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Article
Aflatoxin B1-Induced Kidney Damage in Rats

Authors: Hayder Hammadi Abdul-Ameer --- Akram Abood Jaffar --- May Fadhil Majid Al-Habib
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 1 Pages: 147-150
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a widely distributed mycotoxin in nature. Several investigations have shown its biological effects on different organs and in different animal species. However, the effects of AFB1 on the rat kidney have not been much elucidated histologically. Objective: This study aims to demonstrate the effects of AFB1 contaminated diet on the rat kidney from the histological and morphometric aspects. Method: Twelve mature albino rats were divided equally into a control group fed with usual diet and a treated group which was daily fed with diet contaminated with 20 mg AFB1/kg of body weight for 30 days. Semithin sections from renal cortex were stained with methylene blue and examined by light microscopy. Corpuscular changes were also detected morphometrically in terms of the ratio between the area of Bowman’s capsule and the area of its contained glomerulus (B/G ratio). Results: The treated group showed a marked increase in body weight. Histologically, there was evidence of acute tubular necrosis and increase in urinary space. Morphometrically, there was a diffuse significant increase in the B/G ratio compared to the control. Conclusion: Gain in weight can be attributed to fluid retention that accompanies the ensuing renal damage. The dietary dose of AFB1 (20 mg/kg of body weight) for 30 days was sufficient to produce acute tubular necrosis. The corpuscular changes indicated by the increase in the B/G ratio can be attributed to compensatory hypertrophy.

Keywords

Aflatoxin --- Kidney --- Rat --- Morphometry


Article
Histological and Morphological Analysis of the Hippocampal

Author: Ahmed A.W. Hussein* MBChB, MSc ]د. احمد عبد الوهاب حسين
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 3 Pages: 323-327
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Summary:Background: The hippocampus is empirically assumed to have different functions, of which the best known are: the representation of self-location in cognitive dimensions, and the storage and retrieval of memory.Materials and methods: Eleven adult male albino rats were used. Brain specimens were processed into paraffin blocks, sectioned (10 µm thick), and stained using Haematoxylin and Eosin, and Luxol Fast Blue MBS counterstained with Cresyl Violet. Morphometric analysis was done through eyepiece micrometers.Results: The lamellae of the hippocampus were morphometrically evaluated in context of embryogenesis and nerve fiber content.Conclusion: This study confirmed the existence of differences in nerve fiber distribution among the subfields of the hippocampus which is attributed to differences in the embryonic development processes and to the selectivity of the different connections.Keywords: Rat Hippocampus, Lamellar Morphometry.


Article
Morphometric analysis of mandibular canal course and position in relation to gender and age of Iraqi sample using digital panoramic imaging

Authors: Sura A. Rashid سرى رشيد --- Jamal Ali جمال علي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2011 Volume: 23 Issue: special issue Pages: 92-99
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The knowledge of the course and position of the mandibular canal in relation to anatomical landmarksof the jaw is of great importance in certain dental interventions; therefore it involves preservation of the anatomicstructures that pass through it. Morphometric study by means of digital panoramic radiography reveals thedifferences and inherent alterations between genders or ages, it has become a useful tool in research that analyzesthe craniofacial complex development process, which are important for planning the dental, clinical and surgicalprocedures. The aim of the study was undertaken to analyze mandibular canal morphology and position along itscourse and its relation to mandibular anatomical landmarks by using digital panoramic radiography.Materials and Methods: 300 subjects, (150 male and 150 female) were examined, age distribution of them wasranging between (20-49) years old, factors considered included the age and sex of the patients. Ten linear verticalmeasurements were performed on the radiographic image of each subject on both right and left sides of themandible (600) sides, to evaluate the position of the mandibular canal along its course. The relation of proximitybetween the mandibular canal and the roots of the mandibular posterior teeth were also evaluated.Results: Statistically significant differences were observed in six of the linear measurements between genders, malesalmost have higher measurements than females. However, no significant linear trend was evident between agegroups of the same gender for any of the measurements. The most frequent position of the mental foramen wasbetween the two mandibular premolars, the mandibular canal presented a relation of proximity to the roots of themandibular third molar, moving gradually away from the roots of the other posterior teeth.Conclusion: the measurements related to the mandibular canal performed in this study can be influenced by thegender but are independent of age


Article
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: a Preliminary Morphometric Study
اللمفومة اللاهوجكنية : دراسة تمهيدية بقياس الأشكال

Author: Aiad Abdullah Abdulrazak أياد عبدالله عبدالرزاق
Journal: Al- Anbar Medical Journal مجلة الأنبار الطبية ISSN: PISSN: 27066207 / EISSN: 26643154 Year: 2013 Volume: Vol.11 Issue: 1 Pages: 62-68
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

Background: Assessment of nuclear morphology is crucial for the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, it is often hampered by subjectivity and inter-obsever variation. Objectives: This work is aimed at studying the usefulness of nuclear morphometry as an objective approach to the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.Material and Methods: Hematoxylin-Eosin stained sections from twenty-eight cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was evaluated for nuclear size, area and perimeter by semi-automated image analysis system.Results: The parameters related to nuclear morphology (nuclear size, area, & perimeter) of neoplastic lymphocytes were significantly higher in large cell lymphoma as compared to small cell, intermediate cell & Burkitt's lymphoma but, not for mixed cell lymphoma. This finding was further substantiated when calculating the overlap index.Conclusion: This study supports the assumption that nuclear morphometry offers a more objective and reproducible diagnostic method for subcategorizing lymphoid tumors than is currently possible by conventional histopathological techniques

هذه الدراسة تدعم الإدعاء بان قياس أشكال النواة يمثل طريقة أكثر موضوعية وقابلة للتكرار لتشخيص وتصنيف الأورام اللمفاوية بالمقارنة مع الطرق التقليدية.الخلفية والأهداف: إن تقييم مورفولوجيا النواة أمر حاسم لتشخيص الأورام اللمفاوية اللاهوجكنية لكن غالبا ما تعوقه اللاموضوعية والاختلاف بين الفاحصين. يهدف هذا البحث إلى دراسة فائدة قياس أشكال الأنوية كنهج موضوعي لتشخيص الأورام اللمفاوية اللاهوجكنية.المواد وطريقة العمل: قيمت شرائح نسيجية مصبغة بالهيماتوكسلين والأيوزين لثماني وعشرين حالة ورم لمفاوي لاهوجكني وتم قياس حجم ومساحة ومحيط الأنوية باستخدام نظام تحليل الصور شبه آلي.النتائج: وجد بأن المعلمات المتعلقة بمورفولوجيا النواة (الحجم والمساحة والمحيط) للخلايا اللمفاوية الورمية أكبر في اللمفومة كبيرة الخلية بالمقارنة مع اللمفومة ذات الخلايا الصغيرة أو المتوسطة ولمفومة بيركت بفارق معتد إحصائيا لكن الفارق لم يكن ذو أهمية عند المقارنة مع لمفومة الخلايا المختلطة ، وتم أثبات هذه النتيجة عند حساب مؤشر التداخل

Keywords

Lymphoma --- Non-Hodgkin --- Morphometry


Article
Morphometric study of kidney and suprarenal gland development after super ovulation injection in mice

Authors: Mohammad Oda Selman --- Ban Thabit Al-Ani --- Rana R. Al-Saadi --- Usama I. M. AL-Zubaidi
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2013 Volume: 3 Issue: 6 Pages: 49-53
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Superovulation in mice causes a delayed embryonic development in vitro and in vivo, an increased abnormal blastocyst formation, pronounced fetal growth retardation.Objective:Morphometric measurements the dimensions (thickness, length) of fetal kidney and suprarenal gland during the later intrauterine life, after superovulation induction.Methods:Twenty fivematurefemalemiceSwiss-Webstermice ,thesemiceweredividedintotwogroups:experimental (G1) (15animal/group) and control group(G2) (10 animal/group). Superovulation was induced by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 7.5 IU of PMSG ,then followed by 7.5 IU of HCG after 48 hours. Ovulation was taken place between 122± hours after injection of HCG. One mature male mice was placed with three superovulated female mice for mating. Pregnant females were sacrificedongestational day eighteen in all experimental groups. For morphometric study 20 mice embryos were fixedinBouin>sfixative,longitudinalsectionsofwholeembeddedembryowerestainedbyH&E,thespecimens independently read. The dimensions (thickness, length) of fetal kidney and suprarenal gland were evaluated.Results:The statistical analysis showed significantdecrease(P<0.01)inweightsoffetusesincomparisonwithcontrol group. The study was showed significantdecrease(P<0.01)infetalkidney dimensions atday 18 of intrauterine life, when it compared to the fetal kidney of non superovulated group(control group). There was also significantdecrease(P<0.01) inthemorphometricmeasurementsof fetalsuprarenal gland dimensions.Conclusion:The study improve that there is a delay in growth of kidney and suprarenal gland in fetal mice that belongs to mother undergo to superovulation induction before pregnancy.


Article
AGE-RELATED CHANGES IN HUMAN SKIN: HISTOLOGICAL, MORPHOMETRIC AND IMMUNCYTOCHEMICAL STUDY USING S100

Authors: Salih S Kadhim صالح سلمان كاظم --- May F Al-Habib مي فاضل الحبيب
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2012 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 111-118
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Aging has many effects on a person’s skin, from wrinkles and sags to increased risk of certain skin conditions, such as skin cancer. As people age, their skin begins to change due to environmental, genetic, nutrition and other factors.Objectives: Understand some of the changes that occur in aging skin including changes in the general morphological, histological and architectural arrangement, epidermal thickness, basement membrane and histochemical changes in melanocytes.Methods: Skin specimens were taken from the anterior abdominal wall of 30 human males at different ages. General histological preparation for paraffin blocks was performed and the blocks were sectioned at (5-6µ) and stained with H&E. S100 protein was used to demonstrate immunohistochemistry labeled melanocytes changes with age. Histometric measurement of epidermal thickness and basement membrane thickness, using eyepiece graticule was performed on these groups.Results: The young age group showed a uniform arrangement of cells in all stratums of the epidermis while the old age group showed diminished thickness of the epidermis. A significant difference between young- adult age group (A and B groups) and the old age group (C group) was recorded. The epithelial basement membrane thickness was increased with age significantly (P value ≤ 0.001). Melanocytes demonstration using S100 showed that these cells tend to be situated at the tips of rete pages, there number are generally low and didn't varied a lot between young and adult age groups. There was yet marked decline in the number of melanocytes in old age group.Conclusion: Aging as a process have a marked influences on skin morphology, thickness, cellularity and basement membrane.Key Words: Aging, skin, S100, morphometry and basement membrane


Article
morphometry of the postnatal development of rat hippocampal capillaries

Authors: Anam rasheed al-salihi --- Akram abood Jaffer --- nahidh Abdul-shaheed Al- Jaberey
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2006 Volume: 48 Issue: 4 Pages: 445-453
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Article
MORPHOMETRIC STUDY ON THE Ag-NOR CHANGES IN SKELETAL MUSCLE RESIDENT CELLS WITH AGING
دراسة علم الشكل(مورفومتريه) للتغيرات في صبغه نترات الفضة في الخلايا القاطنة في العضلات الهيكلية مع التقدم بالعمر

Authors: Huda Rashid Kareem هدى رشيد كريم --- May Fadhil Majid Al-Habib مي فاضل ماجد الحبيب
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2009 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 109-115
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background: Aging is the deterioration of mature organism resulting from time dependent irreversible changes. The effects of aging on skeletal muscle cells have not been much-elucidated using Ag-NOR analysis. Objectives: This study aims to demonstrate the effects of aging on Ag-NOR in morphometric & counting aspects.Materials and methods: The Extensor digitorum longus muscle of forty Albino male rats with age ranging from 27 days up 18 month were studied. Paraffin blocks were performed & sectioned. Ag –Nor stained sections were de-waxed, rehydrted, developer solution was used. Morphometric Analysis of the Ag-NOR stained nuclei through using a soft wear GLI (Global lab image 2) with a microscope connected to PC Unit, a software used to analyze the picture that seen through the microscope, nuclear area, nuclear perimeter, and roundness were calculated,& counting of the number of Ag-NOR stained nucleoli per stained cells.Results: In neonate age group, the nuclei have high affinity to the stain. High proportion of nuclei can be recognized, with the higher count of Ag-NORs per cells.•In adult age groups the affinity to the stain is reduced, the nucleus appears to have smaller count of Ag-NORs per cells.•In old age group the staining intensity seem to be highly reduced, the nucleus seem to have single, rounded Ag-NOR.Conclusion: A significance differences is seen in Ag NORs in cells of skeletal muscle fibers with aging demonstrated by counting and morphometric method of Ag-NOR analysis.Key words: Skeletal muscle, Ag NOR. Morphometry.

خلفية الدراسة: العضلات الهيكلية من انسجه الجسم التي تتأثر بتقدم العمر.إن تأثيرات تقدم العمر في العضلات الهيكلية لم تتم دراستها بالربط مع صبغة نترات الفضة.هدف الدراسة: هذه الدراسة تهدف لتوضيح تأثيرات تقدم عمر العضلات الهيكلية في صبغه نترات الفضة باستخدام علم الشكل و طريقة العد.طريقه العمل: تمت دراسة نماذج من العضلة الباسطة للأصابع الطويلة لأربعين جرذ من الذكور, وبأعمار تتراوح بين 27 يوما إلى 18 شهرا. حضرت قوالب شمعيه من النماذج وقطعت إلى شرائح بسمك (5-6)مايكرون. استخدمت هذه الشرائح لصبغه نترات الفضة . تم تحليل النتائج عن طريق احتساب عدد النويات للخلية المصطبغة بصبغه نترات الفضة و باستخدام برنامج (التصوير ألمختبري الشامل الثاني) والذي فيه يتم ربط المجهر بجهاز كومبيوتر تم تحليل الصور التي ترى من خلال المجهر واحتساب منطقه النواة, ومحيط النواة وكرويتها.النتائــج: المجموعة العمرية لحديثي الولادة أظهرت الانويه ألفه عاليه اتجاه الصبغة, وأعلى عدد من النويات لمصبغه نترات الفضةالمجموعة العمرية البالغة قلت الالفه اتجاه الصبغة, وظهرت الانويه كنقاط صغيره.وتم تمييز نسبه عاليه من الانويه في المقطع الواحد.المجموعة العمرية الكبيرة قلت كثافة الصبغة بصوره ملحوظة, وتحتوي النواة على صبغه نترات الفضة منفردة ومنعزلة وكرويه. الاستنتاجات: هنالك اختلافات مهمة في صبغه نترات الفضة للخلايا القاطنة في العضلات الهيكلية ( الانويه العضلية والخلايا التابعة) مع تقدم العمر تظهر من خلال وجود نشاطات انقساميه وفعالية المتغيرات(منطقه النواة ومحيطها وكرويتها). مفتاح الكلمات: العضلات الهيكلية, صبغه نترات الفضة.


Article
SEMI-AUTOMATED COMPUTATIONAL METHOD FOR SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBER TYPING WITH LECTINS: CORRELATION WITH MORPHOMETRIC STUDIES

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Background :Muscle fiber typing has been an extensive field of study for many years. Though, limited researches applied lectin histochemistry in the clinical diagnosis of muscle disorders; attention was directed mainly towards enzyme histochemistry.Objective:The use of lectins as recognition systems based on specific protein-carbohydrate interactions in correlation with muscle fibers morphometric standards and optical density features to favor the diagnostic procedures of muscle disorders.Methods:Cross-sections of tibialis anterior muscle from 15 adult rats were stained with Con A, PNA, SBA, WGA, SWGA, LFA, UEA-I, and UEA-II lectins. Photographs of stained sections were analyzed with ImageJ 1.44 software for muscle fiber area, perimeter, optical density, and integrated density.Results:There were statistically significant differences between the parameters of muscle fiber types under study (P<0.05) concerning Con A, LFA and UEA-II lectins, but not for the remaining lectins, regarding the optical density and integrated density of muscle fibers.Conclusions:Lectins make accurate recognition of muscle fiber types on fixed paraffin sections when combined with computerized methods to quantify the features seen in muscle biopsies destined for pathological investigations.Key words:Lectins, Muscle fiber typing, Quantitative, Optical density, Morphometry


Article
MORPHOMETRIC EVALUATION OF KUBAYSA DRAINAGE BASIN USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM
التقييم المورفوميتري لحوض تصريف كبيسة باستخدام نظام المعلومات الجغرافية

Author: Luay D. Yousif لؤي داود يوسـف
Journal: Iraqi Bulletin of Geology and Mining مجلة الجيولوجيا والتعدين العراقية ISSN: 18114539 Year: 2016 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 17-30
Publisher: Ministry of Industry and Minerals وزارة الصناعة والمعادن

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Abstract

The hydrological analysis of Kubaysa drainage basin has been studied using a Geographic Information System (GIS) program as a tool to understand the morphological systems and their interrelationships. The study focuses mainly on the geometry, more emphasis being placed on the relationship between morphometric characteristics such as; stream order (Nu), stream length (Lu), drainage density (D), stream frequency (Fs), texture ratio (T), elongation ratio (Re), circularity ratio (Rc) and form factor ratio (Rf), comprising the area properties and forming the base of analysis of the drainage basin. A total number of 383 streams are identified of which 297 are 1st order, 66 are 2nd order, 15 are 3rd order, 4 are 4th order and one is of 5th order. The drainage pattern of the stream network is mainly of dendritic type, which indicates the homogeneity in texture and possible lack of structural control. The mean bifurcation ratio for the study area is 4.7 which falls within the standard range and shows that the basin conforms to the characteristics of a natural stream and indicating that the geological structures are less disturbing to the drainage pattern. The drainage density (D) of the study area is 0.91 Km/Km². This value indicates that for every 1.0 square kilometer of the basin, there is 0.9 kilometer of stream channel. This makes the study area lie within the group of low density basins, which suggests indicates that the basin consists of moderately permeable rocks. The elongation ratio (Re) is 0.48; the basin in the study area assumes a pear shaped characteristics indicating high degree of integration. The circularity ratio is 0.43, which indicates that the basin is oval; tending towards elongation in shape with high level of integration.

تم اجراء تحليل مورفوميتري لحوض التصريف لمنطقة كبيسة لدراسة الأنظمة المورفوميترية باستخدام نظام المعلومات الجغرافية. ركز التحليل على هندسية الحوض وعلى العلاقات بين خصائصه المورفوميترية مثل: رتب مجارى الوديان وأعدادها وأطوالها ونسبة التشعب وشدة (كثافة) مجاري الوديان ونسبة استطالة الحوض ونسبة تكوره (دائريته) وعامل الشكل، متظمنةً خصائص الامتداد المساحي للحوض.تم تحديد 383 مجرى وادي موسمي، كان منه 297 مجرى ذو رتبة أولى و 66 مجرى ذو رتبة ثانية و 15 ذو رتبة ثالثة و 4 ذو رتبة رابعة ومجرى واحد فقط ذو رتبة خامسة. بلغ متوسط نسبة التشعب 4.7 وتصنًف انها اعتيادية ((Normal التشعب وحوض التصريف أقل تأثراً بالعوامل التركيبية. كثافة التصريف أو شدة (مجاري الوديان) كانت 0.91 كم² وهذا يجعل المنطقة تقع ضمن الأحواض قليلة الكثافة وان صخورها متوسطة النفاذية. أما متوسط نسبة الاستطالة فكانت 0.48 مما يعطي للحوض الشكل الكمثري وكذلك كانت نسبة التكور (الشكل الدائري) بمتوسط 0.43 والذي يدل على ان الحوض بيضوي الشكل مائل نحو الاستطالة وبدرجة عالية من التكامل.

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