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Article
Prevalence of over and under weight among school children in Mosul

Authors: Mazin M. Fawzi مازن محمود فوزي --- Zaid M. Yassen زيد مؤيد ياسين
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2008 Volume: 34 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-8
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of over and under weight in children aged 6-14 years in Mosul city and to observe the important risk factors.
Methods: A cross-sectional study of four governmental primary schools in Mosul city with a total of 2056 child aged 6-14 years were included. Analysis of the data was done by using SPSS and excel computer systems, X2 test was used for statistical analysis.
Results: The study reveals that the prevalence of under weight is 6.8%; on the other hand the prevalence of over weight and obesity were 11.3% and 9.8% respectively. Also the study shows that about three quarters of over weight and obese students spend three or more hours daily in watching television, and (44.2%) of them eat more than three meals per day.
Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are prevalent problems in Mosul, it is valuable to conduct a study to evaluate the risk factors.

الهدف : تهدف الدراسة إلى حساب معدل انتشار زيادة ونقصان الوزن عند أطفال المدارس الابتدائية في الموصل .طريقة الدراسة : دراسة مقطعية .المشاركون في الدراسة : شملت الدراسة 2056 طفل بعمر 6-14 سنة .مكان الدراسة : أربعة مدارس ابتدائية في مدينة الموصل. قياس المحصلة النهائية : تم تحليل النتائج باستخدام برنامجي SPSS و Excel للحاسبة الإلكترونية وقد تم استخدام اختباري Z وX2 في التحليل الإحصائي . النتائج : أظهرت الدراسة أن معدل انتشار نقصان الوزن عند الأطفال هو 6.8% من جهة أخرى أكدت الدراسة على أن معدل انتشار زيادة الوزن والسمنة عند الأطفال هو 11.3% و9.8% بالتعاقب . الاستنتاج : في ضوء النتائج المستخلصة من الدراسة يمكن الاستنتاج بأن زيادة الوزن والسمنة يشكلان مشكلة لدى الأطفال فمن المجدي إجراء دراسة أخرى لتقييم الأسباب المؤدية إلى ذلك .

Keywords

Overweight --- obesity


Article
Obesity and Overweight among Medical Teachers in College of Medicine in university of Kufa

Author: *Salam Jasim Mohammed, FIBMS. *Huda Ghazi Hamid, FIBMS.
Journal: KUFA MEDICAL JOURNAL مجلة الكوفة الطبية ISSN: 1993517X Year: 2012 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 279-285
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Objective: this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight and some associated factors among teachers in medical college in Kufa university.Design and methods: A cross sectional study on obesity and overweight covering 96 medical teachers in medical college in Kufa university was carried out during the period 1st of April to 1st of august 2011, data collection done by using questionnaire and measurement of weight and height by using weight display instrument which is present in community medicine departmentResults : results of this study shows that there is 36.5% of participants suffering from overweight and 18.8% suffering from obesity.In the current study no significant association between sex and body mass index (BMI) (P=0.417) and also no significant association between BMI and obesity in first degree relatives (P=0.944).This study shows no significant association between BMI and having chronic disease (P=0.856).This study shows significant association between BMI and number of meals taken between the main meals (P=0.024) also significant association between BMI and exercise (P=0.023)Conclusion: the results show that the problem is big among this group of community and the need to change their lifestyle from sedentary lifestyle to more active one and change dietary habits and establish a center for exercise inside the university and encourage all medical teachers to participate in it.

أجريت هذه الدراسة لمعرفة مدى انتشار زيادة الوزن والسمنة لمجموعة من اساتذة كلية الطب في جامعة الكوفة وبعض العوامل المساعدة على ذلك. ولهذا الغرض تم اجراء دراسة مسحية مقطعية شملت 96 استاذ في كلية الطب للفترة من الاول اربيل الى الاول من آب 2011. تم جمع المعلومات من الاساتذة من خلال استمارة تحتوي على مجموعة من الاسئلة متعلقة بالموضوع قيد البحث كذلك تمت عملية قياس الطول والوزن من خلال جهاز متخصص موجود في قسم طب المجتمع. نتائج هذه الدراسة اظهرت ان 36.5% من المشاركين يعانون من زيادة الوزن بينما 18.8% يعانون من السمنة .هذه الدراسة اظهرت انه لا توجد علاقة بين الجنس و مؤشر كتلة الجسم ( P=0.417) كذلك لا توجد علاقة بين مؤشر كتلة الجسم والسمنة لدى الاقارب من الدرجة الاولى (P=0.944) .كذلك لا توجد علاقة بين مؤشر كتلة الجسم ووجود مرض مزمن لدى الاستاذ.اظهرت هذه الدراسة انه هنالك علاقة بين الوجبات التي يتم تناولها بين الوجبات الرئيسية ومؤشر كتلة الجسم(P=0.024) كذلك هنالك علاقة بين مؤشر كتلة الجسم و التمارين الرياضية التي يمارسها الاستاذ.هذه الدراسة بينت ان حجم المشكلة كبير لدى هذه الشريحة من المجتمع والحاجة لتغيير نمط حياتهم من حياة الخمول الى حياة ذات حركة اكثر وكذلك تغيير طبيعة الغذاء .كذلك الدعوة الى بناء مركز رياضي داخل الجامعة وتشجيع الاساتذة على ممارسة الرياضة في اوقات الفراغ.

Keywords

obesity --- overweight --- BMI


Article
Caries experience and salivary physicochemical characteristics among overweight intermediate school females aged 13-15 years in Babylon – Iraq

Authors: Aseel I. Mohammed --- Ban S. Diab
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 3 Pages: 130-133
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Obesity is a serious public health concern that has reached epidemic proportions; the prevalence, aswell as the severity of obesity in adolescents is increasing at an alarming rate. A close relationship was foundbetween weight status and dental caries. Thus this research aimed to assess the prevalence and severity of dentalcaries among overweight adolescent females in relation to physicochemical characteristics of stimulated wholesaliva in comparison with normal weight adolescent females.Materials and methods: The total sample involved for nutritional status assessment is composed of 2678 females aged13-15 years. This was performed using Body Mass Index specific for age and gender according to CDC growth chart(2000). The diagnosis and recording of dental caries was by using Decay, Missing, Filled surface index (DMFs); andaccording to the criteria of Manji et al (1989). Salivary samples were collected from 30 overweight females and theircontrol under standardized conditions and then analyzed for measuring salivary flow rate and viscosity, in addition toestimation essential elements (zinc, copper, calcium, iron, and total protein).Results: The caries experience among the overweight females was lower than that among the normal weight withnon significant difference. Salivary analysis demonstrated that the salivary flow rate was non significantly higheramong overweight females. The viscosity of saliva was having an equal value among both groups. The data analysisof salivary elements found that the zinc and copper concentrations were highly significant higher among theoverweight females than that among the normal weight. The opposite result found concerning salivary calcium levelwith also highly significant difference; while the iron and total protein were non significantly lower among theoverweight females. DMFs and its grades correlated negatively weak with salivary flow rate among overweightfemales; while concerning salivary viscosity, the correlation was direct weak with DMFs. Salivary copper, calcium andtotal protein showed an inverse correlation with dental caries.Conclusion: The results of the current research revealed that overweight affect the caries experience. Several ofsalivary factors that found to be higher among the overweight females might play a role in protection of teeth fromdental caries


Article
Caries Experience in Relation to Weight Status among School Children Age 7-12 Year-old in Tikrit City

Author: Azhar A. Al-Kamal.
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Dental Sciences مجلة تكريت لعلوم طب الاسنان ISSN: 20731213 Year: 2016 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 16-21
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Caries is an infectious disease that is induced by the diet. Despite its decline in all age group on a worldwide basis, it is still a serious public health problem in children and its control should be a priority. It has demonstrated that dental caries can gradual reduce children's weight gain, which may be reversed after complete oral rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between age-specific body mass index (BMI-for-age) and dental caries among school children 7-12 years in Tikrit city.Material and method: A random sample of 390 school going healthy children aged 7-12 years were selected from different schools located in the Tikrit city. Height and weight for each child was recorded to obtain BMI-for- age. Dental caries was recorded (dmft, dmfs, DMFT and DMFS) according to WHO criteria. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis.The results showed that the underweight children were more likely to have caries experience than normal and overweight children for primary dentition (dmft 6.75 ± 0.56 and dmfs 17.21± 1.37) and for permanent dentition (DMFT 4.00 ± 0.58 and DMFS 6.48 ±1.23) with statistically no significant differences between the three groups.

Keywords

Underweight --- Overweight --- BMI --- WHO


Article
Extent of Overweight and Obesity among Children Aged (6-60) months in Al-Nasiriya at 2015-2016
مدى زيادة الوزن والسمنة بين الأطفال الذين تتراوح أعمارهم بين (6-60) شهرا في الناصرية في 2015-2016

Author: Dr. Ghada Mansoor Abood Al-Asadi الدكتورة غادة منصور عبود
Journal: Thi-Qar Medical Journal مجلة ذي قار الطبية ISSN: 19929218 Year: 2018 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 58-71
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

Background: The problem of obesity and overweight in children has been increased globally. Recently, the obesity prevalence rate reached an alarming level in both developed and developing countries. Objectives: This study aims to determine the extent of overweight and obesity among infants and children aged 6-60 months in the center of AL-Nasiriya governorate and their relationship with different socio-demographic and lifestyle factors.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 225 infants and children aged 6-60 months selected from children who have consulting primary health centers that randomly selected in AL-Nasiriya city during the period from October 2015 till the end of February 2016. BMI and Z-score was measured and compared to standard tables. Data on socio-demographic factors and dietary pattern was obtained by questionnaire. Results: The proportion of overweight was 11.1% and for obesity 7.6% according to weight for height Z-score for all children. For children >24months, we found that 10.8% were overweight and 8.8% were obese by using BMI. In this study, there is a significant positive association between father's education and dairy products intake with overweight and obesity.Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among infants and children aged 6-60 months in Al- Nasiriya was high. It is positively associated with dairy products intake and father education had a positive relationship with obesity.

Keywords

Extent --- Overweight --- Obesity --- children.


Article
Metabolic Syndrome among overweight and Obese Children Attending Central Pediatric Teaching Hospital in Baghdad

Authors: Deia Kadam Kalaf --- Esraa AbdAl-Hameed AbdAl-Azeez --- Abdul-Kadhim Nassir Dawood
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2015 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 455-462
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Metabolic syndrome is one of the serious problems that facing children all over the word, as it can lead to multiple health problems including psychological, cardiovascular, endocrinology and school performance.The aim of this study is to estimate the frequency of Metabolic Syndrome among overweight and obese children, and to detect the relation of age and gender,A cross sectional study conducted on 49 children in Central teaching hospital for children in Baghdad for one year (from 1/1/2013– 1/12/2013). Weight, height, blood pressure, waist circumference were taken. Blood glucose and lipid profile (triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, and cholesterol) were done for all children.Children mean ages were 8.28 ± 2.5 year. Percentage of Metabolic Syndrome among the study group was 28.6%.There was a high significant association of obesity, blood pressure, high density lipoprotein and cholesterol with Metabolic Syndrome (p-value<0.005), and only significant association with hyperglycemia, cholesterol and waist circumference (p-value <0.05), but no association with triglyceride.The difference in distribution of overweight and obese children by risk factors categories was highly significant and there was no significant association between the numbers of risk factors with gender.The prevelance of Metabolic Syndrome was 28.6%. Both age, gender and triglyceride have no significant association. The obesity, hypertension, high density lipoprotein were found to be highly significant association, while hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia were just significant association.


Article
Prevalence and Behavioral Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity amongst Fifth and Sixth Grade Primary Schools' Children in AL-Najaf

Authors: Muna Hamza Hanoun Alsultany --- Shahrazad S. Al Jobori --- Khalid K. Alaaraji
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2019 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 2220-2233
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

Background: Childhood obesity describe as one of the major vital and difficult public health issues in developed as well as developing countries. The WHO graded overweight and obesity as the 5th leading international risk for mortality. Aim: To assess the prevalence of obesity and overweight of the 5th and 6th grade in primary schools at age (10-12) in AL-Najaf Province and associated risk factors.Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in 24 primary schools in AL-Najaf Province between 1st of February to the 30th of May 2018.with a total number of (800) child aged (10-12) were included. The BMI was used as indicator for overweight/obesity Results: The prevalence of obesity and overweight amongst primary school children in AL-Najaf Province were 39.4%. About 12.9% were overweight and 26.5% were obese. There was significant associated with child's age, obesity and education of parent’s, fast food intake, physical inactivity, Transport method to school, Type of the school, sleep pattern, time spent in watching television. a short period of breastfeeding, skipping breakfast, a high consumption of sugary beverages, there was no statistically significant regarding gender, weekly fresh fruits consumption. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 18 using Pearson Chi-Square (χ2) test with P-value of (<0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is relatively high among children in primary school in AL-Najaf Province


Article
HYPERTENSION AND OBESITY IN RELATION TO HIGH SENSITIVITYC-REACTIVE PROTEIN AND LIPID PROFILE IN IRAQI PATIENTS

Authors: Baydaa Ahmed Abed --- Esam Noori Salman Al-Kirwi
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2009 Volume: 12 Issue: 4 Pages: 145-150
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Abstract
Introduction:
High sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is one of new inflammatory markers which has been
proposed as independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is positively associated with
body weight. Little is known, however, about the utility of (hs-CRP) and other biomarkers in obese
hypertensive Iraqi patients.
Objectives:
To examine the hypothesis that there is a relation between obesity, hypertension and a chronic
low-grade inflammatory status (represented by high hs-CRP).
Patients and Method:
A total number of 99 patients stratified according to hypertension and obesity into two groups:
1. Obese hypertensive: Body mass index (BMI > 30 kg/m2 and blood pressure (BP) >140/90 mmHg
± history of taking anti hypertensive medications), n = 65, Age = (56.02 ± 4.379) years,
BMI = (35.68 ± 4.78) kg/m².
2. Over weight normotensive: (BMI > 25 kg/m² and < 30 kg/m2, BP < 140/90 mmHg), n = 34,
Age = (56.44 ± 3.17) years, BMI = (26.06 ± 3.05) kg/m².
Assessment of (hs-CRP) and lipid profile (total serum cholesterol (s.chol), serum triglyceride
(s.TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was done.
Results:
The (Mean ± SD) of (hs-CRP) in the patients and controls were (5.74 ±2.15) mg/l and
(2.14 ± 0.85) mg/1 respectively, (P < 0.001). The (Mean ± SD) of cholesterol for cases and control
were (215.17 ± 33.3) mg/dl and (197.81 ± 27.3) mg/dl respectively, (P < 0.05). For HDL were (51.31 ±
7.45) mg/dl and (54.63 ± 5.091) mg/dl respectively, (P < 0.05). For LDL were (136.9 ± 32.87) mg/dl and
(117.81 ± 24.73) mg/dl respectively, (P < 0.005). For BMI were (35.68 ± 4.78) kg/m2 and
(26.06 ± 3.05) kg/m2 respectively, (P < 0.001).
Conclusions:
There is an elevation of serum level of (hs-CRP) in hypertensive obese subject in comparison with low
levels in control group

عدة واسمات التهابية جديدة قد ظهرت كمنبه قوي حول امراض القلب والاوعية الدموية في الاشخاص الاصحاء وغير الأصحاء. إحدى هذه الواسمات هو البروتين التفاعلي نوع C العالي الحساسية ( hs-CRP) والذي يعتبر عامل خطورة مستقل لامراض القلب والاوعية الدموية ويتعلق ايجابياً مع وزن الجسم. ولكن المعلومات حول استخدام هذا البروتين وشاكلة الدهون في المرضى العراقيين الذين يعانون من السمنة وارتفاع الضغط هي معلومات قليلة.


Article
Serum Resistin and Anthropometric parameter in lean and Overweight Insulin –Dependent Diabetic

Author: Lecturer Manal k. Resheed AL-Ani *, Ph.D
Journal: KUFA MEDICAL JOURNAL مجلة الكوفة الطبية ISSN: 1993517X Year: 2009 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 294-305
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial syndrome due to a body's inability to synthesis insulin. In patients with type 1 DM, the beta cells are attacked by the immune system (specifically by macrophages and T lymphocytes) and killed, so insulin can no longer be synthesised. Resistin is a newly identified adipocyte secreted hormone belonging to a cysteine-rich protein family. Human resistin gene is expressed in pancreatic islets , pre- adipocytes and bone marrow. It is of relevance for inflammation processes as well as for lipid metabolism. The body mass index BMI a measured of relative weight, adjusted for height. Resistin serum levels were found to be related to body mass index (BMI) in human subjects. Waist circumference is minimally related to height, so correction for height (as in waist to height ratio) dose not improve its relation with intra- abdominal fat or ill healthObjective: The aim is to determin the role of Resistin in lean and overweight .Subjects and methods: sixty diabetic children ( 33 males and 27 females), aged (1.3-13) years (mean± SD) (5.6±2.8) years , were enrolled in this study. All had T1DM with no serious long- term complications and C-reactive protein for all patients was negative. All patients used short- and intermediate-acting subcutaneous insulin injections (two daily injections) and no other medication. Duration of disease varied from ( 0.13- 84) months . A matching group of thirty healthy volunteer children with age range of (1.3-13 ) years, (18 females ,12 males) were included as a control without any family history of diabetes. Serum Rresistin was measured by( enzyme linked immunosorbant assay , ELISA) . Anthropometric determined are measured as BMI and WHR. BMI (weight in kg divided by the square of the height in meters), Waist and hip circumferences were measured to determine waist-hip ratio (WHR) following standardized procedures .Results: Resistin values showed no significant difference when comparing both groups (patients and controls). A significant decrease in the level of fasting serum Resistin was found in overweight patients when compared to control, while no such significance was shown for serum Resistin in lean patients when compared to controls. However a significant correlation was found when comparing serum Resistin and BMI in controls but the correlation was not significant in patients.Conclusion : Resistin levels was found to be highly associated with obesity in healthy controls with a significant elevation in overweight when compared to lean sunjects. However the opposite was found in patients under treatment with insulin. The latter was found to have a depleting effect on Resistin gene expression.


Article
Does the Increase of Body Mass Index (BMI) or Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR) Affect Left Ventricular Myocardial Performance Index (MPI) in Normal Men?
هل تؤثر زيادة مؤشر كتلة الجسم أو نسبة الخصر إلى الورك على مؤشر كفاءة البطين الأيسر في الرجال الطبيعيين؟

Author: *Dr. Akeel AMH., Zwain (PhD., UK), Dr. Asaad H. Noaman (MB.Ch.B)
Journal: KUFA MEDICAL JOURNAL مجلة الكوفة الطبية ISSN: 1993517X Year: 2011 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 11-19
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Background: Despite its clinical use as a sensitive measure of left ventricular performance, little is known about whether MPI is influenced by increasing BMI or WHR. Aim: The present study is targeted at investigating the impact of different grades of BMI and WHR on left ventricular myocardial performance index in normal men. Method: 82 normal male subjects were involved in this study. The subjects were divided as per BMI groups into group Ia (BMI= 20-24.9, n=34, mean age 32.315±10.179 as a control group) and group IIa (BMI= >24.9, n=44, mean age 38.181±11.501); as well as, by dividing the subjects in to two groups according to Waist-Hip ratio, group Ib (WHR <0.8-0.9, n=45, mean age 31.8±8.91) and group IIb (WHR >0.9, n=37, age 39.918±12.239). MPI was determined in all these subjects using the formula proposed by Tie as MPI=IVCT+IVRT/ET. Results: There were statistically no significant variations in MPI with increased BMI (p>0.05) or WHR (p>0.05). There was no linear correlation between MPI and BMI (r= 0.0023), and MPI and WHR (r=0.0007). Conclusion: MPI is a simple and accurate tool for quantitative assessment of left ventricular functions and because of easy application, cost effectiveness, and reproducibility; it could be regarded as an important measurement in a comprehensive hemodynamic study, especially in those with increased BMI or WHR, in whom the increased BMI or WHR was found to have no effect on MPI.

خلفية الدراسة: على الرغم من استعمال مؤشر كفاءة البطين الأيسر كقياس حساس لمعرفة كفاءة البطين الأيسر,القليل من المعلومات متوفرة فيما إذا كان هذا المؤشر يتأثر بزيادة مؤشر كتلة الجسم أو زيادة نسبة الخصر إلى الورك.الهدف من الدراسة: تحرّت الدراسة الحالية عن تأثير الدرجات المختلفة لمؤشر كتلة الجسم ونسبة الخصر إلى الورك على مؤشر كفاءة البطين الأيسر في الرجال الطبيعيين.الطريقة: الدراسة تضمنت 82 متبرع من الذكور الطبيعيين, قسّموا حسب دليل كتلة الجسم إلى مجموعتين, مجموعة 1أ (مؤشر كتلة الجسم 20-24,9, العدد=34, متوسط العمر=32,315±10,179) ومجموعة 2أ (مؤشر كتلة الجسم أكثر من 24,9, العدد= 44, متوسط العمر=38,181±11,501). كذلك قسموا إلى مجموعتين حسب نسبة الخصر إلى الورك, مجموعة 1ب (نسبة الخصر إلى الورك= اقل من 0,8 إلى 0,9, العدد=45, متوسط العمر=31,8±8,91 ) و مجموعة 2ب (نسبة الخصر إلى الورك= اكثرمن0,9, العدد=37, متوسط العمر=39,918±12,239).النتائج: إحصائيا لا توجد هناك اختلافات معنوية بين مؤشر كفاءة البطين الأيسر مع زيادة مؤشر كتلة الجسم أو نسبة الورك إلى الخصر. كذلك لاتوجد هناك علاقة خطية بين مؤشر كفاءة البطين الأيسر مع مؤشر كتلة الجسم أو نسبة الورك إلى الخصر. الاستنتاج: مؤشر كفاءة القلب أداة بسيطة ودقيقة للتقييم الكمي لوظائف البطين الأيسر,وبسبب التطبيق السهل لهذا المؤشر لذا يمكن استخدامه في دراسات جهاز الدوران الشاملة خصوصا أولئك الذين لديهم زيادة في مؤشر كتلة الجسم أو نسبة الورك إلى الخصر حيث إن هذه الزيادة لا تؤثر بشكل ملحوظ عليه.

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