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Article
A Prevelance of Drug- Resistance in Previously Treated Tuberculous Patients in Baghdad

Author: Muhammed.W. AL-Obaidy
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: supplement Pages: 626-631
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a majorpublic health problem because treatment is complicated;cure -rates are below those for drug-susceptible T.B., and patients may remain infectious for months or years despite receiving the best available therapy. The phenomenon of resistance was detected soon after the introduction of streptomycin for treatment of T.B.OBJECTIVE:To identify prevalence of MDR- TB patients in Baghdad.PATIENT AND METHOD :Across-sectional study, over a period of 1 YEAR (from January to December2012) had been carried out in Baghdad in order to identify the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis in previously treated patients. 168 patients (112male and 56female) sputum smear positive patients were investigated at Chest and Respiratory institute by questionnaire about previous treatment then sent for drug susceptibility testing byegg-based solid medium of Lowenstein.RESULTS:An isolated drug resistance to streptomycin,isoniazid,Rifampicin and Ethambutul of 2.4% , 2.4% , 14.3% and 1.1% respectively. But MDR.TB.Of8.3 %( for more than one drug resistance).CONCLUSION :The high prevalence of M.D.R.T.B. and high prevalence of Rifampicin are the most alarming because of badmedical and social situation in Iraq now.


Article
IN VITRO STUDY ON USING BACTERIOPHAGES IN THE TREATMENT OF PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI IN IRAQ

Authors: Marwa B. Sabri مروه باسم صبري --- Ahmed S. Abdulamir احمد صاحب عبد الامير
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2014 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 131-138
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Bacteriophages, or phages, are virus-like agents that infect bacteria. Lytic phages can be used as biological antimicrobials and can kill bacteria.Objective:To formulate therapeutic phage cocktails able to overcome multiple-drug resistant Escherichia coli in Iraq.Methods:Escherichia coli were isolated from Iraqi hospitals and were characterized in terms of site of isolation, patient's age, sex, and disease. Antibiotics sensitivity test was used to evaluate antibiotics effectiveness. Accordingly, isolated bacteria were grouped in terms of resistance to antibiotics, infection type, and infection site. Wild phages specific to Escherichia coli were isolated from different areas. The isolated phages were optimized and their biokinetics were measured.Results:A total of 10 samples of Escherichia coli, 7 samples of them revealed specific phages. The formulated phage cocktail to Escherichia coli was shown to remarkably minimize the bacterial resistance to individual phages.Conclusion:Bacteriophage cocktails are useful to tackle the problem of MDR bacteria.Keywords:Multi-drug resistance, bacteriophage, phage therapy, Escherichia coli.


Article
Molecular differentiation and determination of multi-drug resistant isolates of Pseudomonas species collected from burn patients in Kurdistan Region, Iraq
التفريق الجزيئي وتحديد العزلات المقاومة للعديد من أنواع Pseudomonas المجمعة من مرضى الحروق في إقليم كوردستان العراق

Authors: Jaladet M.S. Jubrael --- Marwan Khalil Qader --- Haval Mohammed Khalid --- Rana Adel Hanoon --- et al.
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 3 Pages: 394-400
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is very a well-documented nosocomial and opportunistic microorganism, a little challenge is being present with the identification of such pathogen. This study aimed to identify Pseudomonas on genus and species levels by conventional PCR and determine multi-drug resistant isolates.Methods: A total of 180 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas species were recovered from in and outpatients who attended Azadi and Rezgari Teaching hospitals in Duhok and Erbil city from October 2015 to May 2016. These isolates were phenotypically identified using standard microbiological procedures. A total of 100 isolates were randomly selected and confirmed at a molecular level as Pseudomonas spp.Results: By applying genus-specific gyr B2 primer which produced1130bp amplification band and sixty-eight isolates were identified by PCR as P. aueroginosa using species-specific primer for 16S rRNA region which showed 956bpamplicon. Forty-six isolates out of the sixty-eight resembling Pseudomonas aeruginosa were diagnosed as being multi-drug resistant isolates by the disc diffusion method.Conclusion: It can be concluded that multi-drug resistant isolates can pose a serious threat for the hospital-resident patients as increasing numbers of these isolates are being recorded in local settings.


Article
Evaluation of multi drug resistance among extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infection in Erbil City
تقييم المقاومة المتعددة للأدوية بين الإشريكية القولونية الممتدة المنتجة للطيف والمنتجة للكتاماز والتي تسبب عدوى المسالك البولية في مدينة أربيل

Authors: Sayran Hamad Haji --- Safaa Toma Aka
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2015 Volume: 19 Issue: 2 Pages: 998-1004
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Bacterial resistant to broad spectrum β-lactams, which is mediated by the extended spectrum beta lactamase enzyme, has emerged recently as increasing problem. Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing strains can also displaying multi-drug resistance. Thus, increased number of infections due to these strains is a public health issue associated with high morbidity, mortality, high health-care costs and prolonged hospitalization. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate multi-drug resistance among extended spectrum beta lactamase producing E. coli causing urinary tract infections. Methods: A total of 400 mid-stream urine specimens were collected from patients with urinary tract infection. Disk diffusion agar method on Muller-Hinton agar plates was carried out. Double Disc Synergy Test was used for detection of extended spectrum beta lactamase producer. All the isolates that were screened out for extended spectrum beta lactamase production were also subjected to confirmation by using the Phenotypic Confirmatory Combination Disc Diffusion Test.Results: The urinary tract infection cases were mainly due to Gram negative bacteria (87%). E. coli was isolated from 195 (48%) specimens. Sixty isolates of E. coli (31%) were found to be extended spectrum beta lactamase producers. The resistance to antibiotics tested was significantly higher (P <0.001) among extended spectrum beta lactamase producing isolates. Conclusion: The prevalence of multi-drug resistance to the antibiotics among extended spectrum beta lactamase producing E. coli isolates was established. Imipenems are recommended for the treatment of serious infections caused by these organisms.

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