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Article
Effects of Oral Contraceptives Intake On the Gingiva

Authors: Nuha Agab Hamed --- Khalid B. Mirza --- Maha S. AL-Rubaie
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 3 Pages: 335-341
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:The use of contraceptive medication has been shown to increase gingival inflammatory reaction to local irritants.OBJECTIVE:To determine the effect of oral contraceptive pills and the duration of drug intake on the plaque index, gingival index and probing depth.METHODS:A total of 30 women of the age group 19-40 years attending a primary health care center in AL-Ramadi city were selected and permitted to start taking contraceptive pills. Three visits were arranged of three months interval between the visits. Plaque index, gingival index &probing depth were measured at the three visits.RESULTS:The results revealed a significant difference in the mean plaque index & the mean gingival index among the three visits. Regarding the probing depth, 23.3% of women had pocket depth of 4 & 5mm and this percentage was the same for the three visits.CONCLUSION:Results indicates that women taking contraceptive pills had increasing mean of plaque & gingival indices with increasing the duration of drug intake. Probing depth was found the same through the three visits


Article
Periodontal health status in relation to physicochemical characteristics of saliva among pre-menopausal and postmenopausal women in Baghdad city-Iraq

Author: Alhan A.Qasim
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 3 Pages: 121-124
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Menopause can bring oral health problems and also associated with significant adversechanges in the orofacial complex. After menopause, women become more susceptible to periodontaldisease due to deficiency of estrogen hormone. Current study aimed to evaluate the periodontal healthstatus in relation to salivary constituent including pH, flow rate and some elements (Magnesium, Calciumand inorganic phosphorus) of pre and post-menopause women.Materials and Methods: Periodontal health status of 52 women aged 48-50 years old (26 pre-menopauseand 26 post-menopause) were examined including (gingival index, plaque index, calculus index, probingpocket depth and clinical attachment level). Salivary sample was collected for two women groups, pHand flow rate was recorded, and also biochemical analysis was assessed for some salivary elementsinclude (Magnesium, Calcium and inorganic phosphorus). Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis.Results: Salivary pH and flow rate of post-menopause women were found significantly lower than those ofpre-menopause women, where as the mean of gingival index, probing pocket depth and attachmentlevel indices significantly higher in post-menopause women. The level of salivary magnesium ion wassignificantly higher in pre-menopause women; also the level of calcium and inorganic phosphorus waslower in post-menopause women with non-significant difference.Conclusions: This study has shown that the importance of preventive dentistry increases with aging in women


Article
An Evaluation of Serum and Salivary Adipokines (Leptin and Resistin) Levels in Periodontal Health and Disease

Authors: Talib Ali Karam طالب علي كرم --- Khulood A. Al-Safi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 119-124
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: With the start of the current century, increased the interest in the role of the adipose tissue derivedsubstances that named adipokines in the inflammatory diseases of the human being including the inflammatoryperiodontal disease, but scientific evidences were not clearly demonstrate the association between theseadipokines and periodontal pathologies.Materials and Methods: Forty two subjects male only with normal body mass index were selected for the study withan age ranged (30-39 years). Samples were divided into three groups of 14 subjects in each group based on clinicalperiodontal parameters; clinically healthy gingiva (group I), gingivitis group (group II) and chronic periodontitispatients group (group III), from whom saliva and serum samples were collected for estimating the levels of leptin andresistin using Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA).Results: The results showed that the serum level of leptin and resistin were significantly higher in chronic periodontitispatient (9.81 ng/ml, 6.55 ng/ml) respectively as compared to gingivitis and healthy control groups (leptin; 8.10 ng/ml,ng/ml, resistin; 5.85 ng/ml, 5.45 ng/ml) respectively. On the other hand the level of leptin in saliva of patients withchronic periodontitis (0.17 ng/ml) was significantly lower than that of its salivary levels in gingivitis and healthy controlgroups (0.21 ng/ml, 0.29 ng/ml) respectively. Whereas, salivary resistin levels was significantly higher in chronicperiodontitis patient(14.45 ng/ml) when compared to the gingivitis group (11.59 ng/ml) and the health control group(6.43 ng/ml).Conclusions: Concomitant raise in serum leptin, serum resistin and salivary resistin, while a sensible reduction insalivary leptin with conversion from periodontal health state to periodontal disease state. These finding may draw asuggestion on the role of leptin and resistin in the relation between periodontal disease and the systemic health sincethe increase in their level were associated with a various systemic pathologies


Article
Assessment of Salivary Total Antioxidants Capacity Levels of Patients with Chronic Periodontitis in Comparison to Healthy Control

Authors: Baidaa T. Ali --- Maha Sh. Mahmood
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 1 Pages: 58-62
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Chronic periodontitis (CP) is greatly prevalent condition of inflammatory behavior. Salivary biomarker total antioxidants capacity (T-AOC) status, may be related to both periodontal condition and oral hygiene.Aims of the study: To assess the level of salivary T-AOC of patients with chronic periodontitis in comparison to healthy control and to correlate between the level of this marker with the clinical periodontal parameters (plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL)).Materials and Methods: Ninety subjects of males and females with an age ranged between (35-55) years were participated in this study. Participants were divided into two groups: the first group was CP group that consisted of fifty-five subjects and the second group consisted of thirty-five subjects as control group with healthy periodontium and both groups systemically healthy.The whole unstimulated salivary samples were collected, and then periodontal evaluation that including the assessment of clinical periodontal parameter (PLI, GI, BOP, PPD, and CAL) were done for all participants. Enzyme-linked immune– sorbent assay (ELISA) used to determine the level of T-AOC in saliva.Results: The two studied groups showed a highly significant difference regarding the salivary level of T-AOC, and it revealed that the mean value of salivary level of T-AOC was statistically lower in CP group than the control group. Regarding Pearson Correlation Coefficient, this study revealed that there is strong negative correlations between clinical periodontal parameters (GI, BOP, PPD, and CAL) with salivary level of T-AOC.Conclusion: Salivary T-AOC could be used as a reliable marker of chronic periodontitis activity


Article
SALIVA AND SERUM MALONDIALDEHYDE LEVELS IN APPARENTLY HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS IN KURDISTAN REGION / IRAQ
قیاس المالون دایألدیهاید فی اللعاب والمصل لدى الاشخاص الطبيعيين في اقليم كردستان/العراق

Authors: HAZHMAT A. ALI, BVM&S, --- QASIM H. ABDULLAH --- NAZDAR M. OMER
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: ISSN: 20717334 (online)/ ISSN: 20717326 (Print) Year: 2017 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 11-18
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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Abstract

ABSTRACTBackground: Saliva is a fluid secreted by the salivary glands and it is divided in to serous and mucus components. Despite its physiological roles in lubricating the oral cavity and digestion, it also acts as a simple diagnostic tool reflecting body's systemic diseases. The aim of the present study is to determine malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in saliva and serum of apparently healthy individuals and to find if there is an association between dental caries, periodontal disease and salivary MDA.Subject and Methods: This cross sectional study involved sixty fourparticipants who were medical students attending Duhok College of Medicine. Clinical information and all relevant data were obtained according to a questionnaire. Both salivary and serum MDA levels were measured manually in unstimulated saliva and sera of participants using Thiobarbuturic acid method.Results: Malondialdehyde is measurable in saliva of apparently healthy individuals and was significantly lower than serum MDA level (p<0.001). There was a statistically highly significant positive correlation between both salivary and serum MDA levels (p=0.0007). Moreover, both Salivary and serum MDA levels were significantly positively correlated with weight and BMI (p=0.03, p=0.03 and p= 0.04 and 0.05) respectively. There were no significant correlations between salivary MDA with dental caries index (dmft score) and periodontal disease index.Conclusions: Based on the current results, salivary MDA is significantly positively correlated with serum MDA, weight and BMI. No significant association of salivary MDA with dental caries and periodontal disease were observed

الخلفية والأهداف: اللعاب هو سائل يفرز من قبل الغدد اللعابية و يتكون من السوائل المصلية والمخاطية. بالاظافة الى الوظيفة الفسلجية لللعاب المتمثل بترطيب التجويف الفمي و الهضم, يستخدم كوسيلة تشخيص سهلة ينعكس امراض الجسم. الهدف من البحث هو بيان مدى امكانية قياس المالون دايألديهايد في عينات لعاب الاشخاص الاصحاء و هل هناك علاقة بينتركيز المالون دايألديهايد الموجود في عينات اللعاب و مصل الدم.طرق البحث: تضمنت هذة الدراسة العرضية64 مشاركا اصحاء الذين كانوا طلاب كلية الطب في جامعة دهوك. بعد الحصول على المعلومات المطلوبة,تم قياس(مالون دايألديهايد) في عينات اللعاب و دم المشاركين باستخدام طريقة حامض ثايوباربوجوريك.النتائج: تمكن ايجاد و قياس المالون دايألديهايد في عينات لعاب المشاركين الاصحاء وكان التركيز اقل و معنوي احصائيا من المالون دايألديهايد الموجود في عينات الدم(p<0.001) . أظهرت النتائج وجود علاقة موجبة و معنوية احصائيا بين تركيز المالون دايألديهايد في عينات الدم واللعاب. أظافة كانت هناك علاقة موجبة و معنوية احصائيا بين تركيز مالون دايألديهايد في اللعاب و الدم مع الوزن و مؤشر كتلة الجسم(p=0.03, p=0.03 and P = 0.04 and 0.05) . لم يتم ايجاد علاقة معنوية بين تركيز مالون دايألديهايد في اللعاب و مقياس DMFT ومؤشر مرض ما حول السن.


Article
Periodontal status during pregnancy

Author: Bacima G. Ali باسمة علي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 64-68
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The purpose of the present research was to determine the prevalence and severity of gingival inflammation at different periods of gestation and the prevalence of pregnancy tumor, since the hormonal changes have been implicated complicating factors for periodontal disease.Method: Fifty women were examined; seventeen women from first trimester, twenty at second trimester and thirteenth at third trimester.Results: It was revealed that a high prevalence of periodontal disease increased with advanced stages of pregnancy. The percentage of pregnancy tumor was 6% from the total sample and only in 2nd and 3rd trimester groups.Conclusion: Local treatment in a preventive oral hygiene program from early pregnancy is very important to prevent further progression of any inflammation


Article
Salivary sex hormones & its relation to periodontal status among pregnant & non pregnant women

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AbstractSalivary sex hormones (estradiol/ progesterone) levels may rise dramatically &may affect the periodontal health during pregnancy. The aim of this study was tomeasure the level of estradiol &progesterone in stimulated saliva of pregnant women& its correlation to periodontal status in comparison to non pregnant women.A total of 26 women of the age group 20-24yr. attending the maternal & childhealth care in the medical city hospital were selected at the 3rd trimester of pregnancy& another 26 unmarried women were selected rand only. Saliva had been collectedfor analysis of estradiol & progesterone & periodontal status had been evaluated usingplaque index (PlI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD) & clinical attachmentlevel (CAL), t-test, X2 & correlation coefficient were used where indicated.The results revealed a significant difference in the mean PlI & GI among pregnant& control groups. Pregnant women showed deeper pocket & more attachment loss &a high mean of salivary sex hormones than control group with significant differences.The results also revealed a positive correlations between probing depth, clinicalattachment level & salivary sex hormones while there was no significant weakcorrelation between PlI, GI with salivary sex hormones.All the periodontal parameter & salivary sex hormones in this study were highervalue in pregnant women than non pregnant with significant differences. More strongpositive correlations were found between PD, CAL with salivary sex hormones &weak correlations with PlI & GI.


Article
Prevalence and severity of Periodontal disease among institutionalized elderly in Baghdad-Iraq

Author: Bacima GH. Ali B.D.S.M.Sc د.بسيمة علي
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2005 Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Pages: 120-123
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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This research analyzes data {rom dentate institutionalized elderly in Baghdad city .The study population comprised (100) dentate elderly ranging in age from 50-100 years27( males and 28 females) .Results showed that Prevalence of gingivitis was 100%among the elderly in both sexes and that the severity is higher among females for score 3and 2 of plaque index .


Article
Clinical effectiveness of subgingival application of 25%metronidazole gel as a monotherapy & as adjunctive treatment of chronic periodontitis

Author: Dr. Maha Abdul Aziz. B.D.S, M.Sc.* د. مها عبد العزيز
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2012 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 245-251
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Metronidazole has been used successfully as an adjunctive antimicrobial drug inthe treatment of periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to determine if twosubgingival applications of 25% metronidazole (MET) gel of one week interval aloneor adjunct to root planing (RP) have a significant effect on the following periodontalparameters: plaque index (PLI), bleeding on probing (BOP), Probing pocket depth(PPD), relative attachment level (RAL).A metronidazole 25 % dental gel has been developed for application locally intothe periodontal pocket, the gel disintegrates in the periodontal pocket and releasesmetronidazole. A total of 20 patients with an age range of (30-40) yr, each patientwith at least 4 sites with PPD ≥ 4mm and clinical attachment loss (1-2) mmparticipated in this study. The study protocol included a pretreatment phase of plaquecontrol instructions followed by scaling and polishing until the oral hygiene statusreached to mean PLI (0.4).An alginate impression was taken and an occlusal stent wasconstructed for each patient to measure the relative attachment level. A total of 270sites were randomly assigned to receive either 25% MET gel alone (group 1) or rootplaning plus 25% MET gel (group 2). Clinical periodontal parameters which include:PLI, BOP, PPD and RAL were recorded at day zero, after 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeksand 8 weeks.Statistical analysis of data of the two groups revealed significant improvements inall periodontal parameters (PPD, RAL, BOP) at all subsequent visits when comparedwith the base line, the same result was demonstrated when the two groups werecompared with each other at week 8 except (group 1) which did not show a significantgain in RAL at week 2 only. Mean plaque scores were improved in the two groups atall visits and non significant differences were demonstrated when the two groupswere compared with the baseline and at week 8.In conclusion, double applications of 25% MET gel subgingivally have a positiveeffect on reducing the clinical signs of periodontal disease.


Article
Oral health status and treatment needs in relation to nutritional status among 9-10 year-old school children in Nassiryia City/Iraq

Authors: Sanaa N. Al-Ghalebi سناء الجلبي --- Sulafa K. El-Samarrai سلافة خالد السامرائي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 133-137
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most common and widely spread disease affectinghumans at different ages. Nutrition was reported to be one of the factors affecting the severity of oral diseases. Theaims of this study included the investigation of the prevalence and severity of dental caries, gingivitis, dental plaque,dental calculus, in addition to dental treatment needs. Furthermore oral diseases were studies in relation to nutritionalstatus.Materials and methods: The total sample composed of 1350 (696 males and 654 females) selected randomly fromdifferent school in Nassiryia city. Diagnosis and recording of dental caries and treatment needs were according tothe criteria described by WHO (1987). Plaque index of Silness and Loe (1964) was used for plaque assessment,Ramfjord index (1959) was applied for the assessment of calculus, gingival index of Loe and Silness (1963) wasfollowed for recording gingival health condition. Ramfjord index teeth (1959) were examined to assess oralcleanliness and gingival condition. Nutritional status was assessed according to body mass index (BMI) indicator byusing anthropometric measurement (height and weight)Results: Results showed that 8.96% of the total sample was caries-free. The dmfs value was higher among femalescompared to males with statistically highly significant difference (P<0.001). In permanent dentition, the DMFS value ofthe total children also was higher among females compared to males, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05). Of the total sample 75.7% was found to be in need of one surface restoration, No statistically significantdifferences were recorded between the two genders concerning plaque, gingival and calculus indices (P>0.05). Theprevalence of malnutrition described by the BMI indicator was 5.9%. For the total sample, no significant differenceswere recorded in mean dmfs/ DMFS and different grades of nutritional status indicator.Conclusion: A high prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis were recorded indicating the need of a public healthprograms.

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