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Article
Open bite in Iraq (A national survey)

Author: Akram F. Al-Huwaizi اكرم فيصل الحويزي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 81-85
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Backgroung: Open bite is a common malocclusion affecting children and adults.Materials and method: About seven thousand 13 year olds with no history of orthodontic treatment were selected from six governorates (Baghdad the capital, Ninevah, Basrah, Diyala, Anbar and Najaf). An intra-oral clinical examination was used to examine anterior and posterior open bite.Results: Anterior open bite (-4 to -1mm) was found in 2.2% and posterior open bite was found in 1.5% of the sample (0.83% unilateral and 0.63% bilateral) both being more prevalent among females.

Keywords

Open bite --- prevalence --- adolescent


Article
Anterior open bite :causative factors and diagnosis

Author: Anfal A Al–Ani
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2011 Volume: 11 Issue: SpIss Pages: S136-S143
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

ABSTRACT The real difficulty behind the treatment of open bite is the easy relapse, for it has a multifactorial nature. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the reliability of two differential ways in the diagnosis of the open bites, looking out for the causative factors, aiding in more specific treatment plan and less relapse. Materials and Methods: A sample of 53 anterior open bite cases, all in the post–pubertal and early adulthood period (17–25 years), was assessed twice, clinically and cephalometrically. Due to clinical assessments, the whole sample was grouped as “Morphogenetic” and “Functional” groups. The same sample was also cephalometrically assessed and grouped as “Skeletal” and “Dento–alveolar” using mandibular plane angle, suspected that the morphogenetic group clinically matches the cephalometrically assessed skeletal group in number; also the functional group clinically matches the cephalometrically assessed Dento–alveolar group in number. Student’s t–test indicated a weak agreement between clinical judgment and cephalometric evaluation (p < 0.001). Results: Unexpectedly, the sample which assessed as skeletal hyper–divergent cephalometrically, half of it in fact was classified as functional cases clinically. This misdiagnosis may lead to inadequate treatment plan, in which relapse should be highly expected. Conclusions: These findings highlighted that, it is not enough to depend on “cephalometric evaluation” alone to design the treatment plan for open bite cases. Clinical evaluation is also important to point out the real causative factors for designing an adequate treatment plan (i.e., rehabilitation of the soft tissue bad habits, when needed) to reduce the prevalence of relapse


Article
Age differences for Class I open bite malocclusion among adolescence (Lateral cephalometric study)

Author: Hind T Jarjees
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2005 Volume: 5 Issue: 6 Pages: 145-153
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The purpose of this study is to determine the age differencesfor open bite malocclusion concerning facial skeletaland dentoalveolar height.The study was carried out on a sample of 50 students (24males and 26 females) aged 12–15 years with Class I occlusionselected according to certain criteria among the students ofsecondary schools in the center of Mosul City. The samplewas divided into two age groups: 12–13 years old, and 14–15years old.Lateral cephalometric radiograph was taken for each subject.Twenty one cephalometric measurements (nine angularand twelve linear) and five ratios had been determined. Thedata were statistically analyzed using Statistical Package forSocial Sciences.The results revealed that males showed significant increasein total posterior facial height, upper posterior facial heightand ramus height with increasing age, while females showedincrease of upper anterior dental height and decrease theratio between upper posterior dental height and upper anteriordental height with increasing age.Concerning angles, females approved significant increaseof the angle formed by the intersection between occlusalplane and palatal plane (OP–PP), while males showed a slightdecrease of the angle of palatal plane inclination in relation toanterior cranial base (SN–PP angle) with increasing age.


Article
Clear and Fixed Retainer's Outcomes After Orthodontic Ally Treated Open Bite Cases : Clinical Study

Author: Arkan Muslim Al-Azzawi
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2016 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 271-276
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

There is currently a lack of scientific evidence to about prolong retention of open bite malocclusion, from this point of view the idea of this paper start to feel free to change the protocol of wearing of clear retainer in open bite malocclusion because great satisfactions of patients to this type of retainers to see the final outcome of clear and fixed retainer in retention of orthodontic ally treated open bite cases. A sample of 15 orthodontics patients suffer from open bite malocclusion included in this study and 10 of them selected to be involved in this comparative study and 5 cases excluded because the discontinue the consent form of this research. Patient’s age ranging from 16 -20 years old. The overbite measurements were done over three time frames these were zero day time of removal of fixed appliances and after six months and after one year by digital vernia. The result of the present study was encouraging to change the protocol of wearing of clear retainer with the help of fixed upper and lower from canine to canine retainer thus repeated measures ANOVA test shows highly significant difference between overbite measurements over three periods of time and Bonferroni test clarify there is highly significant difference between time frame measurements. In conclusion to this paper the holy recommendation for retention after orthodontically treated open bite cases is using clear retainer in upper arch and upper and lower canine to canine fixed retainers with change of protocol of wearing of clear retainer to 24 hours except meal time at least for six month and if extended to one year this will give marvelous result in regards to overbite measurements this will apparently improve the overbite measurement.


Article
Cranial Parameters Assessment of Open Bite with Short Upper Anterior Facial Height

Authors: Hussian A Obaidi --- Huda A Al-Sarraf
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2013 Volume: 13 Issue: 23 Pages: 501-507
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The aims of this study are planned to evaluate the cranial base parameters of the short upper anterior facial height of open bite occlusion and compare them with the normal occlusion. Materials and Methods: The total sample of this study was 48 cases, divided into 12 case for each male and female of the normal class 1 molar occlusion and short upper facial height with open bite cases. The age of the patients was ranged between 13-15 years. A lateral cephalometric radiograph film was taken. All the cephalometric x-rays were analyzed to evaluate the cranial parameters and the upper anterior facial height. The data subjected to statistical analysis by using student t-test to distinguish the significant differences at 0.05 level for the short upper anterior facial height and to record the cranial parameters of the sample. Results: The comparison of the cranial parameters between the normal and open bite occlusions , the male expressed no significant difference ( at 0.05 level ) in the parameters except the liner (S-Ar) and the angular (N-S-Ba, N-S-Po and N-S-Co).While the female displayed no significant difference (at 0.05 level) in parameters except (N-S-Ba and N-S-Po angles). Conclusions: The short upper anterior facial height with anterior open bite case has influences on the cranial base development especially on (S-Ar, N-S-Ba, N-S-Po and N-S-Co)

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