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Article
Proceeding Bromometric Phenol Assay without Starch Indicator

Author: Maadh Q. Abdulkadir معاذ قصي عبد القادر
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 16833597 Year: 2009 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 72-77
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In this research, we exclude starch indicator preparation,that is used in official phenol assay method. The liberated iodine, in presence of chloroform, was acting as indicator and titrated with sodium thiosulfate until getting a sharp colorless end point. Similarly, starch was cancelled during both blank and standardization of bromine water solution experiments needed in phenol assay. The results obtained were the same volumes and weights as that achieved using starch with just about 0.03% difference in sample procedure. Finally, this work will enable us to save time, effort, fuel and materials spended in laboratory.
Key word:- Phenol, assay, starch indicator

هذا البحث يقوم على الغاء تحضير محلول النشا المستعمل كدليل عند تحليل الفينول رسمياً حيث نقوم بتسحيح اليود بوجود الكلوروفورم والذي يعطينا لوناً احمر غامق مع محلول الثايوسلفات الصوديوم لنحصل في النهاية على محلول شفاف ونقطة نهاية واضحة بدون استعمال محلول النشا وينطبق هذا ايضاً على تجربتي ايجاد البلانك وتقييس محلول البروم اللتين نحتاجهما خلال عملية التحليل. ولقد اعطتنا هذه الطريقة المختصرةنتائج دقيقة بالنسبة لتجربة التقييس والبلانك مع فارق ضئيل يقدر بحوالي 0.03% لتجربة التحليل وبهذا العمل نستطيع توفير الوقت، الجهد، الطاقة والمواد المصروفة في المختبر.

Keywords

Phenol --- assay --- starch indicator


Article
Electrocoagulation of phenol for wastewater treatment

Author: Ahmed A-Mohammed
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2008 Volume: 9 Issue: 3 Pages: 45-49
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Electrocoagulation is an electrochemical process of treating polluted water where sacrificial anode corrodes to produce active coagulant (usually aluminum or iron cations) into solution. Accompanying electrolytic reactions evolve gas (usually as hydrogen bubbles). The present study investigates the removal of phenol from water by this method. A glass tank with 1 liter volume and two electrodes were used to perform the experiments. The electrode connected to a D.C. power supply. The effect of various factors on the removal of phenol (initial phenol concentration, electrode size, electrodes gab, current density, pH and treatment time) were studied. The results indicated that the removal efficiency decreased as initial phenol concentration increased, the highest removal obtained at pH in the range (6-8), the removal enhanced with increasing electrode size and decreasing the gab between the electrodes. The optimum current density obtained at 221 A/m2.


Article
EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PHENOLIC EXTRAC FROM HALOXYLON SALICORNICUM
تقدير الفعاليه الضد ميكروبية لمستخلص الفينول من نبات الشنان

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Abstract

Investigation of antibacterial and antifungal activity of phenolic extract of Haloxylon salicornicum was carried out in this study on Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria and some species of fungi. The results exhibited variable susceptibilities of microorganisms for different concentration of phenolic extract. The activity of this extract was associated with high concentrations. Using plate method, phenolic extract of H. salicornicum had the highest effect and wide diameter of growth inhibition zone against Candida albicans and Klebsiella pneumonia, and it has no effect on growth of Asprigillus fumigatus and A.. terreus only when very high concentrations is used

لقد تم دراسة الفعاليه الضد ميكروبية للمستخلص الفينولي لنبات النعناع. وقد اختيرت بعض انواع البكتريا المرضيه الموجبه والسالبه لصبغة جرام. كما تم دراسة تأثير المستخلص على بعض انواع الفطريات ايضا. بينت الدراسه ان هذه الميكروبات لها حساسيه مختلفه تجاه المستخلص وحسب نوع الميكروب والتركيز المستخدم. وقد لوحظ ان التأثير الاكبر للمستخلص كلن على جرثومة Klebsiella pneumonia وفطر Candida albicans. اما الفطرين Asprigillus fumigatus و Aspergillu. terreus فلم تتأثر بالمستخلص الا عند استخدام التراكيز العاليه جدا.

Keywords

phenol --- salmonella --- fungi


Article
Mechanical properties (Tensile, Hardness and Shock resistance) for the phenol formaldehyde resin with Epoxy resin

Authors: Mustafa A. Rajab مصطفى احمد رجب --- Ekhlas I. Kader --- Ali Adwan Hammod علي عدوان حمود --- Abdul Hameed I. Hameed
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2019 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 35-43
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Phenolic formaldehyde (resole) resin was used at a different weight (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%), with epoxy resins at varying percentages (90%, 80%, 70%, 60%) at 20 C °. In order to study the mechanical properties (which including: Tensile strength, hardness and shock resistance), for the purpose of analysis and comparison with the mechanical properties of alloys, and the selected part for the purpose of replacing the alloy with the composite materials to reduce weight and improve mechanical properties. The results indicate improved properties with increased epoxy resins due to increased bonding between components.

Keywords

Epoxy --- phenol formaldehyde


Article
Adsorption Of Phenol And P-Nitro Phenol Onto Date Stones: Equilibrium Isotherms, Kineticsand Thermodynamics Studies

Authors: Abdul-Halim A.K. Mohammed --- Samar K. Theydan --- Muthanna J. Ahmed
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2012 Volume: 18 Issue: 6 Pages: 743-761
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Adsorption capacity of a waste biomass, date stones, for phenolic compounds such as phenol (Ph) and p-nitro phenol (PNPh) was investigated. The characteristics of such waste biomass were determined and found to have a surface area and iodine number of 495.71 m2/g and 475.88 mg/g, respectively. The effects of temperature, initial sorbate concentration, and contact time on the adsorption process were studied. Experimental equilibrium data for adsorption of Ph and PNPh on date stones were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips isotherm models. The results show that the best fit was achieved with the Sips isotherm equation with maximum adsorption capacities of 147.09 and 179.62 mg/g for Ph and PNPh, respectively. The kinetic data were fitted to pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models, and was found to follow closely the pseudo-second order model for both Ph and PNPh. The calculated thermodynamic parameters, namely ∆G, ∆H, and ∆S showed that adsorption of Ph and PNPh onto date stones was spontaneous and endothermic under examined conditions.

يهدف البحث إلى دراسه اشتخدام نوى التمر لازاله الملوثات الفينوليه مثل الفينول والبارا نايتروفينول من مخلفات المياه. تم تحديد المساحه السحطحيه والرقم الايوديني لنوى التمر وهي 495.71 م2 /غرام و 475.88 ملي غرام / غرام على التوالي. تم دراسة تأثير درجه الحراره , التركيز الاولي للماده الملوثه,وزمن الامنزاز على سعه امتزاز نوى التمر. تم تمثيل نتائج امتزاز الفينول والبارانايتروفينول على نوى التمر يشكل جيد جدا بواسطه معادله سيس, حيث تم الحصول على اعلى سعه امتزاز للفينول(147.09 ملي غرام/غرام) والبارانايتروفينول (179.62 ملي غرام/ غرام). ايضا تم دراسه حركيه عمليه الامتزاز وبينت النتائج ان معادله الدرجه الثانيه مثلت النتائج التجريبيه لعمليه الامتزاز بشكل جيد لكل من الفينول والبارانايتروفينول. بينت نتائج دراسه ثرموديناميكيه العمليه ان الامتزاز من النوع الماص للحراره لكل من الفينول والبارانايتروفينول.


Article
Removal of Phenol From Aqueous Solution By Agriculture Waste
ازالة الفینول من المحالیل المائیة باستخدام المخلفات الزراعیة

Author: Tagreed Lutfee A
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2010 Volume: 28 Issue: 19 Pages: 5938-5955
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Using agriculture waste products waste Tea (WT) and activated carbonwaste Tea (WT-GAC) as biosorbent for phenol from aqueous solution wasstudied. Adsorption in this way more economical in comparison with otherconventional methods which are usually costly. Batch kinetics and isothermstudies were carried out under varying experimental conditions of contact time,phenol concentration, adsorbent dose and PH value. It was observed that theadsorption process is instantaneous and attained equilibrium within 10 minutes foractivated carbon waste Tea and 30 minutes for waste Tea at phenol concentration(100-600) mg/L. the adsorption of phenol increase with increasing the solution pHvalue till pH 7 then it decrease with increasing pH value. The Freundlich andLangmuir models were used for the mathematical description of adsorptionequilibrium and it was found that data fitted very well to the Freundlich models.

اس تعمال مخلف ات لمنتج ات الزراعی ة، مخلف ات الش اي والك اربون المنش ط م ن مخلف اتالشاي والتي تكون كمادة ممتزة حیویة لمادة الفینول في المحالیل المائیة قد تمت دراستھا. الامتزازبھذه الطریقة اكثر اقتصدیة مقارنة مع الطرق التقلیدیة والتي تك ون ع ادة مكلف ة. اجری ت التج اربعلى وجبات متقطعة تحت درجة ثابتة ولظروف مختلف ة م ن زم ن بق اء وتركی ز الفین ول وجرع اتوجد ان عملیة الامتزاز كان ت فوری ة وتص ل ال ى حال ة الت وازن ف ي .pH من المادة الممتزة وقیمةخلال عشرة دقائق عند استعمال الكاربون المنشط من بقایا الشاي و 30 دقیقة عند استعمال مخلفات600 ) ملغم/لتر. عملیة امتزاز الفینول تزداد م ع زی ادة قیم ة - الشاي وعند تركیز للفینول من ( 100استعملت معادلتي لانكمیر وفریندلش .pH تساوي 7 ثم تتناقصمع زیادة قیمة pH حتى قیمة pHلتوضیح حالة التوازن. وجد ان القیم تتناسب بصورة ملائمة لقانون فریندلش.


Article
13- THE ROLE OF PHENOL INJECTION IN THE TREATMENT OF PILONIDAL SINUS DISEASE

Author: Qais K Baqirim
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2009 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 78-80
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the impact of phenol injection on the outpatienttreatment of the sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease. A prospective analysis was taken offorty patients between June 2002 to June 2006 as an outpatient. Age, sex, state of sinuses atinitial presentation & the recovery time was analyzed. Phenol injection applied on 40 patients,37 males & 3 females. Forty percent of the patients required one injection while 55 % of thepatients had two applications. The recovery time was between 1-3 months. Recurrence wasobserved in 15% (6 patients). Phenol treatment is simple, easy & inexpensive method that canapplied on an outpatient basis, decreasing both recurrence rate & the morbidity.


Article
Experimental and Kinetic Study of Phenol Oxidation Using Ni-oxide Catalysts
دراسة عملية ونظرية لعملية تحول الفينول بطريقة الأكسدة بوجود أكسيد النيكل كعامل مساعد

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Abstract

The current study focuses on the investigation of Nickel Oxide in advanced oxidation process of phenol. The removal of phenol from aqueous phase continues to be an important environmental issue. In this work, the oxidation of phenol in aqueous solutions in a batch reactor using nickel oxide was studied. The efficiency of the system was evaluated with respect to reaction time, pH, feed concentration of reactants, catalyst load. The concentrations of phenol after reaction were determined by UV visible. The results showed that the optimum conditions ( 100% conversion at 90 min) were obtained at a neutral pH, with 0.5 g of Nickel Oxide and 18oC. However, decreasing of efficiency was observed for pH in the range of 2–12. The results showed that increasing temperature from 18oC to 50oC lead to decrease the conversion from 80% to 62%. Analytical profiles on phenol transformation were consistent with the best line fit of the Eley-Rideal Mechanism. Moreover, the degradation rate constants k and Ke were found 1.1*10-3 (cm3.liter/gcata) and 4.9889 respectively with R2=0.99522. Finally, the results of mineralization studies indicated that dechlorination was better accomplished but more time was required to completely mineralize phenol into water and carbon dioxide.

تركز الدراسة الحالية على استخدام أكسيد النيكل في عملية الأكسدة المتقدمة للفينول. إزالة الفينول من الماء لا تزال قضية بيئية هامة. في هذا العمل، تم دراسة أكسدة الفينول في المحاليل المائية في مفاعل Batch باستخدام أكسيد النيكل. تم حساب نسبة الإزالة من خلال زمن التفاعل، درجة الحموضة، تركيز المواد المتفاعلة، وكمية العامل المساعد. استخدمت الأشعة فوق البنفسجية لقياس تركيز الفينول بعد التفاعل. أظهرت النتائج التي تم الحصول عليها في الظروف المثلى (100٪ تحول في 90 دقيقة) في الرقم الهيدروجيني المعتدل، مع 0.5 غ من أكسيد النيكل و18 درجة مئوية. ومع ذلك، انخفضت كفاءة التفاعل عند الاس الهيدروجيني في حدود 2-12. أظهرت النتائج أن زيادة درجة الحرارة من 18 درجة مئوية إلى 50درجة مئوية تؤدي إلى تقليل التحول من 80٪ إلى 62٪. تم نمذجة تحول الفينول بما يتفق مع أفضل خط مناسبا Eley-Rideal Mechanism. وعلاوة على ذلك، تم حساب ثابت التفاعل 1.1*10-3 (cm3.liter/gcata) and 4.9889 على التوالي مع وأخيرا، أشارت نتائج الدراسات التي تؤدي الى إزالة جزيئه الكلور أفضل ولكن مع وقت أكثر ليتحول الفينول تماما إلى الماء وثاني أكسيد الكربون.


Article
Viability, survivability and tolerability of Rhodococcus pyridinivorans GM3 for phenol concentrations

Authors: Mahammed E. Jabbar Al-Defiery --- Gopal Reddy
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2015 Volume: 1 Issue: 3 Pages: 57-65
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Microorganisms play a major role in saving our environment by degrading xenobiotic compounds and chemical wastes, which are toxic either in their native or modified form. Bacteria capable of degrading phenol are common and comprise aerobic and anaerobic catabolizing phenol as a sole source of energy and carbon.The bacterial isolate Rhodococcus pyridinivorans GM3 was studied for viability, survivability and tolerability GM3 for different concentrations of phenol in mineral salts medium(MSM). The results showed that R. pyridinivorans GM3 had powerful adaptability to the some conditions of environment, which exhibited that it has a high survivability and tolerability upto 7.0 g/L of phenol concentration in the medium. The tolerance of microorganism to phenol toxicity reduced with increasing concentrations. There was increase in survivability of R. pyridinivorans GM3 on MSM when inoculum size was increased from 1% to 4%.The results suggest that inoculum size led to increase survivability and tolerability. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that presence of phenol in media upto 2.0 g/L does not adversely affect the viability. However, the inhibitory effect of phenol on viability indicated that GM3 could not degrade 2.5 g/L phenol concentration with 1% inoculum size. R. pyridinivoransGM3 exhibited highest potential forphenol concentrations.


Article
Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation of Phenol in a Trickle Bed Reactor

Authors: Atheer M. Ghalib --- Sama M. Abdullah --- Wadood T. Mohammed ودود طاهر محمد
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2007 Volume: 8 Issue: 4 Pages: 45-52
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Catalytic wet air oxidation of aqueous phenol solution was studied in a pilot plant trickle bed reactor using copper oxide catalyst supported on alumina and silica. Catalysts were prepared by impregnating method. Effect of feed solution pH (5.9, 7.3, and 9.2), gas flow rate (20%, 50%, 80%, and 100%), WHSV (1, 2, and 3 h-1), temperature (120°C, 140°C,and 160°C), oxygen partial pressure (6, 9, 12 bar), and initial phenol concentration (1, 2, and 4 g/l).Generally, the performance of the catalysts was better when the pH of feed solution was increased. The catalysts deactivation is related to the dissolution of the metal oxides from the catalyst surface due to the acidic conditions. Phenol oxidation reaction was strongly affected by WHSV, temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and initial phenol concentration. While gas flow rate had a marginal effect.

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