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Article
Molecular identification and sequencing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence genes among different isolates in Al-Diwaneyah hospital
التحديد الجزيئي وتتابع جين ضراوة Pseudomonas aeruginosa لعزلات مختلفة في مستشفى الديوانية

Author: L.J. Shaebth ليلى جاسم شعيبث
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم البيطرية ISSN: 16073894 Year: 2018 Volume: 32 Issue: 2 Pages: 183-188
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa possesses a variety of the virulence factors that may contribute to its pathogenicity, such as exotoxin A (toxA) and exoenzyme S (ExoS). The principal aim of this study was to find out the rapid method for identification of P. aeruginosa and to detect the toxA, exoS and 16SrRNA genes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Other aim on the other hand, the DNA sequencing was performed for phylogenetic tree analysis of 16SrRNA gene in local pathogenic P. aeruginosa isolates in comparison with NCBI-Genbank global P. aeruginosa isolates and finally submission of the present isolates in NCBI-Genbank database. According to the detection of the 16S rRNA gene, the study revealed that 29 (58%) and 32 (64%) of P. aeruginosa out of 50 swabs obtained from each wound and burn areas were positive. whereas in addition, the result of this study showed that the toxA gene was detected in 77% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the wound and 51% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the burn. whereas, the exoS gene was detected in 69% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the wound and 49% P. aeruginosa isolated from the burn. BLAST analysis showed that the 16S rRNA gene shared more than 99% homology with the sequences of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, the phylogenetic tree analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that (PA-IQw and PA-IQb) the 16S rRNA gene shared higher homology with other four P. aeruginosa isolates available in the GenBank. The homology of the nucleotides was between 99.9% and 100%.

تمتلك Pseudomonas aeruginosa العديد من عوامل الضراوة التي قد تساهم في امراضيتها مثلexotoxin A (toxA) و exoenzyme S (exoS). الهدف الأساس للدراسة الحالية هو ايجاد الطريقة السريعة لتشخيص هذه الجرثومة وتحديد جينات toxA و exoS و 16SrRNA باستخدام تفاعل سلسلة البلمرة. كما تهدف الدراسة أيضا الى تحديد تتابع الـ DNA للشجرة الوراثية لجين 16SrRNA في العزلات المحلية لجرثومة Pseudomonas aeruginosa المرضية بالمقارنة مع بنك الجينات الدولي NCBI وادراجها في قاعدة بيانات البنك بوصفها عزلة محلية عراقية. اعتمادا على تحديد جين 16SrRNA، بينت الدراسة أن 29 عزلة (58%) و 32 عزلة (64%) من أصل 50 عينة أخذت من مواقع الجروح والحروق كانت ايجابية كما بينت الدراسة أن الجين toxA قد تم تعيينه في 77% من عزلات الجروح و 51% من عزلات الحروق بينما تم تعيين الجين exoS في 69% من عزلات الجروح و 49% من عزلات الحروق. أظهر تحليل BLAST أن الجين 16SrRNA يطابق بنسبة 99% ذلك الموجود في جرثومة Pseudomonas aeruginosa. علاوة على ذلك أن تحليل الشجرة الوراثية للجين 16SrRNA بأن PA-IQw و PA-IQb أظهر تطابقا مع العزلات الأربعة من Pseudomonas aeruginosa المثبتة في بنك الجينات، إذ كانت نسبة التطابق بين 99-100%.


Article
Molecular Diagnosis of Ornethobilharzia Turkestanicum in Maysan Province - Iraq

Author: Ismael W. Ismael, Hanaa N. Abdullah, Suzan A. Al-Azizz
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 1 Pages: 53-60
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum is one of the Schistosomatidae family that causing cercarial dermatitis in humans, heavy infestations and considerable economic casualties in production of animals like; sheep, goats and cow. The present study were designed to detection of O. turkestanicum in sheep at the molecular level by using 28S rRNA gene. Worms were collected from Maysan province/ Southern Iraq. Adult worms were observed in the mesenteric veins of infected sheep and identified as O. turkestanicum by traditional methods. Adult flukes used to extraction of DNA from tissue and applied on conventional PCR program to amplification of DNA. Size of PCR product were analyzed by 1% gel agarose was 1009bp in matching with specific DNA ladder (10000bp). Confirmation of molecular diagnosis of O. turkestanicum by using sequencing technique. The sequencing of the amplified PCR products were 100% identical between the adult blood flukes and Gene Bank. The conclusion is the molecular techniques are more accurate to detection of adult O. turkestanicum in compares with ordinary methods.


Article
Molecular Identification of Azoospermia in Iraqi Patients Based on (NR5A1) Gene Sequencing

Authors: Shaimaa Y. Abdulfattah --- Najwa S. Ahmed --- Farah T. Abdullah --- Bushra J. Majeed
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2016 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 32-44
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Infertility is considered one of the main public health issues, as it affects about 15% of the couples of reproductive age. The male factor is involved in 40% - 50% of infertility cases. It is difficult to assess accurately the overall magnitude of the contribution of genetics to infertility as most, if not all, conditions are likely to have a genetic component. The genetic causes of infertility are varied and include chromosomal abnormalities, single gene disorders and phenotypes with multifactorial inheritance. Some genetic factors influence males specifically, whereas others affect both males and females. Frequently, however, in the clinic no clear cause for the observed infertility could be diagnosed which at least in part, it reflects our still poor understanding of the basic mechanisms that regulating and controlling the genetic networks of male infertility.Objective:To study the molecular identification of Azoospermic infertile patients by the gene sequencing of NR5A1.Subjects, Materials and Methods:A study carried out during the period from November 2014 to June 2015. Fifty specimens were collected from thirty azoospermic patients and twenty normal healthy subjects (normozoospermic subjects) as control their age ranged between 23 and 48 years old, the seminal fluid of cases indicated that liquefaction time, color and viscosity equal in normozoospermic subjects (control group) and patient group while there is significant difference P≥0.05 in sperm count reach to more than 20 million and motility reach to more than > 25% in control subjects while there is no sperm count found in azoospermic patients. Then blood was collected for hormonal assay, in azoospermic patients the results revealed a gradual decrease in serum testosterone levels with a concomitant increase in serum follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) level when compared with control subjects . NR5A1 gene were investigated in 30 samples of extracted DNA from azoospermic patients by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method it can directly detect the NR5A1 gene content after it had been molecularly identified then were sentIraqi Journal of Embryo and Infertility Researches Vol.(6) Special Issue (2016)32successfully for sequencing analysis ,this study examined the presence of two transversion and one transition mutation of NR5A1 gene inazoospermic patients compared with control subjects, there’s no mutation in the same gene when compared with gene bank.


Article
Molecular Study of 16SrRNA Gene in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from Iraqi Patients

Authors: Ilham Abdul Hadi Khalaf --- Ahmed Mohamed Turkey --- Shahad Hisham Mahmood
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2018 Volume: 00 Issue: 1 Pages: 78-87
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

This study included the collection of 204 clinical and non-clinical samples from Ibn-Al-Baladi childbirth Hospital, Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital and Imam Ali Hospital in Baghdad, from both genders of different ages. The collected samples were distributed according to the collection source (urine, wounds, burns, feces, Tigris River water in Baghdad and soil samples). A total of 31 isolates of Escherichia coli (48.43 %), 15 isolates Klebsiella pneumoniae (23.43 %), 10 isolates of Enterobacter cloacae (15.62 %) and 8 isolates of proteus mirabilis (12.50 %) were isolated and identified based on microscopic culture, conventional methods, VITEK 2 and molecular identification of 16 SrRNA gene. Our investigations indicated that Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae species represent the most frequent isolates, whereas both Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus mirabilis were the less frequent species. The results of the analysis of the sequencing of selected 21 isolates were deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) belong to the four species (From LC314477.1 to LC314497.1).


Article
Molecular Identification of Giardia duodenalis Parasite Isolates from Human by Polymerase Chain Reaction – Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Technique (PCR-RFLP) in Baghdad Province

Authors: Tural Yelderim Bakir --- Abdullah Mustafa Qader
Journal: Diyala Journal For Pure Science مجلة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 83732222 25189255 Year: 2011 Volume: 7 Issue: 4 Pages: 54-66
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

The present study was designed to determine the genotypes of Giardia duodenalis isolatesfrom human by using polymerase chain reaction – restriction fragment length polymorphismtechnique (PCR-RFLP) technique, by amplification of glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene toprovide information about the genetic diversity and their epidemiological and clinicalcharacteristics in Baghdad province. Thirty isolates from children (1-12 years old) wereprocessed for (PCR-RFLP). Data corresponding to demographic, social and environmentalvariables and presence or absence of symptoms were collected. The glutamate dehydrogenase(gdh) gene was amplified by using specific primers (GDHiF and GDHiR), the PCRamplification was observed in 17/30 (56.6%) of the fecal samples, among these 5/17 (29.4%)samples belonged to genotype A and 12/17 (70.5%) samples belonged to genotype B. Geneticsubgenotypes identified from human fecal samples revealed that, 5/17 (29.4%) weresubgenotype AΙΙ, 9/17 (52.9%) subgenotype BΙΙΙ, and 3/17 (17.6%) subgenotype BΙV.Genotype B was detected in children with severe symptomatic giardiasis and many of themhad diarrhea while, subgenotype AΙΙ was detected in children with mild symptomaticgiardiasis and without diarrhoea.

خصصت الدراسة لتحديد البنية الوراثية لل Giardia duodenalis المعزولة عن البشر بأستخدام ردة فعل سلسلة البوليمرات المحددة بتقنية تعدد طول البوليمرات (PCR-RELP) عن طريق توسيع الجين الموروث لخميرة الجلوتيمات (gdh) لتجهيز معلومات حول التنوع الوراثي وخصائصهم الوبائية والسريرية في منطقة بغداد . وقد عزل 30 من الاطفال تتراوح اعمارهم بين 1 - 12 سنة PCR-RELP). جمعت حقائق مطابقة للديمغرافية وللتنوعات الاجتماعية والبيئية وحضور وغياب الاشارات .اطنبت الجينات الوراثيةلخميرة الجلوتيمات (gdh)بأستخدام بطانات معينة (GDHIFAND GDHIR). لوحظ زيادة ال (PCR) في 1730 (56,6%) في A وعينات 1217 (70,5%) العائدة للطراز الجيني B .عرف الطراز الجيني الثانوي في عينات برازية بشرية اظهرت بأن 175 (29,4%)كانت طراز جيني ثانوي ,917 (52,9%) طراز جيني ثانوي .BII 317 (17,6%) طراز جيني BIV استكشف الطراز الجيني B عند الاطفال مع SYMPTOMATIC JIARDIASIS عنيفة وعدة منهم كان لديهم اسهال بينما اكتشف الطراز الجيني AII عند الاطفال مع SYMPTOMATIC JIARDIASIS معتدل وبدون اسهال


Article
MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA GENOTYPES ISOLATES FROM CHILDREN WITH DIARRHEA

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Background:Infection with Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) parasite regarded as the most important causative agent for diarrhea, and a major public health problem.Objectives:Molecular identification and characterization of G. lamblia genotypes and association with gender, age and presence of different clinical signs.Methods:One hundred children with diarrhea were included. Fecal samples were taken from them during the period from May 2014 to February 2015. The age range was 2 months to 18 years. All stool samples were examined by microscopic examination, multiplex real time polymerase chain reaction and nested PCR.Results:Among 42 fecal samples from patients with giardiasis diagnosed by multiplex real time PCR, amplification of triosphosphate isomerase gene of G. lamblia was successful among 25/42 (59.52%) samples. However, the amplification of these samples showed that 7 (28%) contained genotype A and 18 (72%) samples contained genotype B; genotype B was more prevalent than A in males 11/18 (61.11%) and females 7/18 (38.89%) respectively. Regarding age, the results showed that no differences in distribution of genotypes were found statistically among different age groups of patients. Regarding to clinical aspects, the rates of abdominal pain, weight loss, anorexia and fever of giardiasis genotype B are higher than the genotype A.Conclusion:G. lamblia genotype B is the most frequent genotype among children with diarrhea. Also, the presence of the clinical aspects is genotype specific.Keywords: Giardia lamblia, children with diarrhea, and molecular identification.


Article
Genotyping of Escherichia Coli Isolated From Clinical and Hospitals Environment

Authors: Rana Abd ALameer --- Bassam Y. Khudaier --- Yahya A. Abbas
Journal: JOURNAL OF THI-QAR SCIENCE مجلة علوم ذي قار ISSN: 19918690 Year: 2015 Volume: 5 Issue: 3 Pages: 3-12
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains are known to cause intestinal and extraintestinal infections in human. A wide variety of infectious diseases could be caused by E. coli strains, including urinary tract infection, septicemia, newborn meningitis, central nervous system and respiratory system infections.Several bacterial agents can cause diarrheal and urinary tract infections, among these E.coli strains are detected as an important cause of morbidity and mortality of diarrhoea and UTI throughout the world.A total of 318 samples were collected during the period from September 2012 to march 2013 .All specimens were screened for the presence of E. coli by cultured on MacConkey agar and Eosin-methylene blue agar then identified by biochemical tests and confirmed by API 20E system which revealed that:90/318(28.33%) gave positive growth for E.coli )15 (16.63%) environmental isolates and 75(83.33%) clinical isolates( as fallowing:1/42(2.38%)was obtained from burns,7/25(28%)from High vaginal swabs ,11/41 (26.82%) from Wounds infections,18/33(54.54%)from Diarrheal infections and38/67(56.71 %)from Urinary tract infections, while 15/110 (13.63%) from environmental isolates, The isolated were subjected to molecular identification as E.coli by used the intergenic spacer region primer(ITS). The confirmed isolates were examined to detect the phylogenetic group based on triplex PCR by using a combination of two genes (chuA and yjaA) and an anonymous DNA fragment.Universal primers (ITS) indicated that all isolates 90(100%) gave positive results.The phylogenetic analysis revealed that 90 E.coli isolates belonged to three phylogenetic groups A &D 36(40%)for each, while B2 18 (20%) and no one isolates belong to B1 phylogenetic types .Out of the 16 of antibiotics used, 87(92.22%) isolates were multidrug resistance.All isolates have been found resistant to at least one β-lactam Antibiotics.

السلالات المرضيه للاشريكية القولونية تسبب للإنسان اصابات داخل وخارج الامعاء. وهي مسوؤلة عن طيف واسع من الامراض المعدية منها اصابات المجاري البولية ,تسمم الدم ,التهاب السحايا لحديثي الولادة وكذلك اصابات الجهاز العصبي المركزي و الجهاز التنفسي . من بين العديد من البكتريا المسببة لإصابات الاسهال والمجاري البولية تعد الاشريكية القولونية واحدة من اهم تلك المسببات جمعت حوالي318 عينة خلال الفترة من ايلول 2012 ولغاية اذار 2013. أظهرت نتائج الزرع الأولي على وسط أكار الماكونكي واكار الايوسين مثيلين الازرق بعد التشخيص بالاعتماد على الصفات الزرعية والكيموحيوية وتوكيد التشخيص بأستعمال العدة E120AP .تبين ان 90 عينة من اصل 318 عينة اعطت نمو موجبا لبكتريا الاشريكيه(15عينة بيئية و75عينة سريرية) وكما يلي : 1/42(2.38%)من الحروق,7/25(28%)من المسحات المهبلية,11/41 (26.82%)من حالات الجروح , 18/33(54.54%)من اصابات الاسهال و 38/67(56.71%)من التهابات المجاري البولية في حين جمعت 15 /110(13.63 % )من بيئة المستشفيات. ابدت جميع العينات(90) نتيجه موجبه تجاه التشخيص الجزيئي بأستعمال البادئة (ITS).ثم فحصت بعد ذلك لكشف عن انماطهاالجينية بأستخدام البوادئ) chuA,yjaA,TSP).اذ توزعت العزلات الى ثلاث مجاميع جزيئية المجموعةAوD (40 %)، 2B (20%)بينما لم تنتمي أي من العينات الى المجموعة B1.أظهرت87 (92.22 %)عزلة مقاومةَ متعددة لمضادات الحيويه بعد استخدام 16 نوع من المضادات.كما و اظهرت جميع العزل مقاومه لنوع واحد على الاقل من مضادات البيتا لاكتام.


Article
Molecular identification of Pasteurella multocida and their serotypes isolated from cattle and sheep in Diwanyia city
التوصيف الجزيئي لجرثومة Pasteurella multocida وأنماطها المصلية المعزولة من الأبقار والأغنام في مدينة الديوانية

Authors: J. N. Sadik جنان ناظم صادق --- A.H. Al-Hamdany عدنان حمد الحمداني --- Q. H.Kshash قاسم حليم كشاش
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences مجلة القادسية لعلوم الطب البيطري ISSN: 18185746 23134429 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 66-76
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Due to the multi-similarities in phenotypic and biochemical characteristics among genera belong to pasteurellaceae , this study was aimed to isolate and diagnosis of (Pasteurella multocida) that cause respiratory infection in cattle and sheep by using routine methods (culture and biochemical) , then used of molecular method as a diagnostic confirmatory, in addition to conduct the serotyping by using polymerase chain reaction , The study included acollection of (150) samples of infected lungs and smears of nasal , tonsils swabs of cattle and sheep for the period 1-11-2010 and up to 1- 4-2011 of farm animals and various massacres in the city of Diwaniya.Samples were cultured on the blood agar and MacConkey agar and Trypticase Soya agar then diagnosed after pure isolation of colonies using phenotypic and biochemical methods.The results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as confirmatory test isolates after extraction of DNA from isolates and amplification of specific known as KMT-1the presence of asingle band for the amount of amplified DNA with amolecular weight of 460bp.For the purpose serotyping of isolates germ of Pasteurella multocida using PCR, the capsule specific primer (CAPA, CAPB, CAPD, CAPE, CAPF)were used showed that the serotype (B) was the dominat in cattle , with molecular weight (760pb) while type (A) the dominat in sheep with molecular weight (1044pb).The Coclusion , the result of molecular level of identification and serotyping gave ahigh sensitivity (97) % and specificity (82.05) % when compared with its routine diagnostic in cattle and sheep.

بالنظر الى التشابه الكبير في الصفات المظهرية والكيموحيوية للأجناس التي تنتمي الى عائلة (Pasteurellaceae) فقد هدفت الدراسة الى عزل و تشخيص جرثومة Pasteurella multocidaالمسببة للأصابات التنفسية في الأبقار والأغنام والعديد من الحيوانات الأخرى بٱستخدام الطرائق الروتينية (الزرع والاختبارات الكيموحيوية) ثم ٱستخدام الطرائق الجزيئية كوسيلة تشخيصية توكيدية مع إجراء تنميط مصلي لهذه العزلات بأستخدام بادئات نوعية بٱستخدام تقنية تفاعل السلسلة المتبلمرة , إذْ اشتملت الدراسة على جمع 150 نموذج من الرئات المصابة والمسحات الأنفية ومسحات اللوزتين من الأبقار والأغنام للمدة 1 / 11 / 2010 ولغاية1 / /4 2011 من حظائر حيوانية ومجازر مختلفة في مدينة الديوانية . تم زرع العينات على (وسط اكار الدم ووسط الماكونكي ووسط تربتون الصويا) تم شخصت العينات بعد العزل مظهرياً بٱستخدام الطرائق الزرعية والكيموحيوية للمستعمرات النامية .أظهرت نتائج تفاعل السلسلة المتبلمرة (PCR) كفحص توكيدي للعزلات بعد أستخلاص ال DNA من العزلات وتضخيمه بٱستخدام بادئات نوعية للجرثومة والتي تعرف ب 1 KMT-وجود حزمة واحـدة ل DNA المضخم مقدارها 460 زوجاً قاعدياً.ولغرض تنميط عزلات جرثومة ال Pasteurella multocidaبٱستخدام((PCR ,استخدمت بادئات نوعية بالمحفظة CAPA,CAPB,CAPD,CAPE,CAPF)) إذْ اظهرت النتائج الى ان النمط المصلي (B) للجرثومة هو السائد في الأبقار وذو وزن جزيئي 760 زوجاً قاعدياً في حين كان النمط المصلي A)) هو السائد في الأغنام وذو وزن جزيئي 1044 زوجاًً قاعدياً وقد خلصت الدراسة الى أن نتائج التشخيص الجزيئي للجرثومة بأستخدام ال(PCR) وأنماطها المصلية كانت ذات حساسية (%97) وخصوصية (82.05) عالية عند مقارنتها مع التشخيص الروتيني لها في الأبقار والأغنام .


Article
Molecular Identification of Fungi Myceliopthora verrucosa which Producing Laccase Enzyme
التشخيص الجزيئي للفطر Myceliopthora verrucosa المسؤول عن إفراز أنزيم اللاكييز

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Abstract

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of ITS region was used to identify the fungus isolated from plastic garbage which can produce laccase enzyme. DNA bands were purified from agarose gel and then sequenced and after entering these nucleotides to the data base it was found that the DNA band belongs to the genus Myceliopthora verrucosa in 100% matching. This method is a very sensitive method for the identification of species and strains of fungi as well as its simplicity in comparing between fungi species.

استخدمت طريقة تضاعف سلسلة متعدد البلمرة لمنطقة الحيز ألاستنساخي الداخلي ITS لتشخيص الفطر المسؤول عن إنتاج أنزيم اللاكييز المعزول مسبقا من المخلفات البلاستيكية حيث تم استخلاص حزم الــ DNA من هلام الاكاروز وإجراء عملية إيجاد تسلسل القواعد النتروجينية وبعد إدخال التسلسل في قاعدة البيانات وجد أن الــDNA المعزول يعود إلى الفطر Myceliopthora verrucosa وبنسبة تطابق 100 % إن هذه الطريقة تعد من الطرائق الدقيقة في تشخيص الفطريات على مستوى النوع وبين النوع بالإضافة إلى سهولتها للمقارنة بين الفطريات والتفريق بينها.


Article
Molecular Identification and Biological Resistance to Local Isolate of the Tomato Mosaic Virus (ToMV) on the Sweet Pepper Plants.
التشخيص الجزيئي والمقاومة الحيـوية للعزلة المحلية من فايروس فسيفساء الطماطة ToMV على نباتات الفلفل البارد

Authors: Basma Dhabab Ayed بسمة ضباب عايد --- Maadh Abd Al- Wahab Al Fahad معاذ عبدالوهاب الفهد
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Agricultural Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 18131646 Year: 2018 Volume: 18 Issue: 3 Pages: 108-116
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

The study aimed to identification the ToMV virus in some Salah aldin governorate fields from locally infected plants using RT-PCR technique, which gave clear bande at 318 bp and 512bp. It also the study including the use of Spirulina platensis and Ganoderma lucidium, and their interaction (Ga. +S.P.). Their effect on stimulating the resistance against ToMV virus and some characteristics of growth also studied. The treatment showed that S.platensis and G.lucidum with highest rate in stimulating the production of peroxidase enzyme at 4.8 and 4.6 unit/ ml respectively, while for the treatment without infection it was 2.2 unit / ml for both treatments. The intraction treatment (Ga +S.P.) increased percentage of the fruiting and dry weight was (85.4%, and 80.97 g respectively, compared to control treatment (62% and 39.35 g respectively), while the treatment with S.platensis gave an increase in the height of pepper plants reached to 22.2 cm compared to control treatment 16.8 cm.

هدفت الدراسة الى تشخيص فايروس ToMV من النباتات المصابة به من بعض حقول محافظة صلاح الدين بالاعتماد على تقنية RT-PCR حيث أعطت حزمتين واضحة بحجم bp318 وbp512. كما تضمنت الدراسة تقييم كفاءة عوامل احيائية مختلفة تضمنت استخدام طحلُب Spirulina platensis والفطر الريشي Ganoderma lucidium والتداخل بينهما (Ga.+S.P.) ودُرِست مؤشرات نأثيرها في تحفيز المقاومة ضد فايروس ToMV وبعض صفات النمو، أظهرت معاملة الطُحلب S.platensis والفطر الريشي G.lucidum في حالة الاصابة أعلى معدل في تحفيز انتاج أنزيم البيروكسيديز أذ بلغت 4.8 و4.6 وحدة/مل على التوالي أما بالنسبة للسليم فقد كانت2.2 وحدة/مل لكلا المعاملتين، كما أدت المعاملة التكاملية المشتركة (Ga.+S.P.) الى زيادة معنوية في صفة نسبة العقد والوزن الجاف %85.4 و 80.97 غم على التوالي مقارنة بمعاملة السيطرة 62% و 39.35غم على التوالي بينما أعطت المعاملة بطُحلب S.platensis زيادة في أطوال نباتات الفلفل وبلغت 22.2 سم مقارنة بمعاملة السيطرة 16.8 سم.

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