control design we recruited100 patients out of 118 with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were attending outpatient department of Al-Diwaniya Teaching Hospital during the period between1st March to 15th December 2013,. The MS prevalence was assessed based on National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Comparative analysis was performed between patients & 100 participants as representative of general population. the study revealed that the overall prevalence of MS in schizophrenic patients was (27%). It is significantly higher with obesity, smoking, family history of obesity. Waist circumference, low High Density Lipoprotein & raised blood pressure showing a significant difference between both groups. The anti-psychotic medication having a high association with metabolic syndrome is Olanzapine.Schizophrenic patients on antipsychotic medications had high prevalence of MS compared to the general population & this emphasize the need for regular monitoring of various metabolic parameters in patients on antipsychotics.


Article
Metabolic Syndrome among overweight and Obese Children Attending Central Pediatric Teaching Hospital in Baghdad

Authors: Deia Kadam Kalaf --- Esraa AbdAl-Hameed AbdAl-Azeez --- Abdul-Kadhim Nassir Dawood
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2015 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 455-462
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Metabolic syndrome is one of the serious problems that facing children all over the word, as it can lead to multiple health problems including psychological, cardiovascular, endocrinology and school performance.The aim of this study is to estimate the frequency of Metabolic Syndrome among overweight and obese children, and to detect the relation of age and gender,A cross sectional study conducted on 49 children in Central teaching hospital for children in Baghdad for one year (from 1/1/2013– 1/12/2013). Weight, height, blood pressure, waist circumference were taken. Blood glucose and lipid profile (triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, and cholesterol) were done for all children.Children mean ages were 8.28 ± 2.5 year. Percentage of Metabolic Syndrome among the study group was 28.6%.There was a high significant association of obesity, blood pressure, high density lipoprotein and cholesterol with Metabolic Syndrome (p-value<0.005), and only significant association with hyperglycemia, cholesterol and waist circumference (p-value <0.05), but no association with triglyceride.The difference in distribution of overweight and obese children by risk factors categories was highly significant and there was no significant association between the numbers of risk factors with gender.The prevelance of Metabolic Syndrome was 28.6%. Both age, gender and triglyceride have no significant association. The obesity, hypertension, high density lipoprotein were found to be highly significant association, while hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia were just significant association.


Article
HYPERURICEMIA AMONG PATIENS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME ATTENDING DUHOK DIABETES CNTER
حامض البوليك الدموي لدى مرضى المتلازمة الايضية الوافدين الى مركز علاج سكري في دهوك

Authors: MOHAMMAED T. RASOOL محمد طاهر رسول --- DHIA J. AL-TIMIMI ضياء التميمي --- IDRIS H. AHMED ادريس احمد
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: ISSN: 20717334 (online)/ ISSN: 20717326 (Print) Year: 2013 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 57-64
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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Background and objectives Hyperuricemia is known to be associated with type2 Diabetes Mellitus (type 2 DM) and metabolic syndrome. However, this association still needs to be delineated in our population .The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of hyperuricemia in Kurdish type 2 DM population and to explore the metabolic factors clustering with hyperuricemia for patients with metabolic syndrome.Methods Across-sectional study was conducted on 400 patients with metabolic syndrome .They were selected from patients diagnosed as type 2 DM or being treated with antidiabetic drugs who visited Duhok Diabetes Center during the period of the study(n=3678).The patients were divided into quartile according to their uric acid levels, lowest(first) quartile to the highest(fourth) quartile. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the ATP-111 criteria; we exclude patients treated for hyperuricemia.Results The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 8.0% .The age prevalence of hyperuricemia was 5.8% in the patients aged 40-60 years and 2.2% in those aged more than 60 years .The mean serum uric acid was 4.98 mg/dl(95%Cl 4.79-5.15) for males and 4.18 mg/dl (95%Cl 4.01-4.35) for females. In ANOVA analysis, patients with first quartile (uric acid< 4.0 mg/dl)were associated with lower mean values of waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, blood glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR; but higher values of HDL-cholesterol than those with this comorbidity. A significant correlation between serum uric acid and insulin resistance wasobserved(r=0.344, p=0.01), and a less significant value with waist circumference(r=0.125, p<0.05) and triglycerides (r=0.206, p<0.05).Conclusions In patients with metabolic syndrome, about half have uric acid levels (>4.0 to <7.0 mg/dl) and one out of 10 has hyperuricemia. The most determinant of hyperuricemia is waist circumference and insulin resistance.

خلفية واهداف البحث: من المعروف بأن أرتفاع نسبة حامض البوليك يكون مصاحبا ل النوع 2 من مرض السكري و المتلازمه الأيضية. مع ذلك فأن هذا الأرتباط يحتاج ألى مزيد من التحديد في مجتمعنا. ألهدف من هذه الد ا رسه هو لتقييم نسبة أرتفاع حامض البوليك لدى مرضى النوع 2 مرض السكري لمجتمع كردستان و لكشف العوامل الأيضيه المصاحبه لأرتفاع حامض البوليك لمرضى السكري.طرق البحث: أجريت هذه الد ا رسه المقطعيه على 400 مريض من مرضى المتلازمه الأيضيه. تم أختيار العينه الذين تم تشخيصهم على أنهم مرضى من النوع 2 من مرض السكري أو من الذين يتم معالجتهم بالأدويه المضاده لمرض السكري والذين يترددون على مركز علاج أمرض السكري في محافظة دهوك (العدد 3678 ). تم تقسيم المرضى حسب نسبة حامض البوليك من الربع الأول (أدنى نسبة حامض البوليك) الى الربع ال ا ربع (أعلى نسبة حامض البوليك). تم تعريف وقد تم أستثناء المرضى الذين يعالجون بأدوية أرتفاع نسبة حامض البوليك. ATP- المتلازمة الأيضيه حسب معيار 111 النتائج: كانت نسبة أنتشار أرتفاع حامض البوليك 8%. نسبة أرتفاع حامض البوليك لدى المرضى ذوو معدل العمر 60-40 سنة كانت 5.8 % وكانت 2,2 % لدى المرضى الذين كانت أعمارهم أكثر من 60 سنة. كان معدل حامض 4.01 CI % 5.15 ) للذكور و 4.18 ملغم/د ل للأناث ( 95 – 4.79 Cl % البوليك في المصل 4.98 ملغم/دل ( 95 4.35 ). عند أج ا رء تحيلي الأنوفا المرضى من ضمن الربع الأول (حامض البوليك أقل من 4 ملغم/د ل) كانت لديه – ومستوى أعلى HOMAIR أقل نسة من محيط الخصر وضغط الدم والدهون الثلاثيه ونسبة السكر في الدم والأنسولين و = r) من الكوليستيرول ذو التركيز العالي. تم ملاحضة علاقه معنوية بين مستوى حامض البوليك ومقاومة الأنسولين p 0.206 = r) 0.01 ) ودهون ثلاثيه > = p 0.125 = r) 0.01 ) ونسبة أقل من قيمة محيط الخصر > = p 0.344 .(0.05> = الاستنتاجات: تبين من الد ا رسه بأن حوالي نصف المرضى ذوو المتلازمه الأيضيه كانت لديهم حامض البوليك الدموي ( < 4,0 الى < 7,0 ملغم/د ل) وأن واحدا من عشرة كانت لديهم أرتفاع في حامض البوليك الدموي. العامل المحدد الأساسي لأرتفاع حامض البوليك الدموي هو محيط الخصر و المقاومه للأنسولين.


Article
Effects of Losartan versus Enalapril on Serum Uric Acid Levels in Hypertensive Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Isam H. Mahmood --- Zeina A. A. Al-Thanoon
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 16833597 Year: 2011 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 75-80
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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To investigate the effects of losartan and enalapril on serum uric acid in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome, one hundred and twenty six newly diagnosed mild hypertensive patients, having markers of metabolic syndrome included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 (60 patients) was given losartan (50 mg/ day) and group 2 (66 patients) enalapril (20 mg/ day) for a duration of 2 months. A control group of seventy apparently healthy individuals were included. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome related to the American National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III. Serum uric acid levels were measured before and after drug administration. The results revealed a significant higher levels of uric acid were found in the hypertensive patients as compared with control group and a significant drop of uric acid was noted after treatment with losartan but not with enalapril. In conclusions: this study demonstrates significantly higher serum uric acid concentrations in hypertensive patients having markers of metabolic syndrome. Losartan but not enalapril therapy produced a significant fall in the serum uric acid level. Losartan can be useful therapeutic agent to control blood pressure and to reduce serum uric acid level in hypertensive patients having markers of metabolic syndrome and hyperuricaemia.Key words: Hypertension, metabolic syndrome, uric acid, losartan, enalapril.

لتَحرّي تأثیراتِ عقاري اللوسارتان والإنالابریل على مستوى الحامضِ البولي في مصل الدم لدى مرضى ارتفاع ضغط الدمِّوالمتلازمة الأیضیةِ، أجریت ھذه الدراسة على 126 مریضا شخصوا حدیثا إصابتھم بالضغط العالي من النوع الخفیف ولدیھم علاماتالمتلازمة الأیضیةِ . قسمت مجموعة المرضى إلى مجموعتان حسب العلاج المعطى لھم. أعطیت المجموعة الأولى عقار اللوسارتان50 ملغ یومیا، والمجموعة الثانیة عقار الإنالابریل 20 ملغ یومیا، .أستغرقت فترة العلاج مدة شھرین. تم إختیار 70 شخصا سلیما منالمتطوعین (یبدون أصحاء) طبیعي الضغط لیكونوا مجموعة الضبط. شخصت المتلازمة الأیضیة حسب معاییر البرنامج الوطني لتعلیمالكولسترول الأمریكي. تم قیاس مستوى الحامض البولي لكل من مجموعة المرضى( قبل وبعد العلاج) ومجموعة الضبط. أظھرتالنَتائِج ارتفاعا معنویا ملحوظا في مستوى الحامضِ البوليِ في مصل الدم لدى مرضى ارتفاع ضغط الدمَّ بالمقارنة مع مجموعة الضبطوانخفاضا معنویا في مستوى الحامضِ البوليِ بعد المعالجة بعقار اللوسارتان لكن لَیسَ مَع عقار الأنالابریل. في الاستنتاجات: أظھرتھذه الدراسةِ أن ھناك ارتفاعا معنویا ملحوظا في مستوى الحامضِ البوليِ في مصل الدم لدى مرضى إرتفاع ضغط الدمَّ والذین لدیھمعلاماتُ المتلازمةِ الأیضیةِ. أدى العلاج بعقار اللوسارتان لكن لَیسَ العلاجَ بعقار الأنالابریل إلى انخفاض معنوي ملحوظ في مستوىالحامضِ البوليِ في مصل الدم. یُمكنُ أَنْ یَكُونَ اللوسارتان علاجّاً مفیداً للسَیْطَرَة على ضغطِ الدمّ ولتَخفیض مستوى الحامضِ البولي فيمصل الدم في مرضى إرتفاع ضغط الدمِّ والذین لدیھم علاماتُ المتلازمةِ الأیضیةِ وفرط الحامض البولي في الدم.


Article
Association between periodontitis and the main components of metabolic syndrome

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The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing worldwide, and itappears to increase independently the risk of cardiovascular disease. Periodontitis hasbeen shown to have an association with the risk of cardiovascular disease.The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between periodontalstatus and the main components of metabolic syndrome, singly, and in combination intype 2 diabetic patients.One hundred and seventy five patients (96 males and 79 females) with type 2diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were enrolled in the study. The following clinicalcharacteristics were reported: age and gender, body mass index (BMI) and bloodpressure. Periodontal status was assessed using periodontal disease index whichincludes plaque, calculus, and periodontal component of the index. An assessment ofserum lipid analytes included estimation of serum triglycerides (TG) and serum highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C).There was a significant difference in mean value of periodontal disease index(PDI) between normotensive and hypertensive diabetic patients (3.31±0.83 vs.3.82±0.65, P<0.001). Also there was a significant difference in PDI between normaland high TG groups (3.49±0.73 vs. 3.81±0.61, P<0.01). There was a significantincrease in TG level in hypertensive compared to normotensive diabetic patients(P<0.01). Only in presence of hypertension and obesity in addition to diabetes thatPDI was significantly increased in comparison with diabetic hypertensive non obesepatients (4.1±0.58 vs. 3.62±0.64, P<0.001). There were no significant differences inTG level between obese and non obese diabetic patients while there was a significantincrease in TG level in patients who were hypertensive obese compared tonormotensive non obese (174.64 ±61.39 vs. 150.80±54.96 respectively, P<0.05).Presence of two or more characteristics of MetS has resulted in a significant increaseof PDI when compared with patients who had only diabetes (P<0.001).In conclusion, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia as main components ofMetS are singly associated with periodontitis in T2DM and the presence of any twostudied components of MetS in addition to diabetes will attain the worst deteriorationin periodontal status.


Article
The Relationship between Diabetic Retinopathy and Metabolic Syndrome in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitu

Author: Ikhlas Khalid Hammed
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 62-68
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in both the developing and developed countries.The “metabolic syndrome” (MetS) is the clustering of abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and elevated blood pressure and is associated with other comorbiditiesincluding the prothrombotic, and proinflammatory state, MetSis clearly associated with macrovascular complications, but its association with microvascular disease as retinopathy is unclear.OBJECTIVE: To find out the possible association between DR and MetS.SUBJECTS AND METHOD:Four hundred thirty one diabetic patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected for this study The metabolic syndrome was definedfollowing the national cholesterol education program-Adult. treatment panel III guidelines.the ophthalmologic examinations wereperformedbyophthalmologiststoconfirmorexcluderetinopathy.Height,weight,waist circumference and blood pressure were obtained from all participants. Fasting venous blood samples were collected from all the subjects, HbA1c was estimated by high performance liquid chromatography,the serum wasused for analyzing Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), Total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) andTriglycerides (TG). Statisticalanalysis of data was performed using statistically package for social science (SPSS) version 17.0RESULTS:The DR prevalence differedsignificantlybetween diabetics with and without metabolic syndrome (20.8% vs. 6.08%)the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the whole studied sample was 72.6 %. Diabetics with DR hadsignificantlylonger duration of diabetes, had wider WC,higherFBG,higher HbA1c,higher systolic BP,are more likelyto be female,older, have a higher prevalence of MetS, and nonsignificant lower HDL-C and TG.Patients with concomitant MetSand DR hadsignificantly higher FBG, HbA1C, SBP, TG, WC and lower HDL than diabetics with MetS but without DR.theprevalence of DR increased as the numbers of metabolic syndrome components increased.CONCLUSION:Diabetic subjects with metabolic syndrome are at higher risk to develop retinopathy. The prevalence of DR increased as the numbers of metabolic syndrome components increased

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