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Article
Salivary level of RANKL and OPG in chronic periodontitis

Authors: Batool Hassan Al-Ghurabi بتول حسن الغرابي --- Sara Mohammed Mohssen سارة محمد محسن
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 1 Pages: 189-194
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Periodontal diseases are initiated by microbial plaque, which accumulates in the sulcular region andinduces an inflammatory response. The Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand / osteoprotegerin(RANKL/OPG) axis is involved in the regulation of bone metabolism in periodontitis, in which an increase in receptoractivator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand or a decrease in osteoprotegerin can tip the balance in favor ofosteoclastogenesis and the resorption of alveolar bone that is the hallmark of periodontitis. This study was performedto investigate the role of salivary levels of RANKL and OPG in pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis.Subjects and Methods: Fifty five subjects with chronic periodontitis with ages range from 24-64 years and 25apparently healthy volunteers their ages and sexes were matched with the patients were participated in this study.Periodontal parameters used in this study were plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, clinicalattachment level and bleeding on probing. Saliva samples were collected from all patients and controls. Enzymelinkedimmunosorbent assay was carried out for estimation the salivary level of RANKL and OPG in studied groups.Results: The present data revealed that the median salivary levels of RANKL was elevated in patient as comparedwith control group (P<0.001), whereas the salivary levels of OPG doesn’t show any significant differences betweenthe study groups (p>0.05). In contrast the ratio of RANKL/OPG ratio was significantly higher in patients whencompared with the ratio in control group. Furthermore, negative significant correlation was noticed between RANKLand OPG. Regarding correlation between salivary (RANKL and OPG) and clinical periodontal parameters, RANKLlevels was showed significant positive correlation with each of probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level.Otherwise no association between OPG levels and clinical parameters of periodontitis was found. Moreover; theratio RANKL/OPG was showed significant positive correlation with each of gingival index, probing pocket depth andclinical attachment level.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that salivary levels of RANKL and OPG play a crucial role in pathogenesis ofperiodontitis, and the relative RANKL/ OPG ratio appears to be indicative of disease occurrence

Keywords

chronic periodontitis --- RANKL --- OPG


Article
Prevalence of pulp stone (Orthopantomographic-based)

Authors: Zainab H. Al-Ghurabi زينب الغرابي --- Areej A. Najm اريج نجم
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 2 Pages: 80-84
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Pulp stones (denticles) are discrete calcified aggregates that occur most frequently in the dental pulp.It was found in healthy, diseased and sometimes in erupted teeth. Its number appears to increase with increasingage. It is usually detected during radiographic examination as radiopaque masses of variable size and shape. Theaims of this study were to calculate the prevalence of pulp stones in young Iraqi adults by using digitalorthopantomgraph, and to report any associations between occurrence of pulp stones with, gender, tooth type,and dental arch.Subject, Material and Method: A total of 390 digital panoramic radiographs were collected from oral diagnosisdepartment /College of Dentistry for Iraqi sample, University of Baghdad and Al-Karkh General Hospital. The samplecomposed of 169 male and 221 female with mean age (26.9 years). About 10510 teeth were evaluated; pulp stonesscored as present or absent, number of stone and associations with, gender, tooth type and dental arch wererecordedResult: From 390 (OPG) total of 3758 teeth were examined, 136 patients have pulp stone present in (276) teeth.According to gender, 75 female with 143 teeth (51.8%) and 61 male with 133 teeth (48.1), that is mean there was nosignificant difference of ( pulp stone occurrence) found between female and male. Their presence were seldomfound in the premolars 18 teeth (7%) but was much higher in the molars 258 teeth (93%) and the difference isstatistically significant. Pulp stone occurrence was significantly more common in the first molars than in the secondmolars and in the first premolars than in the second premolars in each dental arch. No difference between the twoarches could be identified.Conclusion: Pulp stones are not only incidental radiographic findings of the pulp tissue but may also be an indicatorof some serious underlying disease. On the other hand, they may provide useful information to predict about thesusceptibility of patients for other dystrophic soft tissue calcifications such as urinary calculi and calcified atheromas


Article
Role of Osteoprtegerin levels in a sample of Iraqi diabetic foot patients
دور مستويات الاوستيوبروتجرينOPG) ) في نموذج من مرضى سكري القدم العراقيين

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Abstract

Diabetic foot (DF) is serious diabetes (DM) complication leading to delayed wound healing and may result in amputation. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a glycoprotein decoy receptor of RANKL(OPGL), involvement of OPG in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications has been proposed. Interactions OPG/OPGL has been proposed to be a majorinhibiter of osteoclastogenesis (differentiation of osteoclasts cells),and OPG also has a role in the regulation of the immune response . This study was done to investigate whether the serum levels of circulating soluble osteoprotegerin, glycoprotein associated with the apoptosis, are altered in patients with type 2diabetes whom have diabetic foot ulcerations. Osteoprotegerin was measured with the ELISA method in thirty (30) normal controls (groupI), twenty five patients with type 2 DM (duration ranged from 1-32 years (group II) and in twenty five diabetic foot patients with type 2 DM (duration ranged from 2-31 years (group III). Also, serum glucose (Fasting), lipid profile (total cholesterol, riacylglycerol, HDL-c,LDL-c and VLDL-c) and hs-CRP were determined after 12hrs of fasting. Results: The patients with diabetic foot lesions were found to be poorly controlled and had significantly higher levels of fasting Plasma glucose (FPG) (p<0.05,p<0.001) when compared to patients whom without diabetic foot lesions and control groups. Also the patients with diabetic foot lesions were found have significantly higher levels of OPG when compared to patients without diabetic foot lesions and healthy control groups (p<0.01,P<0.001)respectively . Serum levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, LDL-c and VLDL were significantly higher (p<0.05) in diabetic patients (with and without foot ulceration) in comparison with healthy normal control, while HDL-c level was lower in both groups than in the control group but not reach statistical significant. There are no significant different in lipid profile between diabetic foot patients and without diabetic foot patients. OPG serum levelswere significantly increased in diabetic foot group as compared with patients whom without diabetic foot and normal control (10.82±2.87 ,6.16±6.18, ng mL

مرض سكري القدم هو احد مضاعفات السكري الخطيرة والتي تقود الى تاخير او بطء شفاء الجروح والتي قد تودي الى بتر القدم .ان الاوستيوبروتجرينOPG)) هو بروتين سكري وهو المستقبلة الوهمية (المصيدة) للعامل RANKL )او يدعى ايضاOPGL) والذي يؤدي الى نقض(تأكل) العظم.ان تضمن الاوستيوبروتجرينOPG في تولد مضاعفات السكري قد تم اقتراحه. ان تداخل(OPG/OPGL) قد تم اقتراحه كمثبط رئيس لتولد الخلايا الناقضة للعظم ,كما ان ال OPG ايضا لديه دور في تنظيم الاستجابة المناعية. تهدف هذه الدراسه لاكتشاف فيما اذى كان هناك تغير في مستويات الاوستيوبروتجرينOPG(وهو بروتين سكري) والذي يرتبط بالموت المبرمج للخلايا والCRP في دم مرضى السكري المصابون بقروح القدم السكري.تشمل هذه الدراسه ثمانين شخص تراوح معدل اعمارهم بين (36-86) سنة . ثلاثون شخص (30) اصحاء اختيرو كمجموعه ضابطه وخمسون شخص (50) مصابون بمرض السكري النوع الثاني :(25) شخص منهم كانوا مصابون بتقرحات القدم السكري تم تعين درجه اصابتهم وفقا لتصنيف واكنر, (25) مريض الباقون من مرضى السكري كانوا بدون مشاكل القدم السكري . لقد تم تقدير مستويات الاوستيوبروتجرين (OPG) وكذالك مستويات البروتين الفعال سي(CRP) بواسطه تحليل الايلايزة (ELISA) للمرضى والاصحاء باستخدام الكتات التجارية المتوفرة . بالاضافة الى ذلك تم تعيين مستوى السكر ( (FPGومستوى انماط الدهون في الدم بعد الصيام لمدة 12 ساعة , ومعرفة مدة الاصابة بالسكريDuration of DM ودالة كتلة الجسم BMI والعمر والجنس .اظهرت النتائج ارتفاع معنوي ذو قيمة في تراكيز الOPG والCRP (P<0.05) في دم مرضى القدم السكري مقارنة الى مرضى السكري بدون قدم سكري والاصحاء .كما اظهر مرضى القدم السكري ارتفاع معنوي ذو قيمة في مستويات سكر الدم عن مرضى السكري بدون قدم سكري وعن الاصحاء. اضهر مرضى السكري جميعهم ارتفاع في مستويات الكوليستيرول, والدهون الثلاثية,والدهون واطئة الكثافة (LDL,VLDL) (p<0.05) مع بقاء الدهون العالية الكثافة عند مستويات اعتيادية مقارنة بالاصحاءp>0.05)).لم تكن هناك تغيرات في مستويات انماط الدهون بين مرضى سكري القدم ومرضى السكري غير المصابين بسكري القدم . معظم مرضى سكري القدم كانوا مع مدة اصابة بالسكري طويلة تصل اكثر من عشر سنوات(معدل الاصابة مع انحراف قياسي يساوي 13.28+7.73).كما اضهرت الدراسة ارتفاع في مستويات OPG لمرضى القدم السكري من الذكور مقارنة بالاناث , مع انخفاض في مستويات CRP للذكور مقارنة بالاناث.لقد كان هناك ترابط موجب بين ال FBSو OPGولكنه لم يبلغ القيمة الاحصائية المعنوية.ولكن هناك ترابط سالب OPG والCRP لقد كان الاستنتاج من هذة الدراسة بان مستويات ال FBS وOPG يكون لها دورفي تولد قروح القدم السكري والCRP يزداد نتيجة التهاب هذة القروح, وان تطوير علاج جديد ضد مسار الموت المبرمج للخلايا قد يؤدي الى شفاء قروح القدم السكري.


Article
THE VALUE OF PANORAMIC RADIOGRAPHY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF MAXILLARY SINUS DISEASES
الفحص ألشعاعي لتجويف الفك الأعلى

Author: Tahrir N. N. Aldelaimi تحرير نزال الدليمي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2007 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 59-64
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Diseases of the maxillary sinus may create symptoms that the patient might interpret as of dental origin, and conversely, dental diseases may adversely influence the health of the sinusObjective:To interpret the panoramic radiograph of maxillary sinus in a sample from Anbar population, Methods:120 subject aged from 30 to 70 years, mean age 58 years , who underwent orthopantomographic examination for different medical & dental treatment purposes including males (56%) and females (44%) . Panoramic radiographs were taken in College of Dentistry, Anbar University, Ramady City, Anbar. With Cranex – Soredex panoramic x-ray machine (Helsinki, Finland).Results: Normal maxillary sinus were found in (58%) while radiographical changes (maxillary sinus findings) were found in (42%) including mucosal thickening were (32%) and (4%) of the findings were classified as mucous retention cysts.Conclusion:The maxillary sinus findings were more common in fifth decade of life and slightly higher percentage in male group and the majority of findings were found in dentate subjects.Key words :axillary sinus,OPG,Mucosal thickening.

خلفية الدراسة : أمراض التجويف الفكي تشكل أعراض وعلامات التي لها أسباب سنية وكذلك من الممكن أن تكون أمراض الفم والأسنان سبب مؤثر في حالة التجويف الفكي.هدف الدراسة : لفحص التجويف الفكي لعينة ما في محافظة الانبار باستخدام جهاز الأشعة الفكية.طرق الدراسة : تم فحص 120 مريضا" بين 30 – 70 سنة بالفحص الشعاعي وهم 56 % ذكور و 44 % إناث في كلية طب الأسنان / جامعة الانبار .النتائج : وجد ان 42 % من المرضى لديهم علامات مرضية للتجويف الفكي .الاستنتاجات : أكثر العلامات المرضية وجدت في العقد الخامس من العمر ومن الذكور بنسبة أكثر من الإناث .الكلمات المفاتيح : تجويف الفك الأعلى , الأشعة الفكية , تليف الأنسجة الرخوة .


Article
Mandibular canal measurements in relation to the lower first molar and base border of the mandible

Author: Dr. Fatin Kh. Abbas, B.D.S., M.Sc.,Rad. د. فاتن عباس
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2012 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 240-244
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The mandibular canal appears below or superimposed over the apices of themandibular molar teeth but it has some variations regarding its distance to both lowerfirst molar and the base border of the mandible that may make a problem specially forthe oral surgeon in his work during operations like implantation, so, this study wasdone to estimate the position of the mandibular canal and its relation to the lower firstmolar and the base border of the mandible by the aid of digital panoramicradiographs.The sample of this study was collected from patients who attended Al-Karamaspecialized center for dentistry. Forty patients were selected in this study with the agerange between 20-60 years (males and females) that divided in to four groupsaccording to a special criteria. Forty digital views (OPG) were taken for Iraqi patients,using computerized digital panoramic x-ray machine. All radiographs were examinedand then the position of the mandibular canal for each patient was estimated.The results revealed that the mandibular canal is most commonly located awayfrom the root apices of lower first molar, and the distance between the mandibularcanal and the base border of the mandible is indirectly proportional with age.

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