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Article
Estimation Liquid Permeability Using Air Permeability Laboratory Data

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Abstract

Permeability data has major importance work that should be handled in all reservoir simulation studies. The importance of permeability data increases in mature oil and gas fields due to its sensitivity for the requirements of some specific improved recoveries. However, the industry has a huge source of data of air permeability measurements against little number of liquid permeability values. This is due to the relatively high cost of special core analysis.The current study suggests a correlation to convert air permeability data that are conventionally measured during laboratory core analysis into liquid permeability. This correlation introduces a feasible estimation in cases of data loose and poorly consolidated formations, or in case of the unavailability of old cores to carry out liquid permeability. Moreover, the conversion formula offers a better use of the large amount of old air permeability data obtained through routine core analysis for the further uses in reservoir and geological modeling studies.The comparison analysis shows high accuracy and more consistent results over a wide range of permeability values for the suggested conversion formula.


Article
Permeability Prediction in Carbonate Reservoir Rock Using FZI

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Abstract

Knowledge of permeability, which is the ability of rocks to transmit the fluid, is important for understanding the flow mechanisms in oil and gas reservoirs.Permeability is best measured in the laboratory on cored rock taken from the reservoir. Coring is expensive and time-consuming in comparison to the elec¬tronic survey techniques most commonly used to gain in¬formation about permeability.Yamama formation was chosen, to predict the permeability by using FZI method. Yamama Formation is the main lower cretaceous carbonate reservoir in southern of Iraq. This formation is made up mainly of limestone. Yamama formation was deposited on a gradually rising basin floor. The digenesis of Yamama sediments is very important due to its direct relation to the porosity and permeability.In this study permeability has been predicated by using the Flow zone indicator methods.This method attempts to identify the flow zone indicator in un-cored wells using log records. Once the flow zone indicator is calculated from the core data, a relationship between this FZI value and the well logs can be obtained.

Keywords

Permeability --- FZI


Article
Permeability Prediction for Nahr-Umr Reservoir / Subba field by Using FZI Method
حساب النفاذيه لمكمن نهر عمر / حقل صبه باستخدام طريقة FZI

Authors: Sameera M. Hamd- Allah سميرة محمد حمد الله --- Basim Mohammed Noor باسم محمد نور --- Ahmed Radhe Watten احمد راضي وطن
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2016 Volume: 22 Issue: 9 Pages: 160-171
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The permeability determination in the reservoirs that are anisotropic and heterogeneous is a complicated problem due to the limited number of wells that contain core samples and well test data. This paper presents hydraulic flow units and flow zone indicator for predicting permeability of rock mass from core for Nahr-Umr reservoir/ Subba field. The Permeability measurement is better found in the laboratory work on the cored rock that taken from the formation. Nahr-Umr Formation is the main lower cretaceous sandstone reservoir in southern of Iraq. This formation is made up mainly of sandstone. Nahr-Umr formation was deposited on a gradually rising basin floor. The digenesis of Nahr-Umr sediments is very important due to its direct relation to the porosity and permeability. In this study permeability has been predicated by using the flow zone indicator methods. This method attempts to identify the flow zone indicator in un-cored wells using log records. Once the flow zone indicator is calculated from the core data, a relationship between this FZI value and the well logs can be obtained.Three relationships have been found for Nahr-Umr reservoir/Subba field by FZI method.By plotting the permeability of the core versus the permeability that is predicted by FZI method the parameter R2 was found (0.905) which is very good for predict the permeability.

ان حساب النفاذيه في المكامن غير المتجانسه هي مسألة صعبه وذلك لان عينات اللباب وبيانات فحص الابار تكون قليله ومحدوده لعدد معين من الابار. في هذا البحث يتم استعراض (hydraulic flow units) و (flow zone indicator) لاستخدامها في حساب نفاذيه الصخور من خلال عينات اللباب الماخوذه من مكمن نهر عمر في حقل صبه. افضل نفاذيه هي النفاذيه المحسوبه في المختبر من عينات اللباب الماخوذه من الحقل. تكوين نهر عمر هو المكمن الرئيسي الاسفل في جنوب العراق وهو مكمن طباشيري. تكوين نهر عمر يتكون بصوره رأيسيه من حجر الرمل. تكوين نهر عمر ترسب بصوره تدريجيه في حوض نهري صاعد. تشخيص رواسب تكوين نهر عمر هي عمليه مهمه جدا وذلك لما للرواسب من تاثير مباشر على مساميه ونفاذيه المكمن. في هذا البحث تم حساب النفاذيه لمكمن نهر عمر في حقل صبه باستخدام طريقة (Flow zone indicator) . هذه الطريقه تحاول حساب قيمه (Flow zone indicator) في الابار التي ليس بها عينات اللباب باستخدام المجسات. بعد حساب (Flow zone indicator) من بيانات اللباب المتوفره يتم ايجاد علاقه بين هذه القيمه المحسوبه (Flow zone indicator) ومجسات الابار .ثلاثه علاقات وجدت لمكمن نهر عمر/حقل صبه باستخدام طريقه FZIبواسطه رسم نفاذيه اللباب ضد النفاذيه المستحصله بطريقه FZI فان المتغير R2 قد وجد (0.905) حيث يتعبر قيمه جيدة لايجاد النفاذيه بطريقه FZI

Keywords

permeability --- FZI --- النفاذية --- FZI


Article
Geological Model of Khasib Reservoir- Central Area/East Baghdad Field

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Abstract

The Geological modeling has been constructed by using Petrel E&P software to incorporate data, for improved Three-dimensional models of porosity model, water saturation, permeability estimated from core data, well log interpretation, and fault analysis modeling.Three-dimensional geological models attributed with physical properties constructed from primary geological data. The reservoir contains a huge hydrocarbon accumulation, a unique geological model characterization with faults, high heterogeneity, and a very complex field in nature.The results of this study show that the Three-dimensional geological model of Khasib reservoir, to build the reservoir model starting with evaluation of reservoir to interpretation of well log by using IP software for 14 wells, defining and divided the layers based on the GR Log and Resistivity log to nine layers and then maintained the fault model for a divided central area to four regions. Compared porosity log with porosity core to estimate correction porosity and enter this value to predict the permeability value for each layer by using FZI, and RQI method. The model Containing faults, horizons, zones, and layers depending on this data to make gridding by using pillar gridding.This paper presents a geological modeling and an uncertainty analysis for stock-tank original oil in place. The distribution of the faults is also discussed.


Article
Permeability Prediction By Classical and Flow Zone Indictor (FZI) Methods for an Iraqi Gas Field

Authors: Waffa Mustafa Al-Qattan --- Ahmed Habeeb Al Mohammed
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2017 Volume: 18 Issue: 3 Pages: 59-65
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The permeability is the most important parameter that indicates how efficient the reservoir fluids flow through the rock pores to the wellbore. Well-log evaluation and core measurements techniques are typically used to estimate it. In this paper, the permeability has been predicted by using classical and Flow zone indicator methods. A comparison between the two methods shows the superiority of the FZI method correlations, these correlations can be used to estimate permeability in un-cored wells with a good approximation.

Keywords

permeability --- FZI method


Article
Static Model of Zubair Reservoir in Luhais Oil Field

Authors: Ahmed Abdulmueen Alher --- Mohammed Saleh Aljawad --- Abdullah Abdulhasan Ali
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2018 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 57-60
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Static reservoir modeling is the interacting and analysis of the geological data to visualize the reservoir framework by three-dimensional model and distribute the static reservoir properties. The Petrel E&P software used to incorporate the data. The interpreted log data and core report used in distribution of petrophysical properties of porosity, water saturation and permeability for Zubair reservoir in Luhais oil field. The reservoir discretized to 274968 cells in increments of 300, 200 and 1 meter in the direction of X, Y, and Z respectively. The geostatistical approach used in the distribution of the properties of porosity and water saturation overall the reservoir units. The permeability has been calculated with classical method depending on the routine core reports data. The results show the main reservoir unit is 1C where its porosity and permeability are about 20% and 400md respectively. This unit underlaid by barrier unit and rounded by water. The estimated value of oil in place is about 209*106 ScM3, most of it accumulate at 1C unit and the other at the upper parts of unit 1E.


Article
PREPARATION OF EDIBLE FILMS FROM GLUTEN OF SOME LOCAL WHEAT VARIETIES AND STUDY THERE MECHANICAL AND BARRIER PROPERTIES
تحضير اغشية قابلة للاكل من كلوتين بعض اصناف الحنطة المحلية ودراسة خصائصها الحجزية والميكانيكية

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Abstract

This study includes doing chemical,physical tests on five kinds of local wheat's (Ashur, Adnania 1, Eba’e 95, Tamooz 2 and Abu Greib 3). The results of chemical and physical tests on wheat and flour showed the highest protein and fat percentage were in Ashur class 14.90% and 1.82% respectively . it was noticed the raise of dry and wet gluten 10.80% and32.50% and weight of athousand kernels 34gr and pelshanke test 165 minute in Ashur class.Simple films of manyconcentration of gluten , glycerol ,absolute ethanol and different concentration of pH were prepared from Ashur wheat flour, and they were distingwished by transparency ,lackness of taste and odour and its colour is light yellowish ,flexible ,and soft touch. The thickness of the film is between 0.09 – 0.15 mm .Water vapour permeability were different according to the concentration of the materials that make the solution of the film and it were between 2.00 – 4.43 gm• mm/ m2 h .k pascal .Solubility of simple gluten film in water were about 20.30 -34.39 % where as it’s solubility in 1N HCl were 24.26 – 46.64 % .The tensile strength of simple wheat gluten film were about 2.63 – 4.87 Mega pascal ,where as its percentage elongation at break were about 15.21–43.25%.

تضمنت الدراسة أجراء بعض الاختبارات الكيميائية والفيزيائية على خمسة أصناف من الحنطة المحلية وهي (آشور وعدنانية 1 وإباء 95 وتموز 2 وأبو غريب3). أظهرت نتائج الاختبارات الكيميائية والفيزيائية لأصناف الحبوب والطحين تفوق صنف حنطة آشور على باقي الأصناف في محتواه من البروتين 14.90% والدهن1.82 % واعطى اعلى قيمة لكل من معامل الكلوتين 83ونسبة الوزن الرطب والجاف للكلوتين 32.50% و10.80 % واختبار قوة الطحين (بلشنكي)165 دقيقة ووزن الف حبة 34 غم مقارنة مع باقي الاصناف . وامتازت الأغشية البسيطة المحضرة من تراكيز مختلفة من كلوتين الحنطة المستخلص من طحين حنطة صنف آشور، كليسيرول ، كحول اثيلي ، وفيم مختلفة من الرقم الهيدروجيني بكونها قائمة بذاتها وشفافة وعديمة الطعم والرائحة وذات لون مائل للاصفرار ومرنة وناعمة الملمس، وتراوح سمكها من 0.15 - 0.09 ملم ، بلغت نفاذيتها لبخار الماء2.00 - 4.43 غم . ملم / م2. ساعة كيلو باسكال . اما قابلية اذابتها بالماء فتراوحت من 34.39 - 20.30 % وبحامض HCl 1عياري % 46.64 -24.26في حين مقاومتها للشد كانت بحدود 2.63- 4.87 ميكا باسكال، ونسبة استطالتها حتى القطع تراوحت من 15.21-43.25 % .


Article
Electrofacies Characterization of an Iraqi Carbonate Reservoir

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Abstract

Predicting peterophysical parameters and doing accurate geological modeling which are an active research area in petroleum industry cannot be done accurately unless the reservoir formations are classified into sub-groups. Also, getting core samples from all wells and characterize them by geologists are very expensive way; therefore, we used the Electro-Facies characterization which is a simple and cost-effective approach to classify one of Iraqi heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs using commonly available well logs. The main goal of this work is to identify the optimum E-Facies units based on principal components analysis (PCA) and model based cluster analysis(MCA) depending on available well logs data for four wells from an Iraqi carbonate oil field. The optimum E-Facies units came from comparing them with geologist classification units for these four wells. Also, we conclude that the value of permeability is not important to get the optimum E-Facies units. Several runs have been tried each with different number of units using the Electro-Facies approach. The results of the techniques show very good match of the tops for various units with the actual ones. This application also shows the power and versatility of electrofacies characterization in improving reservoir descriptions in complex carbonate reservoirs


Article
Determination of Porosity and Permeability of Darnah Formation at Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar-North Eastern Libya
تعيين المسامية والنفاذية لتكوين درنة في الجبل الأخضر / شمال- شرق ليبيا

Author: Salman Z. Khorshid سلمان زين العابدين خورشيد
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2017 Volume: 58 Issue: 1B Pages: 266-279
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The study area is located at AL Jabal AL-Akhdar region North Eastern part of Libya. The study includes (23) fresh samples that are taken from Darnah limestone Formation, these samples were distributed on and covered about (210) km2. The porosities and permeabilities of these samples were determined. This study is important because this formation is considered as a good reservoir for hydrocarbon accumulation in other places in Libya. The porosity was measured by three different methods namely by porosimeter (using core samples), thin sections and binocular microscope. The permeability are also measured by two methods, the first method was by Nitrogen method and the other is by Klinkenberg method. The instrument that used for measuring permeability is Permeameter, which is found in Arabian Gulf Oil Company Laboratories (AGOCO) in Benghazi.Comparing the porosities by these three methods, it was clear that the porosity which was measured by porosimeter is better than the other two methods, because this instrument gives porosity by 3-Dimensions using core samples, but the other two methods give porosity in 2-Dimensions. The results show that the range of porosities measured by porosimeter was between (2.3% - 29.8%), the range by thin sections was between (2% - 23%) and the range by binocular microscope was between (4% - 29%). On other hand the range of permeabilities by Nitrogen method was found between (0.1 – 1572) millidarcy, and by Klinkenberg method was between (0.05 – 1506) Millidarcy. This variety of the range depends on the locations of samples as well as on active and inactive porosities, so there is no significant difference between the porosities and permeabilities of the same sample

تقع هذه الدراسة في منطقة الجبل الأخضر شمال - شرقي ليبيا وتتضمن الدراسة أخذ (23) نموذجا نظيفا من تكوين درنة الجيري موزعة على مساحة حوالي (210) كم2 وذلك لقياس كل من المسامية والنفاذية لهذه النماذج حيث أن هذا التكوين المسامي يمكن ان يكون مكمنا جيدا لخزن الهايدروكاربونات في مناطق أخرى من ليبيا. تم قياس المسامية بثلاث طرائق مختلفة الأولى بجهاز متطور يستخدم غاز الهيليوم وهي جهاز ( البروسيميتر) حيث ان غاز الهيليوم ذا الذرات الصغيرة يدخل إلى جميع الفراغات الموجودة في اللباب الصخري المحضر من اللباب الصخري والثانية بعمل شرائح ودراستها تحت المجهر والثالثة تم دراستها بمجهر ثنائي العينين ( الباينوكلر) , أما النفاذية فتم قياسها بطريقتين باستخدام جهاز قياس النفاذية المتطورة ( البيرمياميتر) وان جميع الأجهزة متواجدة في شركة نفط الخليج العربي في بنغازي حيث يتم القياس أيضا من اللباب الصخري المحضر من النماذج . ففي الطريقة الأولى تم استخدام النايتروجين وفي الثانية بطريقة ( كلينكنبيرغ). أظهرت مقارنة نتائج المسامية بالطرائق الثلاثة ان المسامية المقاسة من اللباب الصخري أفضل من الطريقتين الآخريين وذلك لأن هذه الطريقة تعطي نتائج ثلاثية الأبعاد , أما الطريقتين الآخريان فتعطي نتائج ذات بعدين, حيث كان مدى النتائج في الطريقة الأولى بين (%2.3 – % 29.8 ) أما المسامية في دراسة الشرائح فكان مداها بين (%2 - %23 ) وان الطريقة الثالثة أعطت مدى بين (%4 - % 29 ). اما قياس النفاذية فوجد ان قيم المدى باستخدام النايتروجين بين (0.1 - 1572 ) مللي دارسي , وكان مدى طريقة (كلينكنبيرغ) بين ( 0.05 - 1506 ) مللي دارسي , هذا الإختلاف بين النتائج سببه مواقع النماذج ونوع المسامية الفعالة وغير الفعالة، ولوحظ إنه لا يوجد فرق جوهري بين النتائج لنفس النموذج في الطرائق المختلفة.


Article
Effect of Substitution of Positive Ion (M+2) on the Physical Properties of M-Fe2O4

Author: Nahedh H. Alwash1,*, Jafer Fahdel Odah1, Ahmed Namah Mohamed1
Journal: Almuthanna Journal of Pure Science (MJPS) مجلة المثنى للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 22263284 Year: 2017 Volume: 4 Issue: 1
Publisher: Al-Muthanna University جامعة المثنى

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Abstract

Cobalt, Manganese and Magnesium ferrites powders have been synthesized using chemical mixing method.Calcination and sintering temperatures were 800oC respectively. The characteristics of spinal ferrite have been investigated byXRD technique while the magnetic characterization samples have been done using vibrating sample magnetometer (V.S.M).The magnetic properties such as initial magnetic permeability, quality factor, inductor factor and power loss density are studiedunder variation of frequency using L.C.R meter as well. Saturation magnetization, coercive field and remanent magnetizationare determined from hysteresis loops for all prepared sample.

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