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Article
PREVALENCE OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE IN AL-KADHIMIYA DISTRICT (BAGHDAD CITY): COMMUNITY-BASED STUDY
انتشار مرض باركنسنِ في منطقةِ الكاظمية (مدينة بغداد): دراسة مجتمعية

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Abstract

Background: Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurodegerative disorder affects mostly people above 40ys. Studying its prevalence is crucial for health public planning especially as worldwide communities are getting older. There are some worldwide variations in the estimated prevalence rates and the figures are unknown in our country.Objective: To estimate the prevalence of Parkinson's disease in Al-Kadhimiya district.Methods: Community-based study was conducted as cross-sectional survey on random sample of the population of the district. Suspected cases of Parkinson's disease identified during home visits were referred to the neurological department at the University Hospital of Iraqi Medical College in order to confirm the diagnosis of the senior neurologist. Diagnosis is made by identifying at least two cardinal features of the disease (resting tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity and postural instability) in the absence of signs of secondary Parkinsonism.Results: 25 cases of Parkinson’s disease collected from a random sample of 22,988 individuals (13 were males, 23 were females. 6 lived in rural areas and 19 in urban). Three cases (12%) were newly diagnosed. Tremor was the predominant symptom of onset (80%). 19 cases had bilateral involvement of the disease, in spite of the unilateral onset of all cases. The crude prevalence rate was 108.75 per 105 populations. Age adjusted prevalence rates showed constant increase with age. Gender-adjusted prevalence rates were calculated for male 114/105 populations and for 103/105 populations. Residency-adjusted prevalence rates were 114,3 and 94,3 per 105 populations for urban and rural living respectively.Conclusion: Prevalence rate of Parkinson’s disease is just lower than the figures in Europe and North America, but higher than those of Africa and China. It increases constantly with increasing age. There was no significant gender or rural difference in the prevalence rates. The prevalence figure can be applied to the population of Baghdad City because of the similar population structure and characteristics to those of Al-Kadhimiya district.Keywords: Parkinson disease, prevalence, Baghdad, cross sectional study

خلفية الدراسة: مرض باركنسن مرض تحطمى مزمن يصيب على الغالب البشر فوق 40 سنة. دِراسَة انتشار المرض حاسمُ لتخطيط الصحةِ العامةِ خصوصاً بعد التقدّمُ في السن ّعالميا. هناك بَعْض الاختلافات العالميةِ في نِسَبِ الانتشار المُخَمَّنةِ والأرقامِ مجهولة في بلادِنا.هدف الدراسة: لتَخمين انتشار مرض باركنسنِ في منطقةِ الكاظمية.طرق العمل: دراسة مجتمعية أجرتْ كمسح عرضي على العينة العشوائيةِ مِنْ سكانِ المنطقةِ. الحالات المشكوك فيها لمرض باركنسنِ ميّزتْ أثناء زيارات بيتيه أحيلتْ إلى قسمِ العلوم العصبيِة في مستشفى الكاظمية لكي يُؤكّدَ التشخيصَ ِ. التشخيص يُثبت بتَمييز العلامات الحركية.النَتائِج: 25 مِنْ حالاتِ مرض باركنسنِ جَمعَ مِنْ عينة عشوائية مِنْ 22,988 فردِ (13 كَانتْ ذكورَ، 23 كَانتْ إناث. 6 من المناطق الريفية البعيدةِ و19 حضريةِ). ثلاث حالاتِ (12 %) شُخّصتْ حديثاً. الارتعاش كَانتْ العلامةَ السائدةَ للبدايةِ (80 %). 19 حالة كَانَ عِنْدَها تدخّلُ ثنائيُ مِنْ المرضِ، بالرغم مِنْ البدايةِ الأحادية الجانبِ لكُلّ الحالات. نسبة الانتشار العامِّة كَانتْ 108.75 لكلّ 105 سكانِ.نِسَبَ الانتشار وّضحت زيادةَ ثابتةَ بالعُمرِ. نِسَب الانتشار ِحُسِبَ الجنسَ للذكرِ 114/105 للسكان وللاناث103/105 سكان. نِسَب الانتشار المعدّلةِ إقامةَ كَانتْ 114,3 و 94,3 لكلّ 105 للسكانِ للمعيشة الحضريةِ والريفيةِ على التوالي.الإستنتاج: نسبة انتشار مرض باركنسنِ أوطأ مِنْ الأرقامِ في أوروبا وأمريكا الشمالية، لكن أعلى مِنْ تلك أفريقيا والصين. يَزِيدُ بشكل ثابت بزيَاْدَة العُمرِ. لم يكن هناك اختلاف هامَّ للجنسَ أَو السكن في الريف في نِسَبِ الانتشار. رقم الانتشار يُمْكِنُ أَنْ يُقدّمَ إلى سكانِ مدينةِ بغداد بسبب التركيبِ وخصائصِ السكانِ المماثلةِ إلى تلك مِنْ منطقةِ الكاظمية الكلمات المفتاحية: مرض باركنسن


Article
QUANTIFICATION OF PAIN THRESHOLD IN PARKINSON’S DISEASE

Authors: Aqeel K Hatim عقيل كريم حاتم --- Munther T Hamzah منذر طاهر حمزة --- Hasan A Hasan حسن عزيز حسن --- Zaki N Hasan زكي نوح حسن
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2012 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 83-86
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

BackgroundParkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common degenerative neurologic disorder after Alzheimer’s disease. Pain is one of the major clinical symptoms of Parkinson's disease, occurring in 50-83% of patients. Pathways mediating pain are complex and include basal ganglia and thalamocortical-basalganglia circuits.ObjectiveTo quantitatively assess pain perception in Parkinson disease patients, by determining pain threshold in patients with and without pain through using electrical stimulation.MethodsA cross sectional observational study recruiting 18 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson disease and healthy controls from the neurologic unit in Al-Kadhimiya Teaching Hospital in Baghdad; between May 2010 to Jan 2011. There were 13 men and 5 women with a mean age of (66.5 ± 10.2 years). The control group includes 18 healthy subjects, [12 males/ 8 females] with a mean age of 56.6±6.74 years. Quantitative sensory testing was carried at the neurophysiology laboratory in Al-Kadhimiya hospital; using bipolar stimulating electrodes on the forearm, index finger, mid leg, and big toe.ResultsFourteen Out of 18 patients (77.7%) reported pain, while 4 (22.3%) had no pain. There was a highly significant statistical difference in electrical perception between the affected and unaffected side, and between Parkinson disease patients and the controls. There was no statistically significant difference between males and females [p =0.8248], and between patients with and those without pain [p =0.3279]. And between upper and lower limbs on the affected side [p =0.1412], and body side involvement whether right or left in both the patients and controls.ConclusionChronic pain is present in 77.7% of Parkinson disease. Patients with Parkinson disease had lower pain threshold compared to controls. The affected side had lower pain threshold. The left or right body side and gender had no effect on pain threshold.Key worldsParkinson disease, Pain

Keywords

Parkinson disease --- Pain


Article
Prosthetic Status in Relation to Weight Status and Occupation among Parkinson's Disease Patients in Baghdad-Iraq

Authors: Ali Farouk Al-Taweel --- Alhan Ahmed Qasim
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 3 Pages: 21-27
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) can lead to problems in movement and coordination that lead to difficulty in maintaining well oral cleaning which can then negatively affect dental status of those Patients.The aim of present study: To evaluate prosthetic status in relation to weight status and occupation by age and gender among Parkinson's disease Patients in Baghdad-Iraq.Methods: The sample consisted of 104 patients with Parkinson disease attended to the Neurosciences Hospital in Baghdad city / Iraq, aged 60-79 years Prosthetic Status was recorded according to WHO(1997). Weight status was recorded according to Trowbridge 1988 and occupation was recorded according to Erikson and Goldthorpe (1992) and Ganzeboom et al (1989).Results: The subjects without prosthesis tend to be more from any prosthesis type followed by partial denture and bridge, all types of prosthesis found to be decreased with increasing of age in both arches except combination of bridge and partial denture and complete denture were found to be increased with increasing of age with statistically highly significant association between age and prosthesis in upper arch. Males were found to have more prosthesis than females but with statistically no significant association. The subjects without any prosthesis, both bridge and partial denture types in upper arch found more in normal weight than the over and obese ones, while the combination of bridge and partial denture with complete denture tend to have slightly more in over weight with highly significant association. In lower arch other two prosthesis categories tend to be more in overweight subjects than other their counterparts with equally distributed of partial denture between normal and obese ones whose this prosthesis tend to be more than the overweight ones with statistically significant association. The with+ without+ self-employees category tends to have no prosthesis, partial denture and bridge prostheses more than other their counterparts with approximately equally distributed of other prosthesis categories but with statistically no significant association in upper arch while in lower arch the percentage of subjects with free prosthesis was found in with+ without+ self-employees category, while the partial denture and bridge found to be more in with+ without+ self-employees and upper grade professional but these findings tend to be statistically no significant association.Conclusion: Age, gender, occupation and weight have an effect on prevalent of prosthetic status of Parkinson’s disease patients. This may be due to difference in previous oral hygiene, health awareness, severity of Parkinson’s disease and difference in income status between them.


Article
Prosthetic status in relation to weight status and occupation among Parkinson's disease patients in Baghdad-Iraq

Authors: Alhan Ahmed Qasim --- Ali Farouk Al-Taweel
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 4 Pages: 1-7
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) can lead to problems in movement and coordination that lead to difficulty in maintaining well oral cleaning which can then negatively affect dental status of those Patients.The aim of present study: To evaluate prosthetic status in relation to weight status and occupation by age and gender among Parkinson's disease Patients in Baghdad-Iraq.Methods: The sample consisted of 104 patients with Parkinson disease attended to the Neurosciences Hospital in Baghdad city / Iraq, aged 60-79 years Prosthetic Status was recorded according to WHO(1997). Weight status was recorded according to Trowbridge 1988 and occupation was recorded according to Erikson and Goldthorpe (1992) and Ganzeboom et al (1989).Results: The subjects without prosthesis tend to be more from any prosthesis type followed by partial denture and bridge, all types of prosthesis found to be decreased with increasing of age in both arches except combination of bridge and partial denture and complete denture were found to be increased with increasing of age with statistically highly significant association between age and prosthesis in upper arch. Males were found to have more prosthesis than females but with statistically no significant association. The subjects without any prosthesis ,both bridge and partial denture types in upper arch found more in normal weight than the over and obese ones, while the combination of bridge and partial denture with complete denture tend to have slightly more in over weight with highly significant association. In lower arch other two prosthesis categories tend to be more in overweight subjects than other their counterparts with equally distributed of partial denture between normal and obese ones who’s this prosthesis tend to be more than the overweight ones with statistically significant association. The with+ without+ self-employees category tends to have no prosthesis, partial denture and bridge prostheses more than other their counterparts with approximately equally distributed of other prosthesis categories but with statistically no significant association in upper arch while in lower arch the percentage of subjects with free prosthesis was found in with+ without+ self-employees category , while the partial denture and bridge found to be more in with+ without+ self-employees and upper grade professional but these findings tend to be statistically no significant association.Conclusion: Age, gender, occupation and weight have an effect on prevalent of prosthetic status of Parkinson’s disease patients. This may be due to difference in previous oral hygiene, health awareness, severity of Parkinson’s disease and difference in income status between them.


Article
PREVALENCE OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE IN AL-KADHIMIYA DISTRICT (BAGHDAD CITY): COMMUNITY-BASED STUDY
شيوع مرض باركنسن في منطقة الكاظمية من مدينة بغداد

Authors: A.F. Abdullah عمار فاضل عبد الله --- Amjad D. Niazi أمجد نيازي --- A. Mutalib A. Kareem عبد المطلب عبد الكريم
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2005 Volume: 4 Issue: 2 Pages: 179-186
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurodegerative disorder affects mostly people above 40ys. Studying its prevalence is crucial for health public planning especially as worldwide communities are getting older. There are some worldwide variations in the estimated prevalence rates and the figures are unknown in our country.Objective: To estimate the prevalence of Parkinson's disease in Al-Kadhiymia district.Methods: Community-based study was conducted as cross-sectional survey on random sample of the population of the district. Suspected cases of Parkinson's disease identified during home visits were referred to the neurological department at the University Hospital of Iraqi Medical College in order to confirm the diagnosis of the senior neurologist. Diagnosis is made by identifying at least two cardinal features of the disease (resting tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity and postural instability) in the absence of signs of secondary parkinsonism.Results: 25 cases of Parkinson’s disease collected from a random sample of 22,988 individuals (13 were males, 23 were females. 6 lived in rural areas and 19 in urban). Three cases (12%) were newly diagnosed. Tremor was the predominant symptom of onset (80%). 19 cases had bilateral involvement of the disease, in spite of the unilateral onset of all cases. The crude prevalence rate was 108.75 per 105 population. Age adjusted prevalence rates showed constant increase with age. Gender-adjusted prevalence rates were calculated for male 114/105 populations and for 103/105 population. Residency-adjusted prevalence rates were 114,3 and 94,3 per 105 population for urban and rural living respectively.Conclusion: Prevalence rate of Parkinson’s disease is just lower than the figures in Europe and North America, but higher than those of Africa and China. It increases constantly with increasing age. There was no significant gender or rural difference in the prevalence rates. The prevalence figure can be applied to the population of Baghdad City because of the similar population structure and characteristics to those of Al-Kadhimiya district.Key words: Parkinson disease, prevalence, Baghdad, Cross sectional study

خلفية الدراسة: مرض باركنسن هو اكثر الأمراض المزمنة النمطية التي تصيب الجهاز العصبي، يصيب الأفراد من الأعمار اكثر من 40 سنة. دراسة شيوع المرض يشكل ركيزة اساسية للتخطيط الطبي خصوصا" أن أعمار الأفراد في معظم المجتمعات في تزايد. هناك بعض الأختلافات في نسبة شيوع المرض في المجتمعات المختلفة في العالم و النسبة غير معروفة في بلادنا.هدف الدراسة: معرفة نسبة الأصابة بالمرض في منطقة الكاظمية.طريقة العمل: الدراسة معتمدة على الكتلة الأجتماعية أقيمت بشكل مسحي بمشاهدة المرض مرة واحدة من العينة التي أختيرت عشوائيا" من المنطقة. المرضى الذين يشك في أصابتهم بالمرض يحالون الى المستشفى التعليمي في الكاظمية لغرض تثبيت التشخيص بهذا المرض من قبل اختصاصي طب الجملة العصبية. المرض يشخص سريريا" و تدرس الحالة لإستبعاد الأحتمالات الأخرى.النتائج: 25 مريض مصاب بمرض باركنسن جمعت من عينة عشوائية ل (22988) شخص (13 ذكور و 23 أناث). (6) من منطقة ريفية و (19) من منطقة حضرية. ثلاث حالات شخصت لأول مرة. الأرتعاش هو اكثر العلامات شيوعا" (80%) . (19) مريض الأصابة كانت في الجهتين على الرغم من أن بداية المرض كانت في جهة واحدة . نسبة شيوع المرض تزداد بتقدم الأعمار. نسبة شيوع المرض كانت 108.75 لكل 100000 شخص. عند الأناث كانت 103 لكل 100000 شخص و عند الذكور 114 لكل 100000 شخص. النسبة كانت 114.3 لكل 100000 شخص للساكنين في مناطق حضرية و 94.3 لكل100000 شخص للساكنين في الريف.الأستنتاج: نسبة شيوع المرض في بلادنا اقل بقليل من الولايات المتحدة و اوربا لكنها أكثر بقليل من افريقيا و الصين. النسبة تزداد بتقدم العمر. و لا يوجد فرق مهم في نسبة الشيوع بين الأناث و الذكور او بالنسبة للسكن في الريف او الحضر. هذه النسبة يمكن ان تعطى لعموم بغداد و ذلك لتشابة بغداد و الكاظمية من حيث التركيبة السكانية.مفتاح الكلمات : مرض باركنسن، شيوع

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