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Article
Applying Multi-Parity Code To The Quantum Security Protocol BB84 Under Different Types Of Attacks-ENG
تطبيق طريقة المماثلة المتعددة على بروتوكول السرية الكمية BB84 تحت انواع مختلفة من الهجمات

Authors: Dr. A. I. A. Jabbar د. عبد الإله عبد الجبار --- Ahmed I. A احمد إبراهيم احمد
Journal: AL Rafdain Engineering Journal مجلة هندسة الرافدين ISSN: 18130526 Year: 2013 Volume: 21 Issue: 5 Pages: 34-53
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

AbstractQuantum Key Distribution QKD mechanism is based on the principles of quantum mechanics to guarantee the secure exchange of secret keys between users. In this paper, the BB84 protocol is simulated, and the enhancement of the protocol using multi-parity instead of single parity is introduced with the error correction unit.The sub-blocklength is changed dynamically in an adaptive way and according to the QBER values, also this study takes into account the channel effect on the protocol by applying four types of channels (perfect channel, low noise channel, medium noise channel and high noise channel) and all channels are assumed to be lossless.The study includes also the effect of three types of attacks (PNS, IR, PNS & IR attacks) onto the protocol performance.The simulation results show that (IR) attack have the strongest effect on the BB84 performance.Keywords : BB84, QKD, Multi-Parity, Quantum Cryptography, Security, PNS, IR, PNS & IR, attack.

الخلاصةميكانيكية توزيع المفتاح الكمي تعتمد على مبادئ ميكانيكا الكم لتضمن تبادل امن للمفاتيح السرية بين المستخدمين. في هذا البحث تم محاكاة البروتوكول BB84 وتحسين ادائه عن طريق استخدام المماثلة المتعددة بدلا من المماثلة المنفردة في مرحلة تصحيح الاخطاء، كذلك فان اطوال المجاميع المحتسبة تكون متغيرة ديناميكا بطريقة انتقائية وبحسب معدل الخطأ في وحدة المعلومة الكمية QBER. تم في هذه الدراسة ايضا اخذ تأثير القناة الكمية على اداء البروتوكول BB84، عن طريق تطبيق اربعة انواع مختلفة من القنوات (قناة مثالية ، قناة ذات ضوضاء منخفضة، قناة ذات ضوضاء متوسطة وقناة عالية الضوضاء) بافتراض ان جميع القنوات لا تحوي على خسائر. هذه الدراسة تضمنت كذلك اخذ تأثير ثلاثة انواع من الهجمات على اداء البروتوكول BB84 (هجوم تقسيم عدد الفوتونات PNS، هجوم الاعتراض واعادة الارسال IR وهجوم مزيج من الهجومين السابقين PNS & IR). حيث اظهرت نتائج المحاكاة ان هجوم الاعتراض واعادة الارسال هو الاكثر تأثيرا على اداء البروتوكول BB84.


Article
Comparison between the Clinical Assessment, Peripheral Nerve Stimulation (PNS), and Acceleromyography (AMG) to Reverse Neuromuscular Blockade

Authors: Iyad Abbas Salman --- Mortada A. Jubara
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 146-152
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Traditionally, most of anesthesiologists in Iraq evaluate the degree of neuromuscular blockade during and after anesthesia using clinical criteria alone, which are inaccurate to assess adequate recovery from neuromuscular block (NMB) which is essential for the patient to have full control of pharyngeal and respiratory muscles. Fade cannot be detected reliably with a peripheral nerve stimulator (PNS) at a TOF ratio > 0.4. The time gap between losses of visual fade by using a PNS until objective TOF ratio has returned to > 0.90 can be considered “the potentially unsafe period of recovery.” OBJECTIVE: To compare between assessment of subjective clinical, subjective TOF by peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS), and objective TOF by acceleromyography (AMG) before reversal of neuromuscular blockadePATIENT AND METHOD: A prospective clinical trial of one hundred females who underwent caesarian section under general anesthesia. Standard anesthesia was conducted for all patients. Giving of neuromuscular reversal was decided by the anesthesia care providers depending on clinical criteria, at that time, TOF measured by 2 ways, 1st: counting the twitches visually (principal of PNS), and 2nd: the device showing the TOF reading objectively (principal of AMG).RESULT: Comparisons between subjective criteria and objective AMG T4T1 ratios revealed no statistical significance (P > 0.05) in all comparisons (except that with the moving limb and lift the head). The association and consistency of subjective criteria and visual PNS was insignificant differences in all comparisons. There was wide discrepancy between objective reading and the visual PNS. CONCLUSION: The moving limbs and sustained lift head 5 seconds clinical criteria were correlated to TOF. Other criteria (protruding tongue, respiratory effort, and swallowing reflex) were not correlated to TOF. Objective AMG more sensitive to detect the fourth twitch than the subjective PNS. KEY WORDS: train of four (TOF), peripheral nerve stimulator (PNS).

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