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Article
First Report of Entecavir and Tenofovir Resistance in Iraq for Chronic Hepatitis B Patients

Author: Abeer A. Marhoon1 , Mohammed I. Altaai1 , Abbas M. Ahmed2
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2018 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 36-41
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The primary goal of therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is to prevent liver disease progression. In patients with drug-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV), a combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and entecavir (ETV), which is strongest combination therapy against HBV. However, long-term tolerance data are lacking, and cost may be an issue for combination therapies. Several, well-designed, randomized controlled trials have shown that TDF monotherapy provides similar antiviral efficacy compared with the combination of TDF and ETV. Mutations in the polymerase (Pol) gene of hepatitis B virus (HBV) are often associated with drug resistance. The pattern of mutations varies geographically, thus giving rise to infection to HBV diversity. This study was carried out to detect mutations in Pol gene of hepatitis B virus isolated from CHB Iraqi patients. Selected 20 CHB patients who's had highly viral load after treatment course (6 months) were analyzed by PCR and sequencing, also S202GCI mutation was most frequently detected 9/20 (45%) and followed by M204V/I/S (40%), L180M (35%), M250V/I/L and A181T/V (30%), T184SCGA, N236T and A194T (25%), T184ILFM (10%). T184SCGA, T184ILFM, S202GCI and M250V/I/L mutations association with Entecavir resistance, A194T mutation association with Tenofovir resistance and L180M, A181T/V, M204V/I/S and N236T mutations association with multi –drug resistance.

Keywords

Pol --- CHB --- HBV --- Tenofovir .


Article
Investigation of Binary Solvents Performance for Regeneration of Iraqi 15W- 40 Waste Lubricant

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of binary solvent for regeneration of spent lubricating oil by extraction-flocculation process. The regeneration was investigated by bench scale experiments by using locally provided solvents (Heavy Naphtha, n-Butanol, and iso-Butanol). Solvents to used oil, mixing time, mixing speed and temperatures were studied as operating parameters. The performance on three estimated depended key parameters, namely the percentage of base oil recovered (Yield), percent of oil loss (POL), and the percent of sludge removal (PSR) were used to evaluate the efficiency of the employed binary solvent on extraction process. The best solvent to solvent ratio for binary system were 30:70 for Heavy Naphtha : n-Butanol (N:n-But) and Heavy Naphtha : iso-Butanol (N:iso-But). The optimum solvent to oil ratio or critical clarifying ratio (CCR) were 3.4, and 3.8 for N : n-But, and N : iso-But respectively. The optimized operating mixing time, mixing speed, and temperature which result in, maximum recovered base oil (87.75% and 88.88%), minimum oil losses (8.46% and 3.62%), and maximum sludge removal (5.63% and 6.12%), were (45 min, 700 rpm, 35 oC), and (30 min, 700 rpm, 35 oC ) for N:n-But, and N:Iso-But respectively.


Article
A Comparative Study of the Influence of Different Types of Polymers on Viscosity Index and Pour Point of Iraqi Base Oils
دراسة مقارنة لتأثير أنواع مختلفة من البوليمرات على مؤشر اللزوجة ونقطة الانسكاب لزيوت الاساس العراقية

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Abstract

In this study, the effects of blending the un-branched acrylate polymer known as Poly (n-decyl acrylate), and the branched acrylate polymer known as Poly (iso-octyl acrylate), on the viscosity index (VI), and the pour point of the Iraqi base stocks 40, and 60 respectively, were investigated. Toluene was used as a carrier solvent for both polymer types. The improvement level of oils (VI, & pour point) gained by blending the oil with the acrylate derived polymers was compared with the values of (VI, and pour point) gained by blending the oil with a commercial viscosity index, and pour point improver. The commercial lubricant additive was purchased and used by Al-Daura Refineries. It consisted of an un-known olefin copolymer dissolved in an un-known carrier solvent. All polyacrylate derivatives and the commercial lubricant additive named HITEC5748 were blended with each type of oil in weight percentage of (2, 4, 6, 8, & 10) wt. %. The result of the study was that the improvement in the viscosity index and the pour point of both base stock types was higher when using the polyacrylate derivatives than when using the commercial olefin copolymer additive.

في هذا البحث، تمت دراسة آثار مزج البوليمرات المشتقه من الاكريليت وتحديدا ( بولي ديكين الاكريليت غير المتفرع و بولي اوكتيل الاكريليت المتفرع) على معامل اللزوجة ونقطة الانسكاب لزيوت الاساس العراقيه 40 و 60. تم استخدام التلوين كمذيب و حامل لكلا البوليمرين. ان مستوى التحسن في كل من معامل اللزوجة و نقطة الانسكاب الناتج عن مزج الزيوت مع البوليمرات المشتقه من الأكريليت تم تقييمه استنادا على مقارنته مع القيم المستحصل عليها عند مزج الزيوت مع مضاف محسن لزوجة ونقطة الانسكاب تجاري. ان المضاف التجاري هو مضاف معتمد من قبل مصفى الدورة يتكون من اولوفين كوبوليمر و حامل غير معروفين. كل المضافات الثلاثه تم خلطها بنسب وزنيه (10،8،6،4،2٪ ) مع كل نوع من انواع زيوت الأساس. وكانت نتيجة الدراسة أن التحسن في مؤشر اللزوجة ونقطة الانسكاب لزيوت الأساس العراقية يكون ذو قيمة اعلى عند استخدام مشتقات الأكريليت عند مقارنتها بمستوى التحسن عند استخدام المضاف التجاري

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