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Article
Searching for Goal by Mobile Robot with Collision-Free Motion in Unknown Environment

Authors: Turki Y. Abdalla تركي يونس عبد الله --- Seaar J. Al_Duboni سُئار جواد الدبوني
Journal: Basrah Journal for Engineering Science مجلة البصرة للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: Print: 18146120; Online: 23118385 Year: 2012 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 89-100
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Obstacle avoidance and path planning are from the most important problems in mobile robots, especially in unknown environment . In this paper, we proposed an approach for mobile robot navigation combining path planning and obstacle avoidance. Methods such as obstacle avoidance are inspired from the nature, and have been developed by fuzzy logic to train an intelligent robot in unknown environment. The model of the robot has two driving wheels and the linear velocity and azimuth of the two wheels are independently controlled using PID controller. Inputs are obtained from ultrasonic sensors mounted on it.

تجنّب العقابت إثناء حركةِ الروبوت النقال مِنْ المشاكلِ الأكثر أهميةً، خصوصاًفي البيئاتِ غير المعروفة. في هذا البحث، تم اقتراح أسلوب من اجل الملاحة التيتَدْمجُ جزءان منفصلان هما تخطيط الطريق إلى الهدف وتجنّبِ عق ا بت إثناء الح رك ة وذلك من خلال تطوير جهاز سيطرةِ ضبابيِ . إن الروبوت النقَّالَ د يرك البيئة منخلال ستّة عشرَ متحسس من نوع سونارَ ( موجات فوق الصّوتية)؛ هذهالمتحسسات مثبتة حول الجسمِ . إنّ الإستراتيجياتَ التفاعليةَ المستعملة في هذهالبحث أستندت على المعلوماتِ الحسّيةِ ا ف لوق الصّوتيةِ والتفاعلاتِ الآنيةِ النسبيةِبين الروبوت ﻴﻨﻟﻘﺠﺔﺒﺎﺌولا ﻴﱠِِﻨﻟﻘﺠﺔﺒﺎﺌولا ﻴﱠِِﻨﻟﻘﺠﺔﺒﺎﺌولا ﻴﱠِِﻨﻟﻘﺠﺔﺒﺎﺌولا ﻴﱠِِﻨﻟﻘﺠﺔﺒﺎﺌولا ﻴﱠِِﻨﻟﻘﺠﺔﺒﺎﺌولا ﻴﱠِِﻨﻟﻘﺠﺔﺒﺎﺌولا ﻴﱠِِﻨﻟﻘﺠﺔﺒﺎﺌولا ﻴﱠِِﻨﻟﻘﺠﺔﺒﺎﺌولا ﻴﱠِِﻨﻟﻘﺠﺔﺒﺎﺌولا ﻴﱠِِﻨﻟﻘﺠﺔﺒﺎﺌولا ﻴﱠِِﻨﻟﻘﺠﺔﺒﺎﺌولا لﱠِِهولةِ . تم تصميم محاكي الروبوت النقَّالِ لإختِبار ﻤ ﻤ ﻤ ﻤ ﻤ ﻤ ﻤ ﻤ ﻤﻤﻤﻤ ﻤ وتَطبيق أنظمةِ السيطرةَ بالإضافة إلى معرفة سلوكَ ه في البيئاتِ المختلفةِ . يحتوي نموذج الروبوت النقَّالِ على عجلتي قيادة حيث يتم السيطرة على العجلتين من خلال زاويةوذلك بواسطة جهازي سيطرة من (Velocity ) و سرعته (Azimuth ) ميل الروبوتمن أجل حصول (Genetic Algorithm ) تم استعمال الخوارزمية الوراثية .(PID) نوعلتتبع طريقِ الإنسان الآلي النقَّال. (PID) على أفضل تصميم لمسيطر


Article
Leader Follower Tracking with Obstacle Avoidance using Circular Paths Algorithm

Author: Abdulmuttalib T. Rashid عبدالمطلب تركي رشيد
Journal: Basrah Journal for Engineering Science مجلة البصرة للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: Print: 18146120; Online: 23118385 Year: 2016 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Pages: 29-47
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

This paper deals with a new algorithm called circularpaths for leader follower tracking with obstacle avoidanceusing. In leader-follower tracking, one robot acts as a leaderwith defined motion and the other robot acts as a follower whichposition itself in accordance with the position and orientation ofthe leader. The leader movement is dependent on an assignedtrajectory and the follower movement is dependent on thecircular paths algorithm. In each step, this algorithm constructsa circular path using three points represented by the next stepposition of the leader robot, the last step position and thecurrent step position of the follower robot. The next position ofthe follower robot lays on the circumstance of the circular pathand the orientation is represented by the tangent line to thiscircular path at this next position of the follower robot. Whenan obstacle intersect any circular path for the follower robot,then this path must be replaced by another circular pathconstruct from the two positions of the follower robot and theleader position is replaced by the tangent point to the obstacle.Simulation results illustrate the soundness of this algorithm


Article
Simulation of Moving Obstacle Avoidance for Auto Guided Land Vehicle

Authors: Mohammed Sahib Mahdi Altaei --- Laith A. Al-Ani --- Qudama Khamis
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2018 Volume: 21 Issue: 4 Pages: 46-56
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

This paper concerned with simulating the behavior of designed control system that tries to govern robot to safely passing a path containing moving obstacle ahead. The used robot carried some specific sensors are used to sense the existence of obstacles along the moving path, these sensors are IR sensor that used to detect the obstacle and visual sensor that used to measure the size and the distance for the obstacle. In order to overcome the obstacle, the controller assumes new transient away point at the far side of the obstacle, and guides the robot to pass through that point. The position of such transient point is depending on the size and direction of the obstacle. Then, whenever the robot close to the transient point, the controller guides the robot to identify the intended path again. This algorithm enables the robot to move far away from the moving obstacle and then back it into planned path.


Article
Obstacle Avoidance Techniques for Robot Path Planning

Author: Arif A. AL-Qassar
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2019 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 56-65
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

This paper presents a collision-free path planning approaches based on Bézier curve and A-star algorithm for robot manipulator system. The main problem of this work is to finding a feasible collision path planning from initial point to final point to transport the robot arm from the preliminary to the very last within the presence of obstacles, a sequence of joint angles alongside the path have to be determined. To solve this problem several algorithms have been presented among which it can be mention such as Bug algorithms, A-Star algorithms, potential field algorithms, Bézier curve algorithm and intelligent algorithms. In this paper obstacle avoidance algorithms were proposed Bézier and A-Star algorithms, through theoretical studies and simulations with several different cases, it's found verify the effectiveness of the methods suggested. It's founded the Bézier algorithm is smoothing accurate, and effective as compare with the A-star algorithm, but A-star is near to shortest and optimal path to free collision avoidance. The time taken and the elapsed time to traverse from its starting position and to reach the goal are recorded the tabulated results show that the elapsed time with different cases to traverse from the start location to destination using A-star Algorithm is much less as compared to the time taken by the robot using Bézier Algorithm to trace the same path. The robot used was the Lab-Volt of 5DOF Servo Robot System Model 5250 (RoboCIM5250).


Article
Maze Maneuvering and Colored Object Tracking for Differential Drive Mobile Robot

Authors: Ammar A. Aldair --- Auday Al-Mayyahi
Journal: Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكهربائية والالكترونية ISSN: 18145892 Year: 2019 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 47-52
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

In maze maneuvering, it is needed for a mobile robot to feasibly plan the shortest path from its initialposture to the desired destination in a given environment. To achieve that, the mobile robot is combined withmultiple distance sensors to assist the navigation while avoiding obstructing obstacles and following the shortestpath toward the target. Additionally, a vision sensor is used to detect and track colored objects. A new algorithm isproposed based on different type of utilized sensors to aid the maneuvering of differential drive mobile robot in anunknown environment. In the proposed algorithm, the robot has the ability to traverse surrounding hindrances andseek for a particular object based on its color. Six infrared sensors are used to detect any located obstacles and onecolor detection sensor is used to locate the colored object. The Mobile Robotics Simulation Toolbox in Matlab isused to test the proposed algorithm. Three different scenarios are studied to prove the efficiency of the proposedalgorithm. The simulation results demonstrate that the mobile robot has successfully accomplished the tracking andlocating of a colored object without collision with hurdles.


Article
Guiding Mobile Robot by Applying Fuzzy Approach on Sonar Sensors
تَوجيه الانسان الآلي النقَّال بتَطبيق النظريةِ الضبابيةِ على محتسّساتِ السونارِ

Authors: Ahmed Rahman Jasim احمد رحمان جاسم --- Nabeel K. Abid Al- Sahib نبيل كاظم عبد الصاحب
Journal: Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal مجلة الخوارزمي الهندسية ISSN: 18181171 23120789 Year: 2010 Volume: 6 Issue: 3 Pages: 36-44
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study describes how fuzzy logic control FLC can be applied to sonars of mobile robot. The fuzzy logic approach has effects on the navigation of mobile robots in a partially known environment that are used in different industrial and society applications. The fuzzy logic provides a mechanism for combining sensor data from all sonar sensors which present different information. The FLC approach is achieved by means of Fuzzy Decision Making method type of fuzzy logic controller. The proposed controller is responsible for the obstacle avoidance of the mobile robot while traveling through a map from a home point to a goal point. The FLC is built as a subprogram based on the intelligent architecture (IA). The software program uses the Advanced Robotics Interface for Applications (ARIA), it is programmed with C++ package ( Visual C++.Net ), and Networking software is used for setup Wireless TCP/IP Ethernet-to-Serial connection between robot and PC. The results show that the developed mobile robot travels successfully from one location to another and reaches its goal after avoiding all obstacles that are located in its way. The platform mobile robot is a Pioneer 3 DX that is equipped with Sonar sensors.

تَصِفُ هذه الدراسةِ كَيفية سيطرة المنطقِ الضبابي إلى سونارِ الإنسان الآلي النقَّالِ. تُؤثر نظريةُ المنطقِ الضبابيةِ على ملاحة الإنسان الآلي النقَّالِ في بيئة معروفة جزئياً التي تستعمل في مختلفةِ الصناعات وتطبيقاتِ المجتمعِ. المنطق الضبابي يُزوّدُ آلية لدَمْج بياناتِ المحسّسِ مِنْ كُلّ محسّسات السونارِ التي تُقدّمُ المعلوماتَ المختلفةَ. إنّ نظريةَ FLC مُنجَزةُ بواسطة طريقةِ إتّخاذ القراراتِ الضبابيِة مِنْ جهازِ سيطرة المنطقِ الضبابيِ. إنّ جهازَ السيطرة المُقتَرَحَ مسؤول عن تجنّبِ عقبات الإنسان الآلي النقَّالِ بتنقله خلال خريطة مِنْ نقطة المرجع إلى نقطة الهدفِ. FLC يُبْنَى برامج ثانوية مستند على الهندسة المعماريةِ الذكيةِ (AA). يَستعملُ برنامجُ الإنسان الآلي المتقدّمةِ للتطبيقاتِ (ARIA) المبرمج بلغة ++C نوع (Visual C++.Net ِ)، وبرامج الشبكات المستعملةُ لنظام السيطرة على الارسالِ اللاسلكي الإعدادِ / إيثرنت إلى الإتّصالِ المتسلسلِ بين الإنسان الآلي والحاسبة الشخصية. تُظهر النَتائِجَ بأنّ الإنسان الآلي النقَّالَ المتطورَ يُتنقلُ بنجاح من موقع إلى آخر ويصلُ هدفَه بعد تَفادي كُلّ العقبات الواقعة في طريقِه. إنّ هيكل الإنسان آلالي النقَّالَ هو Pioneer 3 DX المُجهّز بمحسّساتِ السونارِ.


Article
Planning the Optimum Path for a Mobile Robot using Genetic Algorithm

Author: Mayada F. Abdul-Halim
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2005 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 429-439
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

One aspect of interest in robotics in planning the optimum path for a mobile robot or the optimum trajectory for link movements of a stationary robot in order to increase their efficiency. The objective of this paper is to identify the sequence of steps and processes needed for construction off-line path planning system using genetic algorithm (as we coined GPPS). In off-line path planning, the robot is given a map with the location of all obstacles in a given world. The goal is construct the shortest possible path between a pre-defined start and goal positions and then follow this path without running into the obstacles. In addition to the three basic genetic operators, a new operator is proposed here which is coined as repair operator. Repair operator eliminates infeasible path segments and removes path points from nearby obstacles. However, the shortest possible path resulted from applying genetic operators and repair operator may contain overlapping and redundant segments. Hence, to eliminate these drawbacks, a new operator is proposed which is coined as enhancement operator. Eighty experiments are tested on GPPS with different cases. These cases are taken from different perspectives: number and distribution of obstacles, size of obstacles, and number of experiments per a workspace. All experiments with these different cases give, as possible, an acceptable feasible path.

احدى المظاهر في ما يتعلق بأهمية الربوت هي تخطيط أفضل طريق للربورت المتحرك أو افضل مسار من المحركات المرتبطة ببعضها للربوت الثابت وذلك لزيادة كفاءته. الهدف من هذا البحث هو تعريف مجموعة الخطوات والعمليات اللازمة لبناء نظام تخطيط طريق لخريطة معرفة مسبقا باستخدام الخوارزمية الجينية (والذي اسميناه GPPS). في النظام الجيني المستخدم لتخطيط طريق تعطى للربورت خريطة تحوي مواقع كل الحواجز الموجودة في المساحة التي سيتحرك فيها الربوت. هدفنا هو تكوين اقصر مسار ممكن – من نقطة البداية الى نقطة النهاية المعطاة- باستخدام الخورازمية الجينية واتباع هذا الطريق بدون الاصطدام بالحواجز. اضافة للعمليات الثلاث الاساسية في الخوارزمية الجينية، استخدمت عملية جديدة اسميناها (عملية الاصلاح). عملية الاصلاح تقوم بحذف اجزاء الطريق غير الملائمة ونقاط الطريق القريبة من الحواجز. ومن هنا فان اقصر طريق ممكن – الناتج من اجراء العمليات الجينية وعملية الاصلاح- ممكن ان يحوي على اجزاء طريق متداخلة ومتكررة. ولازالة هذه العيوب اقترحنا عملية جديدة ندعى (عملية التحسين). ثمانون تجربة اجريت لاختبار (تخطيط الطريق باستخدام الخوارزمية الجينية) لحالات مختلفة من التنفيذ. تلك الحالات اخذت من عدة اوجة مختلفة: عدد وتوزيع الحواجز، حجم الحواجز، وعددالتجارب في مجال العمل الواحد. كل التجارب مع هذة الحالات المختلفة تعطي – قدر الامكان طريق ملائم مقبول.


Article
Mobile Robot Control Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Hussein A. Lafta --- Zainab Falah Hassan
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2015 Volume: 23 Issue: 2 Pages: 524-532
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

In this work , intelligent fuzzy controller for mobile robot in various (known and unknown) environments is build to control of mobile robot. A successful way of structuring the navigation problem treat with the issues of individual behavior design and action coordination. The inputs to the proposed fuzzy control method consist of a heading angle between a robot and a specified target and the distances between the robot and the obstacles to the left, front, and right to its locations, being acquired by sensors. The output of controller are the speeds of right and left wheels. Simulation results verified the effectiveness of the controller.

في هذا العمل مسيطر مضبب ذكي للروبوت المتحرك في مختلف البيئات (معروفة و غير معروفة) يتم بناؤه للسيطرة على الروبوت المتحرك.الطريقة الناجحة لتشكيل مسألة القيادة مرتبطة مع مسائل تصميم سلوك مستقل وتنسيق الفعاليات.المدخلات لطريقة المسيطر المضبب المفترض تتكون من الزاوية الرأسية بين الروبوت والهدف المحدد والمسافات بين الروبوت و العوائق إلى مواقع اليسار , اليمين و الأمام للروبوت , المكتسبة بواسطة المتحسسات .المخرجات للمسيطر هي سرع العجلات اليمنى واليسرى .نتائج المحاكاة تؤكد فعالية هذه المسيطر .

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