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Article
Electroflotocoagulation of Emulsified Cooling Oils as a Method of Pollution Control

Authors: Thamer J. Mohammed --- Dhia AL-DeenMohammed --- Abbas A.K.AL-Rikaby
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2016 Volume: 34 Issue: 8 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1636-1650
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

This research includes the removal of pollution produced from used coolant emulsion oils especially soluble oil (7201). In many types of liquid effluents, oil – water emulsions can be among the most vexing to treat, even through such streams may contain only very small quantity of oil. Untraditional oil removal operation (electroflotocoagulation) is used in this research, which consist of glass cell 102 cm in height. A sacrificial Aluminum Anode is placed on a perforated glass disc at a distance 24-cm from the bottom. Above it is placed the upper electrode, Aluminum cathode is fixed on a movable glass tube. Product water was fed into settling vessels from the outlet arm 17 cm above the glass disc. Oily flocs and aluminum hydroxide were removed by a second side arm 45.5 cm above the product water arm. Sets of experiments were carried out to find the efficiency of electroflotocoagulation to remove the concentrate soluble oil (7201) from water. Multivariables were studied such as: applied potential, space between the two electrodes, settling time and initial soluble oil (7201) concentration. These variables have effect on the soluble oil (7201) percentage removal. The experimental results were represented in two mathematical em-pirical correlations and three dimensional graphs which describe the soluble oil (7201) removal efficiency as a function of current, settling time and in the second, initial soluble oil (7201) concentration respectively.


Article
Effect of Oily and Watery Extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis as Preservative in Minced Meat
تأثير المستخلص الزيتي والمائي لنبات اكليل الجبل Rosmarinus officinalis كمادة حافظة في اللحوم المفرومة

Author: Majid M Abid مجيد محمود عبد
Journal: The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine المجلة الطبية البيطرية العراقية ISSN: 16095693 Year: 2011 Volume: 35 Issue: 2 Pages: 156-160
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The effect of various concentration of Rosmarinus officinalis on the total count of bacteria in minced meat stored at temperature between 4 – 6oC for periods up to 14 days is examined. The results showed that the oily extract at the concentration of 20 – 100 mg/ml and the watery extract of the concentration of 120 – 200 mg/gm have a significant effect (P<0.05) in comparison with blank treatment No significant variation ware found at (P<0.05) in the treatment with the watery and oily extracts

تم دراسة تأثير المستخلص الزيتي والمائي لنبات اكليل الجبل وبتراكيز مختلفة للمستخلصات على العدد الكلي للبكتريا في اللحم المفروم والمحفوظ بدرجة حرارة o6 – 4 م ولفترات مختلفة اقصاها 14 يوم. وقد وجد بأن المستخلص الزيتي وبتركيز 100 – 20 ملغم/مل والمستخلص المائي من 200 – 120 ملغم/غم كان لها تأثير معنوياً وعلى مستوى (P<0.05) مقارنة بمعاملة السيطرة. ولم تسجل هنالك أي فروقات معنوية بمستوى بين جميع المعاملات المضافة إليها المستخلص الزيتي أو المائي.


Article
Forward-Reverse Osmosis Processes for Oily Wastewater Treatment
عمليات التنافذ الامامي-العكسي لمعالجة المياه الملوثة بالزيوت

Authors: Hasan Farhood Makki حسن فرهود مكي --- Noor Hammood Zghair نور حمود زغير
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2014 Volume: 20 Issue: 7 Pages: 191-212
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In this study, the feasibility of Forward–Reverse osmosis processes was investigated for treating the oily wastewater. The first stage was applied forward osmosis process to recover pure water from oily wastewater. Sodium chloride (NaCl) and magnesium chloride (MgCl2) salts were used as draw solutions and the membrane that was used in forward osmosis (FO) process was cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane. The operating parameters studied were: draw solution concentrations (0.25 – 0.75 M), oil concentration in feed solution (FS) (100-1000 ppm), the temperature of FS and draw solution (DS) (30 - 45 °C), pH of FS (4-10) and the flow rate of both DS and FS (20 - 60 l/h). It was found that the water flux and oil concentration in FS increase by increasing the concentration of draw solutions, the flow rate of FS and the temperature for a limit (40oC), then, the water flux and oil concentration decrease with increasing the temperature because of happening the internal concentration polarization phenomenon. By increasing the oil concentration in FS and the flow rate of the DS, the water flux and oil concentration in FS decreased, while it had a fluctuated behavior with increasing pH of oily wastewater. It was found also that MgCl2 gives water flux higher than NaCl. So the values of resistance to solute diffusion within the membrane porous support layer were 55.93 h/m and 26.21 h/m for NaCl and MgCl2 respectively. The second stage was applied reverse osmosis process using polyamide (thin film composite (TFC)) membrane for separating the fresh water from a diluted (NaCl) solution using different parameters such as draw solution concentration (0.08–0.16 M), feed flow rate (20–40 l/h).

في هذه الدراسة, تم بحث مدى ملائمة عمليات التنافذ (الامامي– العكسي) لمعالجة المياه الملوثة بالزيوت. في المرحلة الاولى طبقت عملية التنافذ الامامي لاسترجاع الماء النقي من المياه الملوثة بالزيوت. استخدمت كل من املاح كلوريد الصوديوم (NaCl ) و كلوريد المغنيسيوم (MgCl2) كمحاليل سحب, واستخدم غشاء السليلوز تراي اسيتيت خلال عملية التنافذ الامامي. الظروف التشغيلية التي تم دراستها هي : تركيز محاليل السحب (0,25 – 0,75مول / لتر), تركيز الزيت في محلول القيم (100 – 1000 جزء بالمليون), درجة حامضية اللقيم (4 – 10), درجة حرارة محلول اللقيم ومحلول السحب (30 - 45 مo) و معدل الجريان الحجمي لكل من محلول اللقيم ومحلول السحب (20 - 60 لتر/ساعة) , وجد ضمن مدى الظروف التشغيلية التي تم دراستها, ان معدل تدفق الماء وتركيز الزيت في محلول اللقيم يزداد بزيادة تركيز محلول السحب , معدل الجريان الحجمي لمحلول اللقيم و درجة الحرارة لمحاليل اللقيم والسحب لغاية (40 مo), بعد ذلك, يقل معدل تدفق الماء وتركيز الزيت في محلول اللقيم مع زيادة درجة الحرارة بسبب حدوث ظاهرة استقطاب التركيز الداخلي. بزيادة تركيز الزيت في محلول اللقيم و معدل الجريان الحجمي لمحلول السحب, يقل معدل تدفق الماء وتركيز الزيت في محلول اللقيم. بينما وجد ان له سلوك متذبذب بزيادة درجة حامضية اللقيم. كذلك وجد بأن املاح كلوريد المغنيسيوم تعطي معدل تدفق ماء اعلى من املاح كلوريد الصوديوم. كانت قيم المقاومة لانتشار المذاب داخل الطبقة الداعمة المسامية للغشاء ( 55,9 ساعة/ م) و ( 26,2 ساعة/ م) لكل من كلوريد الصوديوم و كلوريد المغنيسيوم على التوالي. المرحلة الثانية تم تطبيق عملية التنافذ العكسي لفصل الماء النقي من محلول كلوريد الصوديوم المخفف باستخدام متغيرات مختلفة كتركيز محلول السحب (0,08 – 0,16مول / لتر) ومعدل الجريان الحجمي لمحلول السحب (20 -40 لتر/ساعة).


Article
Treatment of Simulated Oily Wastewater by Ultrafiltration and Nanofiltration Processes

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Abstract

A study in the treatment and reuse of oily wastewater generated from the process of fuel oil treatment of gas turbine power plant was performed. The feasibility of using hollow fiber ultrafiltration (UF) membrane and nanofiltration (NF) membrane type polyamide thin-film composite in a pilot plant was investigated. Three different variables: pressure (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 bars), oil content (10, 20, 30 and 40 ppm), and temperature (15, 20, 30 and 40 ᵒC) were employed in the UF process while TDS was kept constant at 150 ppm. Four different variables: pressure (2, 3, 4 and 5 bar), oil content (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 ppm), total dissolved solids (TDS) (100, 200,300 and 400 ppm), and temperature (15, 20, 30 and 40 ᵒC) were manipulated with the help of statistical method of Taguchi in the RO process. Analysis of variable (ANOVA) and optimum condition was investigated. The study shows that pressure has the greatest impact on the flux of UF process, while temperature and pressure have similar contribution on flux of NF process. The temperature seems to have the greatest effect on TDS rejection. It was noticed that more than 96% oil removal can be achieved with flux of 624 L/m2.hr by UF process and that the fouling mechanism of UF process follows the cake/gel layer filtration model. It was observed that 100% removal of oil content can be achieved along with 79% for the TDS rejection and flux of 65 L/m2.hr by NF process. The result shows fouling in NF process follows the cake filtration model. It was concluded that the observed values are within ±5% of that the predicted which reflects a strong representative model. The treated wastewater has the characteristics that it can be reused in the process to reduce the operating cost.

Keywords

Taguchi --- UF --- NF --- membrane --- oily wastewater --- reuse.


Article
Treatment of Oily Wastewater Produced From Old Processing Plant of North Oil Company
معالجة المخلفات النفطية الناتجة من وحدة التركيز القديم لشركة نفط الشمال

Author: Dr. Faris Hammoodi Al-Ani
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2012 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 23-34
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

The main objectives of this research were to study and analyses oily wastewater characteristics originating from old-processing plant of North Oil Company and to find a suitable and simple method to treat the waste so it can be disposed off safely. The work consists of two stages; the first was the study of oily wastewater characteristics and its negative impacts. The results indicated that oil and grease were the most dominant pollutant with concentration range between 1069 – 3269.3 mg/l that must be removed; other pollutants were found to be within Iraqi and EPA standards. The next stage was the use of these characteristics to choose the proper technology to treat that wastewater. This stage was divided into two stages: the first stage was a jar tests to find the optimum doses of alum, lime and powdered activated carbon (PAC). The second stage was the treatment by a batch pilot plant constructed for this purpose employing the optimum doses as determined from the first stage to treat the waste using a flotation unit followed by a filtration-adsorption unit. The removal efficiencies of flotation unit for oil and grease, COD, and T.S.S found to be 0.9789, 0.974, and 0.9933, respectively, while the removal efficiency for T.D.S was very low 0.0293. From filtration – adsorption column the removal efficiencies of oil and grease, T.D.S, COD, and T.S.S were found to be 0.9486, 0.8908, 0.6870, and 0.7815, respectively. The overall removal efficiencies of pilot plant were 0.9986, 0.8939, 0.9921, and 0.9950, respectively. The results indicated that this type of treatment was the simplest and most effective method that can be used to treat produced oily wastewater before disposal.

الهدف من البحث هو دراسة خواص المخلفات النفطية ومحاولة ايجاد طريقة مناسبة وسهلة لمعالجتها والوصول بها الى حد مقبول للطرح. تضمن البحث مرحلتين , الأولى هي دراسة خواص للمخلفات النفطية ، حيث بينت النتائج إن هناك زيادة في تراكيز بعض العناصر وخاصة الدهون والزيوت. المرحلة الثانية انقسمت إلى قسمين, الأول تضمن أجراء فحوصات الجرة لإيجاد الجرعة المثالية الشب,الجير,ومسحوق الكاربون المنشط. أما الثاني فهو تصميم وإنشاء محطة بحثية تألفت من وحدتي معالجة رئيسيتين هي التطويف و الترشيح –الامتزاز. بينت النتائج ان لعملية التطويف القابلية العالية لإزالة الدهون والزيوت ,COD ,T.S.S وبمعدل ازالة 0.9789, 0.9740, و0.9933, على التوالي. أما عملية الترشيح - الامتزاز فكانت نسبة إزالة جميع المواد عالية جدا بمعدل إزالة 0.9486, 0.8908, 0.6870, و0.7815 للدهون والزيوت, T.D.S, COD,و T.S.S على التوالي. وكان معدل الإزالة الكلية 0.9986, 0.8939, 0.9921, و0.9950 على التوالي.


Article
Environmental Study for the Oil Pollutants Treatment of Wadi Al Naft Water/Kirkuk
الدراسة البيئية لمعالجة الملوثات النفطية في مياه وادي النفط/كركوك

Authors: Muhannad J. Al-Kazwini --- Faris H. Al-Ani --- Maysoun A. Al-Najar
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2009 Volume: 27 Issue: 8 Pages: 1474-1484
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Wadi Al Naft is a narrow valley originates from the confluence of two tributarieswithin the industrial region of (BaBa GurGur). The valley is being used to discharge theoily wastewater from the North Oil Company (NOC) premises in addition to the naturaloil seepages within the industrial region. The oily wastewater is a polluting source to theagricultural lands at Hawija district and further lands. The study included (111) samplesof oily wastewater from (13) sampling stations (9 on the first tributary and 3 on thesecond tributary) along the course of Wadi Al Naft and its tributaries. The samplingprocedure was performed for a continuous period of seven months (Jan.2007-May2007),in addition at selective seasonal periods during April and July. It was found that the oilconcentration plays a major role in polluting the wastewater discharged to the channel;which was (44%) above the permissible standard.

وادي النفط هو وادي ضيق يتألف من ملتقى رافدين ضمن المنطقة الصناعية (بابا كركر). الوادييستخدم لطرح مياه الفضلات النفطية من اقسام شركة نفط الشمال بالاضافة الي النضوحات النفطيةالطبيعية ضمن المنطقة الصناعية. مياه الفضلات النفطية هي مصدر لتلوث الاراضي الزراعية فيقضاء الحويجة واراضي أبعد. تضمنت الدراسة ( 111 ) نموذج لمياه الفضلات النفطية تم جمعها من13 ) محطة ( 9 منها تقع على الرافد الاول و 3 على الرافد الثاني) على طول مجرى الوادي وروافده. )استمرت اجراءات جمع العينات مدة سبعة أشهر (كانون الثاني 2007 - تموز 2007 )، اضافة الى اختيا رفترات فصلية خلال شهري نيسان وتموز. وجد ان تركيز النفط يلعب دورا كبيرا في تلويث ميا هالفضلات المطروحة الى القناة، حيث تجاوز بنسبة ( 44 %) المحددات المسموح بها.


Article
Treatment of Oily Wastewater by Induced Air Flotation
معالجه المياه الملوثه بالنفط بطريقه التطويف

Authors: Thamer .J.Mohammed --- Shahad .S. Mohammed --- Zaidoon khalaf
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2013 Volume: 31 Issue: 18 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 88-99
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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In this study induced air flotation (IAF) through Perspex glass column (ID 10cm and 150 cm heights) has been studied experimentally to treat the oily wastewater of Iraqi North Oil Company. The column operated in a semi-batch mode (batch wastewater, continuous air injection). Different samples of oily wastewater (30,100,800ppm) were used. Air introduced at different superficial gas velocity through porous (pore size 120µm) distributor which located at the bottom of column. Different speed of the stirrer (50 to 250) rpm was used to indicate it effect on the removal efficiency of oil from water.The study showed that the removal efficiency of oil was increased with increasing initial oil concentration, it reached up to 76 %. While it became 89% when using stirrer.The experimental results were translated to a computer program to predicate empirical correlation.

في دراسه عمليه التطويف المستحث من خلال عمود التطويف (القطر الداخلي 10 سم وبارتفاع 150 سم) تمت عمليه معالجه الماء الملوث بالنفط لشركه نفط الشمال العراقيه. العمود يعمل بنظام شبه وجبه (وجبه من الماء الملوث وضخ للهواء مستمر). تم اخذ عينات مختلفه من الماء الملوث بالنفط بتراكيز(30,100,800) جزء بالمليون. الهواء الداخل بسرع مختلفه من خلال الثقوب (حجم الثقب 120 مايكرومتر) حيث ان الموزع يقع في نهايه العمود. سرع مختلفه من الخلاط المستعمل تتراوح من (50الى 150)دوره بالدقيقه لمعرفه مدى تاثير هذه السرع على كفاءه ازاله النفط من الماء. الدراسه بينت ان كفاءه الفصل للنفط تزداد بزياده التركيز الابنتدائي للنفط , وقفزن من 76% الى 89% باستخدام الخلاط. النتائج العمليه ترجمت بواسطه انظمه الحاسوب لاسناد الارتباط التجريبي.


Article
Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Degradation for Treatment of Oil from Wastewater
ازالة الزيوت من المياه الملوثة باستعمال طريقة التحفيز الضوئي الغير متجانس

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In the present study, advanced oxidation process / heterogeneous photocatalytic process (UV/TiO2/Fenton) system was investigated to the treatment of oily wastewater. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of hydrogen peroxide concentration H2O2, initial amount of the iron catalyst Fe+2, pH, temperature, amount of TiO2 and the concentration of oil in the wastewater. The removal efficiency for the system UV/TiO2/Fenton at optimal conditions and dosage (H2O2 = 400mg/L, Fe+2 = 40mg/L, pH=5, temperature =30oC, TiO2=75mg/L) for 1000mg/L load was found to be 77%. Aluminum foil cover around the reactor and air bubbling were utilized in the experiments of photo Fenton UV/ H2O2/Fe+2 homogeneous and heterogeneous systems in order to improve the removal efficiency. The removal efficiency was improved to 81% for UV/TiO2/Fenton system . The reaction was found to be of a first order throughout the systems.

تم في هذا البحث التحقق من امكانية استخدام طريقة الأكسدة المتقدمة / الغير متجانسة (UV/TiO2/Fenton) لمعالجة مياه الصرف الملوثة بالزيت. تم دراسة تاثير تركيز بيروكسيد الهيدروجي H2O2 ، التركيز الابتدائي لايون الحديد المحفز +F2، والدالة الحامضية ودرجة الحرارة، تركيز مادة TiO2والتركيز الاولي للزيت في مياه الملوثة. تم التوصل الى ان اكفئ إزالة كانت عند تركيز بيروكسيد الهيروجين =400 ملغم /لتر وتركيز الحديد المحفز =40ملغم /لتر ودالة حامضية =5 و درجة حرارة =30 درجة مئوية وتركيز ثاني اوكسيد التيتانيوم 75 ملغم / لتر عند تركيز اولي للزيت =1000 ملغم/ لتر بلغت 77%.بهدف زيادة الكفاءة تم تغطية جدار المفاعل بورق الالمنيوم اضافة الى ضخ الهواء مع المواد المتفاعلة, وبذلك ازدادت نسبة الازالة للنظام UV/TiO2/Fentonلتبلغ 81 % .


Article
Produced Water Treatment Using Ultrafiltration and Nanofiltration Membranes
معالجة الماء المنتج بأستخدام أغشية الترشيح الفائق والترشيح النانوي

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The application of ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) processes in the handling of raw produced water have been investigated in the present study. Experiments of both ultrafiltration and nanofiltration processes are performed in a laboratory unit, which is operated in a cross-flow pattern. Various types of hollow fiber membranes were utilized in this study such as poly vinyl chloride (PVC) UF membrane, two different polyether sulfone (PES) NF membranes, and poly phenyl sulfone PPSU NF membrane. It was found that the turbidity of the treated water is higher than 95 % by using UF and NF membranes. The chemical oxygen demand COD (160 mg/l) and Oil content (26.8 mg/l) were found after treatment according to the allowable limits set by means of world health organization WHO water quality standards. The final composition of SO4-2 (110 mg/l) and NO3 (48.4 mg/l) components within the produced water after treatment were agreed with the permissible limits of WHO, whereas Cl-1 (8900 mg/l) component is not in the allowable limits. Finally by the use of PVC, PES and PPSU hollow fiber membranes; this method is seen to be not sufficient to remove the salinity of the produced water.

في هذا العمل تم دراسة تطبيق عمليات الترشيح الفائق(UF) والترشيح النانوي (NF) في معالجة الماء المصاحب للنفط. تم اجراء تجارب مختبرية لكلتا عمليات الترشيح الفائق والترشيح النانوي بطريقة الجريان المتقاطع. تم أستخدام عدة انواع من أغشية الألياف المجوفة في هذه الدراسة مثل أغشية بولي فاينيل كلورايد PVC UF وغشائين مختلفين من بولي ايثر سلفون PES NF وغشاء بولي فينيل سلفون .PPSU NF وجد ان عكورة الماء المعالج هي اكثر من 95 % بأستخدام أغشية UF و NF. الاوكسجين الكيمياوي المطلوبCOD (160 ملغم/لتر) ومحتوى الزيوت (26.8 ملغم/لتر) وجدو بعد المعالجة وفقا الى الحدود المسموح بها حسب مواصفات الماء القياسية لمنظمة الصحة العالمية WHO . ان التركيز النهائي لمركبات SO4-2 (110 ملغم/لتر) و NO3(48.4 ملغم/لتر) خلال الماء المصاحب للنفط بعد المعالجة قد توافقت مع الحدود المسموح بها من قبل منظمة الصحة العالمية WHO, في حين مركب Cl-1 ( 8900 ملغم/لتر) ليس من ضمن الحدود السموح بها. اخيرا بأستخدام اغشية الالياف المجوفة من نوع PVC, PES و PPSUفان هذه الطريقة غير كافية لازالة ملوحة المياه المنتجة.


Article
Ultrasonic Technique in Treating Wastewater by Electrocoagulation

Authors: Najem A. Al-Rubaiey --- Mohammed G. AlBarazanjy
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 1 Part (C) Pages: 54-62
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Electrocoagulation Treatment can be considered as a favorable toolfor the removal of many pollutants of various forms of wastewater. Thesepollutants may include the removal of colloidal, the breaking-up of emulsionsand heavy metals. This process consists of the disintegration of the anodes(usually iron or aluminum), exciting the creation of coagulant mixtures inwastewater. That will aid to coagulate contaminants and generate bubbles infavor of mixing and elimination of solids suspension by flotation. Recently, thearrangement of using this technique with other treatment tools has turned out tobe an interesting subject leading to an improvement in the removal efficiency ofthe treatment. In this study, a combined treatment of electrocoagulation andultrasound has been applied to treat three most common wastewaters in oilindustry. The ultrasound-electrocoagulation removal efficiencies for the removalof oil, suspended bentonite and zinc have been evaluated here. In this work, asynthetic wastewater would be treated using electrocoagulation technique toreduce turbidity caused by pollutants. This process has been done in a batchreactor equipped with aluminum/iron electrodes with and without agitation. Theeffects of one of the most important parameter, i.e. applied voltage on turbidityhave been studied. In addition, the effect of using ultrasonic has been alsoevaluated. It was found when ultrasonic used with electrocoagulation, theturbidity increased for suspended bentonite and oily wastewaters and animprovement in removal efficiency for the heavy metals pollutants. The resultswere compared and discussed.

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