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Article
PREVALENCE OF METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUSAUREUS (MRSA) IN COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PRIMARY PYODERMA

Author: Mariam K. Ali
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2010 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 103-106
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Although prevalence of MRSA strains is reported to be increasing, there are no studies of their prevalence in community-acquired primary pyodermas in Iraq.Aims: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of MRSA infection in community-acquired primary pyodermas.Methods: prospective survey carried out in Dermatology Department of Baghdad Teaching Hospital in Baghdad.Materials and Methods: Eighty-six patients with primary pyoderma, visiting the dermatology outpatient, were studied clinically and microbiologically. Sensitivity testing was done for vancomycin, sisomycin, gentamicin, framycetin, erythromycin, methicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, penicillin G and ciprofloxacin.Results: The culture positivity rate was 83.7%. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in all cases except two. Barring one, all strains of Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to methicillin. Conclusions: Methicillin resistance is uncommon in community-acquired primary pyodermas in Baghdad. Treatment with antibacterial active against MRSA is probably unwarranted for community-acquired primary pyodermas.


Article
In Silico and in Vitro Evaluation of Real Time PCR Assay for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: Al-Shaimaa Muhammed Saeed Al-Rawi --- Abdul Kareem A. Al-Kazaz --- Majeed Arsheed Sabbah --- Mohammed Mahdi Al-Zubaidi
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2017 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 126-131
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Many research groups developed real time PCR assays for identification of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). They designed different primers and probes in their assays. Gene mecA is the target identification of MRSA by PCR assay. The aim of this study is using in silico approach to identify the best primers and probe for real time PCR identification mecA gene. Published primers and probes were analyzed in silico to select the best for real time PCR identification of mecA gene. The selected primers and probe successfully used for real time amplification of twenty MRSA tested. This study reveals the importance of in silico approach for designing diagnostic assays shorten the cost and the time. [DOI: 10.22401/JNUS.20.1.18]


Article
In-Vitro evaluation of Isolated Staphylococcal-bacteriophage in Killing Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: Sarhan Rashid Sarhan --- Orooba Mohammed Saeed Ibrahim --- Serwa Ibrahim Salih
Journal: Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الطبية البيطرية ISSN: 20779798 Year: 2016 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 218-240
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

The present study was carried out to isolate and identified the Staphylococcal-specific bacteriophage from swage water by using agar overlay method and to investigate the anti-Staphylococcal activity of هsolated Bacteriophage in-vitro. Two experiments were performed in this present study; the first one was isolation and identification of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from post-traumatic bone infection. While the second experiment included study the infectivity of bacteriophage in-vitro to MRSA as well as effect of temperature and pH on the infectivity of phage was also studied. Results of antimicrobial susceptibility test of S. aureus isolates revealed that most of isolates were resistant to Methicillin, Cefoxitin and Pencillin G. Staphylococcus aureus phage was isolated from sewage samples by agar overlay method, the phage was characterized by clear, circular plaques ranged between 2-3 mm in diameter. TTA method for determined the Phage MIC appears to be both reliable, and reproducible.


Article
Antibacterial Photodynamic Effect of 532 nm Diode-Pumped Solid State and 650 nm Diode Lasers on Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Vitro
التأثير الديناميكي الضوئي المضاد للبكتريا لليزر الحالة الصلبة المضخ بالدايود ذو الطول الموجي 532 نانومتر وليزر الدايود بطول موجي 650 نانومتر على نمو بكتريا المكورات العنقوديةالذهبية المقاومة للمثيسيلين المعزولة من اخماج الجروح والحروق

Authors: Fadhaa H. Abdulameer فضاء حسين عبد الامير --- Amel M. Maki امل مصطفى مكي
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Laser المجلة العراقية لليزر ISSN: 18121195 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: B Pages: 21-26
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Abstract: The photodynamic inactivation against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using two different lasers, 532 nm diode pumped solid state laser (DPSS) in combination with safranin O and 650 nm diode laser in combination with methylene blue was investigated in the present work. A hundred swab samples were collected from patients with burn and wound infections admitted to two hospitals in Baghdad (Specialized Burns Hospital in Medical City and Al Imamein Al Jwadein Medical City Hospital) from December 2015 to February 2016 Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by using Kirby- Bauer method. The irradiation experiments included four groups; a control group, a photosensitizer only group, a laser irradiation only group and a laser irradiation combined with a photosensitizer group. The results showed that 532nm DPSS laser with power density 0.157 W/cm2 combined with 0.5 mg/ml safranin O was more effective than 650 nm diode laser with power density 0.052 W/cm2 combined with 0.1 mg/ml methylene blue in reducing the number of MRSA cells. One hundred percent killing of MRSA was achieved after 3 minutes exposure to 532 nm DPSS laser in combination with safranin O, while it took 11 minutes to achieve the same result using 650 nm diode laser and methylene blue. In conclusion, photodynamic inactivation can be considered as an alternative method in treating superficial burn wound infections.

الخلاصة: تم في هذة الدراسة بحث التأثيرالديناميكي الضوئي ضد بكتريا المكورات العنقودية الذهبية المقاومة للمثيسيلين باستخدام ليزرين مختلفين (MRSA)، ليزر الحالة الصلبة المضخ بالدايود DPSS بطول موجي 532 نانومتر بوجود المتحسس الضوئي سفرانين O وليزر الدايود بطول موجي 650 نانومتر بوجود المتحسس الضوئي ازرق المثيلين. جمعت مائة عينة مسحية من اخماج الحروق والجروح لمرضى راقدين في مستشفيين في بغداد (مستشفى الحروق التخصصي في مدينة الطب ومستشفى الامامين الجوادين التعليمي) خلال الفترة من كانون الاول 2015 الى شباط 2016 تم التحري عن حساسية البكتريا للمضادات الحيوية باستخدام طريقة كيربي بيور. تضمنت تجارب التشعيع اربعة مجاميع: مجموعة السيطرة, مجموعة المتحسس الضوئي فقط, مجموعة الليزر فقط ومجموعة الليزر بوجود المتحسس الضوئي. اظهرت النتائج بأن ليزر DPSS (532 نانومتر) وبكثافة قدرة 0.157 واط/سنتمتر مربع مع السفرانين O بتركيز 0.5 ملغم/مل كان اكثرتاثيرا في تقليل عدد خلايا MRSA من ليزر الدايود (650 نانومتر) وبكثافة قدرة 0.052 واط/ سنتمتر مربع بوجود ازرق الميثيلين بتركيز 0.1 ملغم/مل . تم قتل 100% من خلال MRSA بعد التعريض لليزر ال DPSS (532 نانومتر) بوجود المتحسس الضوئي سفرانين O خلال ثلاث دقائق فاكثر بينما استغرق 11 دقيقة للوصول الى نفس النتيجة عندما شععت بليزر الدايود (650 نانومتر) بوجود المتحسس الضوئي ازرق الميثيلين. وعليه يمكن اعتبار التاثير التثبيطي الديناميكي الضوئي كوسيلة بديلة لعلاج أخماج الجروح والحروق السطحية من خلال قتل الخلايا البكتيرية.


Article
Prevalence of nasal carriage rate for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its antibiotic susceptibility profiles in health care workers at Nanakaly Hospital, Erbil, Iraq
معدل انتشار الأنفي لمعدلات المكورات العنقودية الذهبية المقاومة للميثيسيلين ومعدلات الحساسية للمضادات الحيوية لدى العاملين في مجال الرعاية الصحية في مستشفى نانكلي، أربيل، العراق

Author: Nasik Shawkat Dogramachy
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 3 Pages: 411-419
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Healthcare workers have been identified as the source of infection in many outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the hospital environment. Therefore, we aimed to demonstrate the prevalence of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureusand their antibiotic resistance patterns among healthcare workers.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on a total of 94 healthcare workers at Nanakaly hospital. Nasal swabs were collected and cultured on Mannitol Salt Agar. Staphylococcus aureus was identified by Gram's stain, catalase test, and coagulase test. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were confirmed as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using cefoxitin (30 μg) disc diffusion test. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed according to the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method.Results: A total of 23 (24.5%) healthcare workers were nasal carrier for Staphylococcus aureus, and the overall methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage rate was 8.5%. There was no statistically significant difference between the gender (P = 0.29), age (P = 0.29), and occupations (P = 0.721) and the nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. All isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive for linezolid and mupirocin. The highest resistance rate for both erythromycin and clindamycin (75%) was noted among the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureusstrains, while the highest resistance rate in methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus strains was penicillin (72.5%), erythromycin (20%) and ciprofloxacin (13.3%).Conclusion: Healthcare workers were the potential colonizers of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. So regular screening of the healthcare workers is one of the effective methods to reduce and control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in any health care facility and applying the appropriate preventive measures will prevent transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureusto other contact patients.


Article
Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in AL-Yarmook teaching hospital-Baghdad

Author: Baydaa Hameed Abdullah بيداء حميد عبد الله
Journal: Al-Mustansiriyah Journal for Pharmaceutical Sciences مجلة المستنصرية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 18150993 Year: 2013 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 141-146
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

AbstractNosocomial infection is a major problem in the world today. Methicillin- resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, usually resistant to several antibiotics and also intrinsicresistance to ß- lactam antibiotics, shows a particular ability to spread in hospitals and nowpresent in most of the countries. The present study was carried out to investigate the prevalenceof MRSA and their rate of resistance to different antistaphylococcal antibiotics.Between Decembers 2009and April 2011, the clinical specimens submitted at themicrobiology laboratory were processed and all Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates wereincluded in this study.All isolates were identified morphologically and biochemically by standard laboratoryprocedures and antibiotic susceptibility pattern including oxacillin was determined by modifiedKirby Bauer disc diffusion method.Out of a total of 337 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from various clinical samples,140(41.54%) were found to be Methicillin- resistant. Among MRSA isolates, 86(46.99%) werefrom different inpatient departments, whereas, 54 (35.06%) of the isolates were from outpatients.All MRSA were resistant to penicillin. About 70% of the MRSA strains were resistant tocephalexin, ciprofloxacin and cloxacillin ,while less than 10% of them were resistant to amikacinand tetracycline. Many MRSA strains were multidrug resistant. However, no strains wereresistant to vancomycin.This report showed a high prevalence of MRSA in Al-Yarmook hospital. To reduce theprevalence of MRSA, regular surveillance of hospital acquired infection and isolation is the needof the hour.

الخلاصة:تعتبر عدوى المستشفیات من اكبر المشاكل الموجودة في العالم في ھذه الایام. أظھرت عزلات المكورات العنقودیةß-) المقاومة لبعض المضادات الحیویة بالاضافة الى مقاومتھا الداخلیة لمضادات (MRSA) الذھبیة المقاومة للمثیسیلینقابلیة خاصة للانتشار في المستشفیات والان موجودة في أغلب البلدان. ،(lactamونسبة (MRSA) ھدفت الدراسة الحالیة التقصي عن انتشار عزلات المكورات العنقودیة الذھبیة المقاومة للمثیسیلینمقاومتھا لمختلف المضادات الحیویة التي تستعمل ضد المكورات العنقودیة الذھبیة، وقد شملت الدراسة كل العینات السریریةالمقدمة الى مختبر الاحیاء المجھریة للفترة من كانون الثاني 2009 الى نیسان 2011 والتي شملت كل عزلات المكوراتالعنقودیة الذھبیة.تم التعرف على الصفات الشكلیة والكیمو حیویة للمكورات بالاعتماد على الطرق المختبریة القیاسیة وحساسیتھاالمحورة للانتشار بالاقراص. (Kirby Bauer) للمضادات الحیویة متضمنة ( الاوكساسیلین) بالاعتماد على طریقةمن مجموع 337 عزلة من المكورات العنقودیة الذھبیة المأخوذة من مختلف النماذج السریریة وجدت 140 عزلةمقاومة للمثیسیلین ( 41.54 %)، ومن ضمن ھذه العزلات المقاومة للمثیسیلین 86 عزلة ( 46.99 %) مأخوذة من المرضىھي (MRSA) الراقدین في مختلف اقسام المستشفى، بینما 54 عزلة ( 35.06 %) عزلة من المرضى الخارجیین. كل عزلاتھي (MRSA) بما یقارب 70 %من عزلات المكورات العنقودیة الذھبیة المقاومة للمثیسیلین ،(penicillin) مقاومة للبنسلین


Article
Molecular detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus harbouring β- lactamase resistance genes isolated from different sources of infections
الكشف الجزيئي للمكورات العنقودية الذهبية المقاومة للميثيسيلين التي تؤوي جينات مقاومة اللاكتاماز المعزولة من مصادر مختلفة للعدوى

Authors: Zainab Hasan Abdullah --- Narmin Saeed Merza --- Ahmed Mohammed Sulaiman --- Amir Hani Raziq
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2017 Volume: 21 Issue: 3 Pages: 1889-1896
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: The detection and investigation of methicillin resistance staphylococci specifically S. aureus in clinical microbiology setting is very helpful both for informing the appropriate treatment of individual patients and also for the surveillance of these organisms. This study aimed at the rapid molecular detection of methicillin resistant staphylococci harbouring β-lactamase gene and determination of the efficiency of m-PCR through comparison with uniplex PCR.Methods: Standard microbiological techniques were applied for the determination of the presence of methicillin resistant S. aureus in samples recovered from different body sites of patients who attended Al-Kadhumyhia Teaching and Baghdad Teaching Hospitals. The resulting methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were subjected to uni and multiplex PCR amplifications for detecting the existence of mec A gene and β-lactamase (TEM) resistance gene.Results: Half of the cases involved were found to be caused by MRSA. All the tested isolates showed positive amplification bands for the presence of mec A gene and only 48.8% of these harbored TEM gene. The obtained results revealed high sensitivity of universal bacterial and TEM primers expressed as 97.6% and 100% respectively, while the sensitivity of mec A primer was limited to 60%.Conclusion: The phenotypic identification of MRSA revealed a higher incidence rate and that different molecular techniques can yield conflicting results and it can also be concluded that resistant due to beta- lactamase production can be a crucial factor added to the previously settled methicillin resistant due to mec A gene.


Article
Application of Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Technique to Estimate Genetic Distance among Some Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Different Iraqi Hospitals
تطبيق تقانة مؤشرات التضاعف العشوائي المتعدد الاشكال لسلسلة الدنا لتقدير البعد الوراثي بين بعض عزلات المكورات العنقودية الذهبية المقاومة للميثيسيلين والمعزولة من مستشفيات عراقية مختلفة

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Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the principal nosocomial causative agents. This bacterium has the capability to resist wide range of antibiotics and it is responsible for many diseases like skin, nose and wounds infection. In this study, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR was applied with ten random primers to examine the molecular diversity among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates in the hospitals and to investigate the genetic distance between them. 90 Isolates were collected from clinical specimens from Iraqi hospitals for a total of 90 isolates. Only 10 strains (11.11%) were found to be MRSA. From these 10 primers, only 9 gave clear amplification products. 91 fragment lines were generated from these primers across all isolates with an average of 10 fragment lines per primer. Of these, 90 (99%) were polymorphic. The size of the amplified bands ranged between 145-2109 bp. The polymorphism percentage for all primers was 100% except OP-X17 primer which gave 86% polymorphism. The genetic distances revealed from Jaccard similarity index was calculated for the 90 RAPD polymorphic fragment lines. The highest genetic distance value 0.959 was between isolate number (1) and (5) and between isolate number (3) and (10), while the lowest genetic distance value 0.218 was between isolate number (6) and (7). This study shows that RAPD-PCR technique assayed with nine primers can be successfully applied to reveal the genetic distances among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from different hospitals.

تعتبر سلالات المكورات العنقودية الذهبية المقاومة للميثيسيلين واحدة من المسببات الرئيسية للإصابات الناتجة عن المستشفيات. هذه البكتيريا لها القدرة على مقاومة مدى واسع من المضادات الحيوية كما انها مسؤولة عن العديد من الامراض مثل اصابات الجلد, الانف والجروح. في هذه الدراسة تم استخدام تقانة مؤشرات التضاعف العشوائي لسلسلة (RAPD) DNA مع عشرة من البادئات العشوائية لفحص التنوع الجزيئي بين عزلات المكورات العنقودية الذهبية المقاومة للمثيسيلين وللتحقق من البعد الوراثي بينهم. تم جمع (90) عزلة من عينات سريرية ومن مستشفيات عراقية مختلفة ، ووجد أن (10) سلالات فقط وبنسبة (11.11٪) كانت مقاومة للميثيسيلين. من هذه البادئات العشرة, تسعة فقط قد اعطت نواتج تضاعف واضحة. انتجت هذه البادئات 91 حزمة رئيسية لجميع العزلات وبمعدل (10) حزم رئيسية لكل باديء, كانت من ضمنها (90) حزمة متباينة وبنسبة (99%). تراوحت احجام الحزم المضاعفة ما بين (145-2109) زوج قاعدي. النسبة المئوية للتباين الوراثي لكل البادئات كانت بنسبة (100%) ماعدا الباديء OP-X17 الذي اعطى نسبة تباين (86%). تم حساب الابعاد الوراثية بالاعتماد على مؤشر (Jaccard similarity) ل (90) حزمة رئيسية متباينة. اعلى قيمة بعد وراثي(0.959) كانت بين العزلة رقم (1) والعزلة رقم (5) وما بين العزلة رقم (3) والعزلة رقم (10), بينما كانت ادنى قيمة بعد وراثي (0.218) بين العزلة رقم (6) والعزلة رقم (7). هذه الدراسة تظهر ان تقانة مؤشرات التضاعف العشوائي لسلسلة DNA والتي تم اختبارها مع 9 بادئات يمكن تطبيقها بنجاح للكشف عن الابعاد الوراثية بين عزلات المكورات العنقودية الذهبية المقاومة للميثيسيلين ومن مستشفيات مختلفة.

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