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Article
Using Sonic Log to Predict Abnormal Pressure Zones in Selected Oil Wells (Western of Iraq)

Author: Talib A. Saleh طالب عبد الله صالح
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2014 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 9-14
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Two oil wells were tested to find the abnormal pressure zones using sonic log technique. We found that well Abu-Jir-3 and Abu-Jir-5 had an abnormal pressure zones from depth 4340 to 4520 feet and 4200 to 4600 feet, respectively. The maximum difference between obtained results and the field measured results did not exceed 2.4%. In this paper, the formation pressures were expressed in terms of pressure gradient which sometimes reached up to twice the normal pressure gradient.Drilling and developing such formations were dangerous and expensive. The plotted figures showed a clear derivation from the normal trend which confirmed the existence of abnormal pressure zones.


Article
Prediction of Fracture Pressure Gradient in Halfaya Oilfield
التنبؤ بتدرج ضغط التكسير في حقل حلفايه النفط

Authors: Neaam F. Hussain --- Faleh H. M. Al Mahdawi
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2019 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-7
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Fracture pressure gradient prediction is complementary in well design and it is must be considered in selecting the safe mud weight, cement design, and determine the optimal casing seat to minimize the common drilling problems. The exact fracture pressure gradient value obtained from tests on the well while drilling such as leak-off test, formation integrity test, cement squeeze ... etc.; however, to minimize the total cost of drilling, there are several methods could be used to calculate fracture pressure gradient classified into two groups: the first one depend on Poisson’s ratio of the rocks and the second is fully empirical methods. In this research, the methods selected are Huubert and willis, Cesaroni I, Cesaroni II, Cesaroni III, Eaton, and Daines where Poisson’s ratio is considered essential here and the empirical methods selected are Matthews and Kelly and Christman. The results of these methods give an approximately match with the previous field study which has been relied upon in drilling the previous wells in the field and Cesaroni I is selected to be the equation that represents the field under study in general. In the shallower formations, Cesaroni I is the best method; while in deepest formations, Eaton, Christman, and Cesaroni I are given a good and approximately matching. The fracture pressure gradient of Halfaya oilfield range is (0.98 to 1.03) psi/ft.

يعتبر التنبؤ وتقدير تدرج ضغط التكسير عملا مكملاً في تصميم البئر ويجب أن يؤخذ بنظر الاعتبار عند اختيار وزن طين الحفر الآمن وتصميم الأسمنت وتحديد مقعد التغليف الأمثل لتقليل مشاكل الحفر الشائعة. قيمة التدرج الدقيق للكسر الناتجة من الفحوصات التي تجرى على البئر أثناء الحفر مثل leak-off test ،formation integrity test ، cement squeeze ... الخ ؛ ومع ذلك ، لتقليل التكلفة الإجمالية للحفر ، هناك عدة طرق يمكن استخدامها لحساب تدرج ضغط الكسر المصنفة في مجموعتين: الأولى تعتمد على نسبة بواسون للصخور والثانية هي طرق تجريبية بالكامل. في هذا البحث ، الطرق المختارة هي Huubert and willis, Cesaroni I,: Cesaroni II, Cesaroni III, Eaton, and Daines حيث تعتبر نسبة بوايسون ضرورية هنا والأساليب التجريبية المختارة هي Matthews & Kelly و Christman وتعطي نتائج هذه الطرق تطابقًا تقريبًا مع الدراسة الميدانية السابقة التي تم الاعتماد عليها في حفر الآبار السابقة في الحقل وتم اختيار Cesaroni I لتكون المعادلة التي تمثل الحقل تحت الدراسه بصوره عام في الطبقات ذات الاعماق الضحله ، ان طريقة Cesaroni I هي الافضل ؛ بينما في الطبقات العميقه فإن كل من طريقة Eaton, Christman, و CesaroniI تعطي تطابق جيد ومتقارب. ان تدرج ضغط التكسير في حقل حلفايه النفطي يتراوح بين (0.98 و 1.03) psi/ft.


Article
Effect of stress on arterial blood pressure In dental students

Authors: Maha T Al–Saffar --- Karama MT Al–Nuaimy --- Tahani A Al–Sandook
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 118-121
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To study the effect of stress and fear on blood pressure that are imposed on student beforeattending examination in particular final year examination at the College of Dentistry. Subjects andMethods: Arterial blood pressure (indirect method ) was measured for 99 dental student (21 + 0.6years) before 30 minutes of final examination on a particular subject and immediately afterexamination. Result: The data reflected a significant increase in systolic blood pressure before passingthe final examination, whereas there was no significant increase in the diastolic blood pressure in allstudents. Conclusions: Stress produces a significant elevation in blood pressure that can be controlledby systemic defense mechanisms naturally present.

Keywords

Stress --- blood pressure --- examination


Article
Reduction of Blood Pressure by Using Apricot Seeds and Vitamin C
انخفاض ضغط الدم باستعمال بذور حبة المشمش وفيتامين c

Author: Hanna’a Salman Yass هناء سلمان ياس
Journal: Al-Ma'mon College Journal مجلة كلية المامون ISSN: 19924453 Year: 2011 Issue: 17 Pages: 165-170
Publisher: AlMamon University College كلية المامون الجامعة

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Abstract

The kernel of apricot seeds were used in the treatment of many diseases .The patients were outpatients from Ur Clinic in Baghdad .Seventy two patients were included in this study (42 male, 30 female). Their ages were between 40-65 years. The first group was supplemented with six kernel apricot seeds three times daily for 21 days. The second group was supplemented with six kernel apricot seeds and 500mg of vitamin c three times daily for 21 days .Every week, the blood pressure of the patients were measured. The results showed that the blood pressure of the first Group of both Systolic and diastolic was reduced while the reduction of blood pressure of the Second group was more than that in the first group. Aim:The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of kernel apricot seeds on blood pressure and its relation with vitamin c .

لب بذرة المشمش استعملت في علاج عدة أمراض، أخذت القياسات لضغط الدم لمرضى يرتادون عيادة أور في بغداد - اِثنان وسبعون مريضاً على شكل مجموعتين 42 من الرجال و 30 من النساء تتراوح أعمارهم بين 40-65 سنة المجموعة الأولى تناولت ستة حبات من لب بذرة المشمش ثلاث مرات يومياً لمدة 21 يوم. المجموعة الثانية تناولت ست حبات من لب بذرة المشمش ثلاث مرات يومياً مع تناول 500ملغم من فيتامين c ثلاث مرات يومياً لمدة 21 يوماً وكل أسبوع تم قياس ضغط الدم(الانقباضي والانبساطي) النتائج أظهرت أن ضغط الدم عند المجموعة الأولى قل بنسبة 29% الانقباضي و26% الانبساطي عند الرجال وبنسبة 28% الانقباضي و 24% الانبساطي عند النساء بينما في المجموعة الثانية قل ضغط الدم بنسبة 34% الانقباضي و 29% الانبساطي عند الرجال و 37% الانقباضي و 29% الانبساطي عند النساء .الهدف: يهدف البحث إلى إيجاد تأثير لب بذرة المشمش على ضغط الدم وعلاقته بفيتامين c


Article
Prevalence of Pressure Ulcers in Orthopaedic Patients

Author: Ali M. Al-Shadedi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 529-535
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Pressure sore in orthopedic patients is a common problem with high expectation of occurrence on the ward, it should be watched for in any admitted patient having high liability for its development like, old age particularly those patients with dementia, patient with malnutrition or anemia and long stay in bed or complicated multiple surgeries.Orthopedic staff should be familiar with measures required to prevent and reduce its occurrence.OBJECTIVE:To highlight the prevalence, onset, types and number and the most common sites of pressure sores, length of stay in hospital with various types of treatment delivered to these patients in orthopedic wards. PATIENT AND METHODS: 215 patients were admitted with orthopedic problem for treatment and observed for the possibility of occurrence of pressure ulcer in orthopedic ward. The data collection period was over five years; these patients were treated for trauma to proximal femur, hip joint, pelvis and elective surgery at Al-Sader teaching Hospital of Kufa College of Medicine in Najaf City and Al-Yarmouk teaching Hospitals of Al-Mustanseria College of medicine in Baghdad city. Braden scale was used for predicting pressure ulcer and for assessing these patients. RESULTS:215 patients were assessed for being at risk of developing pressure sores by using Braden scale for predicting pressure ulcer. 60 patients with various levels of risk factors with prevalence of 27.90% developed the pressure sores. The age range of patients with pressure ulcer was 42-77 years, with mean age of 63.2 years. Female patients were 40 and male patients were Pressure sores developed in 42 [70%] patient with trauma out of 60 patient under study, 10 patient 16.6% with elective surgery patients, two patients 3.32% conservatively treated patients, and 6 patients 9.96% treated for removal of old implants.13 patients developed ulcer at the first week and 10 patients developed pressure ulcer at the second week of their stay in orthopaedic ward and the rest 37 patients developed it after the second week of their stay in the ward. .CONCLUSION:Prevention of pressure ulcer requires the collaboration of all the nursing and surgical staff from different specialty like orthopaedic surgery. Development of pressure sore is the cause behind delay of patient discharge after successful surgery. Expectation of the development of bed sore is significantly high in elderly or bed ridden and hemiplegic patients


Article
Effect of Diltiazem on Intraocular Pressure in Normal and Ocular Hypertensive Rabbits

Authors: Baha'a A. Abdul-Hussein --- Adeeb A. Alzubaidy --- Hassanen A. Radi
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Medical Journal مجلة القادسية الطبية ISSN: 18170153 Year: 2012 Volume: 8 Issue: 13 Pages: 69-83
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Part ΙΙ: diltiazem, at both concentrations (0.5% and 0.25%) caused highly significant reduction (P < 0.01) in IOP at 5th and 10th days post treatment.Conclusions: Diltiazem exerted a detectable ocular hypotensive effect on the eye of rabbits when applied at concentration (0.5%) or (0.25%) 3 times daily.Background; Glaucoma is a multifactorial disease involving progressive optic neuropathy and altered intraocular hemodynamics; furthermore, glaucoma can cause blindness if it is left untreated.Aim of the study: To explore effects of topical diltiazem on intraocular pressure (IOP) in each of normal and ocular hypertensive rabbits.Materials and methods: A group of 54 males of the rabbits were included in the present study. Induction of ocular hypertension was achieved by injection of hydroxy propyl methylcellulose in the anterior chamber of rabbits right eye. In addition to distilled water (as negative control), each of timolol (as positive control) and diltiazem (the tested drug) eye drops were instilled 3 times daily to right eye prophylactically for 4 days and therapeutically Results: Part Ι: Diltiazem (0.5%) caused highly significant (P < 0.01) reduction in intraocular pressure of right eye .

داء الزرقاء مرض متعدد الاسباب يتضمن حدوث ضرر مرضي في العصب البصري للعين المصابة بسبب ارتفاع ضغط العين وقد يؤدي للعمى اذا لم يتم خفض ضغط العين في العين المصابة.الهدف من هذه الدراسة بيان امكانية استخدام قطرات عينية تحتوي مادة الدلتيازم وبيان تاثيرها على مستوى ضغط العين في الارانب المصابة بارتفاع ضغط العين وايضا على الارانب الغير مصابة بهذا الداء .الدراسة شملت اربع وخمسون ارنبا وكانت النتيجة حدوث انخفاض في ضغط العين بعد استخدام مادة الدلتيازم ثلاث مرات يوميا لمدة اربعة ايام في كلا النوعين (الارانب المصابة والغير مصابة)


Article
DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING OF A HYDROSTATIC EXTRUSION APPARATUS FOR COMPOUND CYLINDERS FROM AL AND MG
تصميم وتصنيع جهاز البثق الهايدروستاتيكي واطئ الكلفة للأسطوانة المركبة الألمنيوم والمغنيسيوم

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Abstract

The purpose of this research is to design and construct an experimental hydrostatic extrusion apparatus which has a maximum working pressure of 500 bar, and to reduce the cost of this extrusion apparatus. The high-pressure extrusion container has been designed with hydraulic cylinders which is cheap and readily available. Different materials and designs for high-pressure seals were tested and analyzed for the best combination performance. Problems in the extrusion processes using this device were analyzed and solved, which increased the reliability of the device. The results of extrusion experiments have established that this device is practicable.

إن الغرض من هذا البحث هو تصميم وصنع وتجريب جهاز البثق الهايدروستاتيكي الذي يعمل في ضغط أعظم قيمة له (500 bar) ولتخفيض كلفة هذا الجهاز استخدمنا بدن أسطوانة هيدروليكية (SKD61 tool steel) فهي رخيصة الثمن ومتوفرة في الأسواق المحلية, وكذلك تم تحديد موانع التسرب بعد الاختبار واختيرت أفضل مجموعة للأداء. وأجريت التجارب على عمليات البثق الهايدرستاتيكي بعدة قوالب(45,40,35mm), وتحليل النتائج أدى إلى زيادة الثقة بهذا الجهاز وصولاً إلى النتيجة النهائية التي تؤكد رصانة هذا الجهاز وعملية استخدامه ورخص كلفته.

Keywords

Design --- hydrostatic --- pressure --- analyzed.


Article
Effect of Topically – Applied Carvedilol on Intraocular Pressure in Normal and Ocular Hypertensive Rabbits

Authors: Baha'a A. Abdul-Hussein بهاء عبد الحسين --- Adeeb A. Alzubaidy أديب الزبيدي --- Rafid M. Abbas رافد عباس
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Medical Journal مجلة القادسية الطبية ISSN: 18170153 Year: 2015 Volume: 11 Issue: 19 Pages: 107-117
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Background: In glaucoma, as optic neuropathy gradually proceeds unnoticed by the patient, early detection and treatment is of paramount importance in arresting or controlling the progress of damage.Aim of the study: To explore effects of topical carvedilol on intraocular pressure (IOP) in each of normotensive and ocular hypertensive eyes of rabbits, with assessment of drug safety.Material and methods: A group of 54 males rabbits were included in this study. Induction of ocular hypertension was achieved by injection of hydroxy propyl methylcellulose in the anterior chamber of rabbits right eye. The present study was designed to evaluate the possible beneficial therapeutic effect (part I) and both prophylactic as well as therapeutic effect (part II). The included rabbits were divided into distilled water group, timolol (0.25% and 0.5%) groups, and carvedilol (0.25% and 0.5%). Each of drug eye drops (including distilled water) were instilled into right eyes 3 times/day for 4 days prophylactically and for 10 days therapeutically. The rabbits had been examined for the IOP, pupil diameter, light reflex, corneal reflex, and conjunctival redness prior to instillation of drugs and along the trial period.Results: Ocular hypotensive effects of carvedilol (0.25%) and (0.5%) eye drops were more efficient than that of distilled water (P<0.01). Furthermore, carvedilol (0.25%) eye drop simulated timolol (0.25%) eye drop (P>0.05) in its ocular hypotensive effect along the trial period. Carvedilol eye drop required 4 days of instillation into normotensive eyes to achieve highly significant (P<0.01) ocular hypotensive effect whereas 10 days were needed to do so in ocular hypertensive eyes; such ocular hypotensive effect was more efficient than that of distilled water, but less efficient than that of timolol eye drop.In both parts of the present study and regarding each of mean pupil diameter, light reflex, corneal reflex and conjunctival redness, carvedilol (0.25% or 0.5%) eye drops had no significant adverse effect (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Carvedilol eye drops instilled 3 times / day had an obvious prophylactic role in normotensive and a beneficial, safe, and tolerable therapeutic ocular hypotensive effects on hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose - induced ocular hypertension in rabbits.

نبذة: في داء الزرقاء تقدم اعتلال العصب البصري تدريجيا دون أن يلاحظه المريض و الكشف المبكر والعلاج له أهمية قصوى في إيقافه أو السيطرة على تقدم الضرر.هدف الدراسة: لاستكشاف آثار الكارفيديلول الموضعية على ضغط العين الداخلي(IOP) في كل من العيون ذات ضغط العين سوي وارتفاع ضغط العين في الأرانب.المواد وطرق العمل :مجموعة 54 من ذكور الأرانب اعدت لهذه الدراسة. وقد تم استحداث ارتفاع ضغط العين عن طريق الحقن من هيدروكسي بروبيل ميثيل سيللوز في الحجرة الأمامية للعين اليمنى للأرانب. وقد تم تصميم هذه الدراسة لتقييم التأثير العلاجي الممكن (الجزء الأول) وكلا من الوقائية وكذلك التأثير علاجي (الجزء الثاني) من الدراسه, تم تقسيم الأرانب الى مجموعة الماء المقطر و مجموعات التيمولول (0.25٪ و 0.5٪) والكارفيديلول( 0.25%و 0.5٪). وتم اعطاء كل من قطرات العين (بما في ذلك الماء المقطر) في العيون اليمنى 3 مرات / يوم لمدة 4 أيام وقائيا و لمدة 10 أيام علاجيا. وقد تم فحص الأرانب لقياس ضغط العين الداخلي، قطر البؤبؤ، منعكس الضوء، منعكس القرنية، واحمرار الملتحمة قبل تقطير الادوية وطوال فترة التجربة.النتائج: كان التاثيرعلى ضغط العين من قبل قطرات العين الكارفيديلول (0.25 ٪) و (0.5٪) أكثر كفاءة من الماء المقطر (P <0.01). وعلاوة على ذلك، تاثير قطرة العين الكارفيديلول(0.25٪) مماثل لقطرة العين التيمولول (0.25٪) (P> 0.05 ) في انخقاض ضغط العين طوال فترة التجربة.قطرات الكارفيديلول تحتاج 4 أيام للتقطير في العيون ذات الضغط الطبيعي لتحقيق فرق معنوي عالي في التأثير الخافض للضغط (P <0.01) في حين أن هناك حاجة إلى 10 ايام للقيام بذلك في العيون ذات الضغط المرتفع ؛ التأثير الخافض لضغط العين كان أكثر كفاءة من الماء المقطر، ولكن أقل كفاءة من قطرة العين التيمولول.في كلا جزئي هذه الدراسة والمتعلقة بكل من قطر البؤبؤ,المنعكس الضوئي,المنعكس القرني واحمرار ملحمة العين لم يلاحظ أي تأثير جانبي هام لقطرات العين الكارفيديلول(0.25 (٪ أو( 0.5٪) (P> 0.05).الاستنتاجات: قطرة العين الكارفيديلول (3مرات / يوم) كان له تأثير وقائي واضح ومفيد في ضغط العين السوي ,وكان آمن ممكن تحمله وايضا له تأثير معالج وخافض لضغط العين الداخلي مقابل هيدروكسي بروبيل –مثيل السيليلوز المسبب ارتفاع ضغط العين في الأرانبالكلمات المفتاحية:الكارفيديلول , ضغط العين الداخلي , داء الزرقاء


Article
Association of intraocular pressure with cataract surgery
رابطة الضغط داخل العين مع جراحة الساد

Authors: Eman Hussein Alwan --- Ahmed Kareem Joma --- Ahmed Ismail Abdulgani --- Zed Janan Petris
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 1310-1315
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Cataract and glaucoma are common co-morbidities and are the first and the second leading causes of blindness worldwide. There are many reasons to consider cataract extraction in individuals with cataract. These individuals derive great visual benefit from the increased acuity and improved contrast sensitivity provided by a clear artificial lens. An improvement in vision allows for more accurate visual field monitoring, and a clear optical pathway enhances the quality and reproducibility of optic nerve imaging. This study aimed to determine the association between intraocular pressure with cataract surgery in human eyes by monitoring changes in intraocular pressure in patients who underwent cataract surgery at Hawler Teaching Hospital at Erbil. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 71 subjects that underwent cataract surgery at Hawler Teaching Hospital at Erbil city from April 2013 to April 2014. Full ophthalmic examination including intraocular pressure measurement was done to every participant before cataract surgery, one week and one month after surgery.Results: Paired samples t-test showed highly significance difference (P <0.001) between mean intraocular pressure measurements before, one week and one month after cataract surgery. The average decrease in postoperative intraocular pressure from preoperative intraocular pressure during one month was 2.02mm Hg (12.39%).Conclusion: Cataract surgery reduces intraocular pressure and can be considered as an effective way to manage patients with a concurrence of glaucoma and cataracts.


Article
The Accuracy of Blood Pressure Device

Authors: Najla Ayoub --- Hana Alsaeed --- Lamya Ayoub
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 24-26
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: One of the factors affecting the accuracy of readings of blood pressure is the equipment used. Defects or inaccuracy of the sphygmomanometer may be source of error in blood pressure measurement. Aims: This study had two objectives. Firstly, to assess the accuracy of sphygmomanometer used in general practice and secondly to assess the physical condition. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 mercury and aneroid sphygmomanometers were tested for accuracy and physical condition. Results: The results were that of the mercury and aneroid sphygmomanometers tested, 30% were inaccurate, of these, 10% recorded an error greater than 10 mmHg. Both types of sphygmomanometers were evaluated for conditions of cuff/bladder, pump bulb, and valve. Air leaks / holes in the pump bulb was found in 4% and bladder damage in 6% and indicator needles not pointing to the zero. Conclusions: It is necessary that all equipment used for blood pressure measurement should be checked for accuracy on regular period.

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