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Article
Chewing Khat and periodontal health status in Dhamar – Yemen

Author: Basman A KHALIL
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2001 Volume: 1 Issue: 2 Pages: 104-112
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The clinical examination involves eighty one males Yemenis, in Dhamar of age 15-45 years old and of similar and regular daily habit of chewing Khat unilaterally at the left side of the oral cavity to enjoy the amphetamin - like effect of Khat as a stimulant in a company with their friends under special environment & social rules in Yemen since a lot of years ago.The sample was divided equally into three age groups, (15-24 years), (25-34 years) and (35-45 years). The periodontal health status examined clinically to measure the plaque index, gingival index and periodontal pocket depth.Measurements divided into three groups, non - chewing right site of the mandible, and chewing left buccal site and chewing left lingual site of the mandible in the same individual.The periodontal health status according to the three parameters, revealed that the scores at the chewing site were higher than that at the non - chewing site, and higher buccally than lingually at the same chewing site.With the age and prolong abuse of Khat chewing, the scores increased and the periodontal pocket depth significantly differed in the age group (35-45 years) than the (15-24 years) and (25-34 years), age group. The periodontal pockets were significantly higher buccally than lingually at the same chewing site, may be due to the manner of Khat chewing, where the leaves of Khat accumulate gradually and held in the lower buccal pouch unilaterally in a bolus for several hours daily.


Article
Periodotnal health status and treatment needs among Iraqi dental students

Author: Abdul- Karim A. A. AL- Muhamadawy* BDS, MSc د. عبد الكريم المحمداوي
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 4 Pages: 378-381
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Summary: Background: periodontal disease are the major risk factors for tooth loos in aged persons. Clinically, patients with gingivitis or periodontitis usually suffer from gingival bleeding and periodontal probing. Material and method: The human sample consisted of five hundred and ninety eight students, 208 males and 390 females. Russel's periodontal index (PI) plaque index (PI. I) and the periodental treatment need system (PTNS) were scored. Results: The mean PI and P1.I for males were 1.94, 1.72 respectively. For females the corresponding values were 1.73. 1.49. From the total sample 2.4% males and 6.1% females were in no need of periodontal therapy.A comparison between first and final year students showed for all indices used a statistically highly significant differences (P<0.01).Conclusions: Although an improvement in all indices does occur, but still more emphasis should be placed on prevention through out the dental on curriculum. Key words: Periodontal health status, treatment need, Iraqi.


Article
Assessment of serum Interleukin-1β and its correlation with periodontal health status during pregnancy

Authors: Nadia M. Kazem --- Maha Sh. Mahmood مها محمود
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 2 Pages: 111-115
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Pregnancy is a stressful state of increased inflammatory activity, and pregnancy – associated hormonechanges can influence periodontal tissues, these inflammatory activity lead to production of inflammatorymediators. Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokines that is consistently associated withperiodontal diseases. This study was designed to determine the periodontal health status and detect the serum levelof IL-1β in the healthy pregnant women at first, second and third trimester and compare it with healthy non pregnantwomen, and determine its correlation with different clinical periodontal parameters.Materials and Methods: Subjects included in the study were sixty six (66) healthy pregnant women with an age rangeof 20-35 years old. They were divided into three subgroups according to gestational age, as twenty two (22) womenin each trimester. Also the sample included fifteen (15) married, non pregnant women and didn’t takecontraceptive pills, as control group with same age rang of 20- 35 years. Clinical periodontal parameters weremeasured in this study (plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinicalattachment level). Blood samples were collected from all women under study (pregnant & non pregnant women) toasses concentrations of IL-1β by mean of enzyme – linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA).Results: Highly significant statistical differences were observed among the study groups regarding the gingival index(GI)with p-value( 0.007) and the percentages of bleeding on probing (BOP) p- value(0.00), a significant differenceregarding the probing pocket depth ( PPD) with p-value (0.046) ,and non significant statistical differences regardingthe plaque index (PLI), p-value(0.6) and clinical attachment level (CAL) with p-value (0.371). Interleukin 1-beta ( IL-1β) serum level showed a highly statistical significant difference among the study groups with p-value (0.00).Apregnant women showed higher level than non pregnant with a higher value in the second trimester.Conclusions: The present result revealed that the serum level of IL-1β was higher in pregnant women than nonpregnant women with a highly significant difference. The IL-1β serum concentration reaches the maximum value inthe second trimester of pregnancy. Nevertheless there were weak correlations between clinical periodontalparameters and serum level of IL-1β

الخلفیة. الحمل ھو حالة مرھقة من زیادة النشاط الالتھابي , كما ان التغیرات الھرمونیة المصاحبة للحمل تؤثر في انسجة ماحول الاسنان . یؤدي ھذا النشاط الالتھابي الى انتاج وسطاء التھابات مثلالسایتوكینات .المدور الخلوي 1 بیتا ھو من السایتوكینات الموالیة للالتھابات القویة الذي یرتبط باستمرار مع امراضانسجة ماحول الاسنان .تم تصمیم ھذه الدراسة لتحدید الحالة الصحیة لانسجة ماحول الاسنانوكشف المستوى المصلي للسایتوكین 1 بیتا في النساء الحوامل في فترات مختلفة من الحمل ومقارنتھا مع النساء غیر الحوامل , وتحدید علاقتھ مع معلمات ماحول الاسنان السریریة المختلفة .35 ) سنة تم تقسیمھن الى ثلاث مجموعات فرعیة وفقا لعمر او مرحلة الحمل الى 22 امراءة حامل في كل - المواد وطرائق العمل. شمل البحث ستة وستین( 66 ) من النساء الحوامل تراوحت اعمارھن بین ( 2035 ) سنة . كانت معلمات - فصل من فصول الحمل الثلاثة . وشملت العینة خمسة عشر( 15 ) من النساء المتزوجات غیر الحوامل ولم یاخذن حبوب منع الحمل , كمجموعة مقارنة بنفس متوسط الاعمار من ( 20ماحول الاسنان المستخدمة في ھذه الدراسة ھي مؤشر الصفیحة الجرثومیة و مؤشر التھابات اللثة والنزف عند التسمیر وعمق جیوب اللثة وفقدان الانسجة الرابطة. تم جمع عینات الدم من جمیع النساء قیدالدراسة ( الحوامل وغیر الحوامل) لتقییم التركیزات المصلیة للسایتوكین 1بیتا باستخدام تقنیة مقایسة الانزیم المرتبط الممتز المناعیةالنتائج .لوحظ وجود فروق ذات دلالة احصائیة عالیة بین مجموعات الدراسة یشأن مؤشر التھاب اللثة ومؤشر النزف عند التسمیر ,ھناك فرق كبیر فیما یتعلق بعمق جیوب اللثة . لاتوجد فروق فیما یتعلق بمؤشرالصفیحة الجرثومیة وفقدان الانسجة الرابطة. اظھر المستوى المصلي للمدور الخلوي 1بیتا فروقات ذات دلالة احصائیة عالیة بین مجموعات الدراسة مع . واظھرت.اعلى قیمة للمدور الخلوي 1بیتا في الفصل.p= الثاني من الحمل . 0.00الاستنتاج كشفت النتیجة الحالیة أن المستوى المصلي من المدور الخلوي 1بیتا كان أعلى في النساء الحوامل من النساء غیر الحوامل مع فروق ذات دلالة إحصائیة عالیة.التركیز المصلي للمدور الخلوي 1بیتایصل القیمة القصوى في الثلث الثاني من الحمل . ومع ذلك كان ھناك وجود علاقة ضعیفة بین المعلمات السریریة ومستوى المصل من المدور الخلوي 1بیتا.


Article
Periodontal health and treatment needs of intermediate school children and its relation to educational level of parents

Authors: Tarik Y KHAMRCO --- Rayia J AL-NAIMI --- Layla A MAKANI
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2002 Volume: 2 Issue: 3 Pages: 423-431
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This study was carried out on(981) intermediate school children ages (13-15) years to determine the influence of parent education on periodontal health status and treatment needs.The Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) was used to assess the periodontal condition and treatment needs. The results showed that the percentage of children with a healthy gingiva was low inspective of the educational level of their parents; periodontal disease was prevalent in(93.2-100%) of the sample.There was no significant difference in the mean number of healthy sextants between males and females in the different levels of parent education. Also, there was no significant difference in periodontal disease and treatment needs for the total sample in relation to different levels of parent education.The periodontal treatment feels for the students were massive;(93.2-100%)needed dental health education, while prophylactic scaling and polishing was required in(62.7-84.21%) of the sample


Article
The periodontal health status of postmenopausal women and its relationship to bone mineral density

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The relationship between changes in postmenopausal women and periodontalcondition had been studied in many countries. It has been suggested that estrogendeficiency may play a role in periodontal disease following menopause. The aim ofthis study was to investigate the influence of postmenopausal alteration on the clinicalperiodontal parameters and teeth loss. In addition, to determine the relationshipbetween systemic bone mineral density and periodontal disease in postmenopausal.womenSixty Iraqi women in total were involved in this study, 20 women as a controlgroup of age (35-45) years and forty postmenopausal women divided into two.subgroups: groupl for age (50-60) years and group 2 of age (60-70) years:Questionnaire involved the following periodontal parametersPlaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), pocketdepth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL). All these parameters were measured andtabulated according to redefined scores, or counts, and the data was analyzed.statistically- Fifteen of forty postmenopausal women, were examined using dual energy xray absorptiometry (DEXA) equipment to measure bone mineral density (BMD) inorder to determine the relationship between (BMD) and any of the above periodontalparameters. The means, Gl, BOP, PD and CAL were found to be significantly higher.)in the postmenopausal group than the control (P<0.05It was found that BMD is negatively associated with Gl, BOP, PD and CALbut the correlation is either of high significant or of slight of difference but notsignificant at (P<0.05). The clinical parameters may increase depending on theexpected negative effects during menopause further, it is concluded that BMD of the.lumbar spine is related to CAL, PD, number of teeth loss and to a lesser extent BOP


Article
Correlation between biochemical analysis and periodontal health status and tooth loss in chronic renal failure patients

Authors: Ali J. Baker علي بكر --- Khulood Al-Safi خلود الصافي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: special issue 2 Pages: 100-105
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Periodontal disease is a chronic bacterial infection that affects the gingiva and bone supporting theteeth. The chronic renal failure is one of the serious systemic diseases. It causes general systemic changes whichreflect themselves on the oral cavity components. The aims of this study is to determine and compare theperiodontal clinical parameters and tooth loss between renal failure patients under hemodialysis and healthyindividuals, to determine and compare the levels of C-reactive protein and albumin in saliva and serum betweenthese two groups and to correlate the biochemical parameters with the clinical parameters for the renal failurepatients.Materials and Methods: Sample population consisted of (100) individuals. Males and females were included in thisstudy aged from 45-55 years old. The human sample divided into two main groups; study and control groups. Thestudy group subdivided into hepatitis positive and negative subgroups. Sample recruited for study were 73 patientsattending the Artificial Kidney Centers in Baghdad city, all were under hemodialysis. The control group consisted of27 healthy individuals no history of any systemic disease. All the clinical parameters were tested for both groupstogether with the levels of C-reactive protein and albumin in saliva and serum.Results: The statistical analysis revealed highly significant differences between the study and control groups for all theclinical parameters and highly significant differences between the study and control groups when comparing thelevels of albumin and C - reactive protein in saliva and serum. Non-significant differences were found whencomparing males and females for each group for both clinical and biochemical parameters. But highly significantdifferences were illustrated when comparing between hepatitis +ve and –ve patients in the study group for all theparameters. Few strong correlations were revealed between the clinical and biochemical parameters; however,most of the correlations had confidence levels more than 75% which could have clinical significance.Conclusions: The study group had worse periodontal health status than the control group. Also, there was a weakcorrelation between the clinical and biochemical parameters but with some interested numerical differences


Article
Periodontal health status and salivary enzymes level in smokers and non-smokers (comparative, cross sectional study)

Authors: Ban Karem --- Leka'a M. Ibrahim
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 3 Pages: 91-96
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Smoking is considering a major risk factor for development and progression of periodontal disease.Investigations regarding the association between smoking and periodontal disease have consistently demonstratednegative periodontal effects and greater probabilities of established periodontal disease among smokers incomparison with non smokers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of smoking on periodontalhealth status and on the salivary levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatinekinase (CK), and to correlate the clinical parameters of periodontal health with the biochemical findings in smokersand non-smokers.Materials and methods: Unstimulated saliva sample was collected from 25 smokers and 25 non-smokers forbiochemical analysis of salivary enzymes. Periodontal parameters including: plaque index, gingival index, bleedingon probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level were recorded.Results: statistical analysis revealed that ALP in saliva was significantly higher in smoker than the non smoker groupand there was a highly significant difference in the salivary LDH and CK levels between smokers and non-smokersgroups. Plaque index (PLI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were higher in smokerscompared with non smokers, while there was decrease in the number of bleeding sites.Conclusions: smokers group revealed more periodontal tissue destruction than non-smokers group represented bydeeper pockets and more clinical attachment level. Salivary enzymes (ALP, LDH and CK) are considered as goodbiochemical markers of periodontal tissue destruction and can be used to evaluate the effect of smoking onperiodontal health status


Article
Periodontal health status of heavy and light smokers and its correlation with salivary superoxide dismutase enzyme (A comparative study)

Authors: Banaz J. Ali --- Leka'a M. Ibrahim --- Ali Y. Majid
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 3 Pages: 97-102
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Periodontal disease is a chronic bacterial infection that affects the gingiva and bone supporting theteeth. Smoking, which is an important risk factor for periodontitis, induce oxidative stress in the body and cause animbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD). This studyaimed to evaluate the influence of smoking on periodontal health status by estimating the levels of salivary SOD levelin non-smokers (controls) and light and heavy smokers and to test the correlation between the SOD enzyme leveland the clinical periodontal parameters in each group.Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 75 male, with age ranged from 35 to 50 years. Clinically, theperiodontal parameters used in this study were Plaque index (PLI). Gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD),Bleeding on probing (BOP) and clinical attachment level (CAL), unstimulated saliva sample were collected from allsubjects and the levels of superoxide dismutase enzyme was analyzed for each group , and correlate the mean ofsalivary enzyme levels with the clinical periodontal parameters.Results: Highly significant differences in PLI between (non smokers/heavy smokers) and (light smokers/heavysmokers).On the other hand no significant difference in gingival index between groups.There were a high association between severity of smoking & probing pocket depth and there is associationbetween severity of smoking and clinical attachment loss. There were a significant difference in the level of salivarysuperoxide dismutase enzyme between the (non smokers/light smokers) groups & between (heavy smokers/lightsmokers) &there were highly significant differences between (non smokers/heavy smokers) groups. There is nocorrelation between the activities of the salivary superoxide dismutase enzyme and the clinical periodontalparameters except in SOD with (BOP score 0 and PPD score 1&score 3) in heavy smokers group.Conclusions: Superoxide dismutase enzyme can be used as biomarker for estimating the level of oxidative stress onsmoking habits.


Article
Correlation between Periodontal Health Status and Salivary Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Levels in Smoker and Non-Smoker Chronic Periodontitis Patients (A Comparative Study)

Authors: Sura D. Jassim سرى جاسم --- Lekaa M. Ibrahim لقاء ابراهيم
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 4 Pages: 128-133
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Periodontal diseases are inflammatory diseases affecting the supporting tissues of the teeth. One of the leading environmental factors that are closely related not only to the risk but also to the prognosis of periodontitis is smoking. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of smoking on periodontal health status and to measure the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in smokers and nonsmokers chronic periodontitis patients, also it aimed to test the correlation between the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and the clinical periodontal parameters.Materials and Methods: Five milliliters samples of un-stimulated whole saliva and full-mouth clinical periodontal recordings (plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level) were obtained from forty patients of two groups (non smokers with chronic periodontitis and smokers with chronic periodontitis). All subjects were systemically healthy males, with age range (35-50) years. Salivary matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels were analyzed by using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays.Results: Statistical analysis revealed that probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level were higher in smokers than non smokers, while there were decreases in the numbers of bleeding sites in smoker when compared with non smoker subjects. Salivary matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels were significantly higher in smoker with chronic periodontitis patients than their non smoker counterparts.Conclusion: Salivary matrix metalloproteinase-9, as a biomarker, could reflect the increased periodontal tissue destruction due to the smoking


Article
ORAL HEALTH STATUS AMONG INTERNALLY DISPLACED PEOPLE LIVING INSIDE CAMPS ‎‎/ DUHOK PROVINCE: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY
تقييم الوضع الصحي لامراض الفم للنازحين الذين يعيشون داخل مخيمات/ محافظة دهوك :دراسة مقطعية

Authors: RASHA A. AL-KAABI رشا الكعبي --- SAEED A. MOHAMMED سعيد محمد --- HASHIM D. MOUSA هاشم داود موسى --- BAHAR J. SELIVANY BAHAR J. SELIVANY
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: ISSN: 20717334 (online)/ ISSN: 20717326 (Print) Year: 2016 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 96-108
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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Background: Internally Displaced People (IDPs), They have been forced from their homes for many of the same reasons as refugees, but have not crossed an international border. The aim of this study was to describe the dental caries and periodontal health status of (15-19) year-old Internally Displaced People (IDPs) students living inside camps in Duhok governorate. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out to gather information on oral health status of secondary school students in Khanki camp in May 2015 with an ethical approval. One trained examiner performed the clinical examination according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria in 1997. Caries experience was measured using DMFT, DMFS index, and CPI index was used to report on the periodontal health status. Descriptive statistics used to describe the study outcomes. Results: A total of 384 students were examined, and 349 (90.9 %) participated in the survey. The prevalence of caries experience among the participants was 86.5 %. The mean DMFT and DT scores were 3.9 and 5.0, respectively. The CPI scores of gingival bleeding, calculus, shallow and deep pockets were 77.7%, 68.5%, 11.7% and 4.6%, respectively. Boys had higher prevalence and severity of dental caries than girls (DMFT= 4.3 vs. 3.4, DMFS= 5.6 vs. 4.2, respectively) as well as they had worse periodontal health status than girls. Conclusion: High prevalence of dental caries and periodontal diseases in the (15-19) year old students living in the examined sample in Khanki camp. The study demonstrates the urge need for a better planning and implementation of preventive oral health programs in the IDPs camps.

الهدف: الهدف من هذا الدراسة كان تقييم الحالة الصحية لامراض الفم المنتشرة مثل تسوس الاسنان وامراض اللثة لطلاب المدارس الثانوية للنازحين الذين يعيشون داخل مخيمات النازحين وللاعمار (15-19) سنة في محافظة دهوك/ كوردستان العراق.طريقة البحث: اجريت دراسة مقطعية لجمع المعلومات عن الحالة الصحية لافواه طلاب المدارس الثانوية في مخيم خانكى في شهر ايار لسنة 2015 وذالك بعد استحصال الموافقات القانونية الاصولية وتم اجراء الفحوصات السريرية وفقا لمعايير منظمة الصحة العالميةلعام 1997 وتم قياس مؤشري التسوس (DMFT,DMFS) وقياس مؤشر أمراض اللثة (CPI) وبعدها تحليل النتائج احصائيا لوصف نتائج الدراسة.النتائج: من مجموع 384 طالب من الذين تم فحصهم تم مشاركة 349 (90.9%) في الاستطلاع. وتبين ان نسبة انتشار التسوس بين المشاركين 86.5% وكان معدل DMFT (309) ومعدلDT (5.0). بينما كانت معدل مؤشر (CPI) من ناحية احتساب نزيف اللثة، وجود الترسبات الكلسية (تارتار)، ووجود الجير (البلاك) كان 77.7%، 68.5%، 11.6% و4.6% على التوالي. وكانت نسبة انتشار وشدة التسوس أعلى بين الذكور منه بين الاناث DMFT 4.3 مقابل 3.4) (DMFS 5.6 مقابل 4.2) على التوالي. وتبين نفس الشيء بالنسبة لمؤشر امراض اللثة.الاستنتاج: تبين ان هناك انتشار عالي التسوس الاسنان وامراض اللثة بين الطلاب النازحين المقيمين في مخيم خانكى للاعمار (15-19) سنة. وتوضح الدراسة الحاجة الماسة والملحة الى وضع الخطط الوقائية الازمة لصحة الفم للنازحين داخل المخيمات.

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